North American boreal and western temperate forest vegetation

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Daniel Sánchez-Mata & Manuel Costa

Itinera Geobotanica 12:5-316 (1999)


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Description of Plant Communities: Populion angustifolio-moniliferae

14. Populion angustifolio-moniliferae alliancia nova hoc loco

[Populion deltoidis Looman in Phytocoenologia 15(1): 74. 1987]

Typus nominis: Populetum angustifolio-moniliferae associatio nova hoc loco.

Rocky Mountain Subregion and Prairies Province, cottonwood and riparian forests, growing along streams and bottomlands, with water tables of 50 to 150 cm, on fluvisols and gleysols, and distributed throughout the Continental and Xeric Temperate (subcontinental, eucontinental) bioclimate areas, as well as Continental Pluviseasonal and Xeric Mediterranean; meso-, supra- and lower orotemperate territories. Marginaly these forest grow in hemiboreal, and supra-oromediterranean areas.

In the short synthesized synoptical table 62 we assemble nine relevés from Rocky Mountain Subregion belonging to the associations: 14a. Populetum angustifolio-moniliferae and 14b. Betulo occidentalis-Populetum angustifoliae (Populion angustifolio-moniliferae).

Bioclimatic diagnosis: Ic 21-38, Io 2.0-5.2, Tp 740-2000, Tps 450-800, Tmin <4, m < -3. [Texe, Teco, Mepc, Mexc-Mte, Ste, Hbo, Ote, Mme, Sme, Ome, Sme-Dry, Shu].

Characteristic species: Acer negundo var. interius, Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia, Betula occidentalis, Betula xutahensis (B. occidentalis x papyrifera), Clematis occidentalis var. grosseserrata, Delphinium barbeyi, Glycyrhiza lepidota, Oxypolis fendleri, Populus xacuminata (P. angustifolia x deltoides), Populus angustifolia, Populus xbrayshawii (P. angustifolia x balsamifera), Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera (P. deltoides var. occidentalis), Rudbeckia occidentalis var. occidentalis, Shepherdia argentea, Thalictrum occidentale, Toxicodendron rydbergii, Veratrum californicum var. californicum.

Table 62
14. Populion angustifolio-moniliferae
(Short synthesized table syntaxa)

Number of relevés 6 3 9
Association number 13a 13b  
Ordinal number 2 1 3
Ulmus americana II . 1
Populus monilifera V . 1
Salix scouleriana . 2 1
Betula occidentalis . 3 1
Populus angustifolia V 3 2
Prunus melanocarpa V 3 2
Cornus sericea IV 3 2
Acer interius IV 1 2
Symphoricarpos occidentalis IV 2 2
Amelanchier alnifolia III 2 2
Alnus tenuifolia II 3 2
Rosa nutkana . 3 1
Salix amygdaloides IV . 1
Prunus americana III . 1
Toxicodendron rydbergii III . 1
Clematis grosseserrata II . 1
Glycyrrhiza lepidota II . 1
Salix exigua II . 1

Associations: 1. [14a] Populetum angustifolio-moniliferae. 2. [14b] Betulo occidentalis-Populetum angustifoliae. 3. Synthesized table.

14a. Populetum angustifolio-moniliferae associatio nova hoc loco

Cottonwood and riparian forests growing along streams and bottomlands on deep alluvial fluvisols, with water table of 50 to 150 cm, distributed throughout the High Plains Rockies Sector and Prairies Province territories, and spreading into Continental and Xeric Temperate and Continental Pluviseasonal and Xeric Mediterranean bioclimates territories, often with steppic character towards the East (subcontinental and eucontinental) in upper meso-, supra-, and lower orotemperate (occasionally hemiboreal in Canadian Prairies Sector), supra- and oromediterranean bioclimatic belts areas.

Bioclimatic diagnosis: Ic 24-30, Io 2.0-4.8, Tp 800-1500, Tps 500-700, Tmin < 0, m < -6. [Texe, Teco, Mexe, Mepc-Mte, Ste, Hbo, Lote, Mte, Ome, Sme-Dry, Lshu-Sbm].

Table 63 gives six relevés from Alberta, Montana, South Dakota, Wyoming and Colorado, in which plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and narrow-leaved cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) are the dominant trees, occasionally with the Rockies and High Plains continental boxelder (Acer negundo var. interius) and American elm (Ulmus americana).

Table 63
14a. Populetum angustifolio-moniliferae

(Populion angustifolio-moniliferae, Populetalia angustifolio-deltoidis)

Altitude (1=10m) 115 132 115 162 163 76 127
Number of species 12 13 14 14 14 15 14
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6 7
Trees:
Populus angustifolia 3 3 5 2 3 3 V
Populus monilifera 2 3 1 4 3 3 V
Acer interius 1 . . 2 1 2 IV
Ulmus americana 1 . . + . . II
Characteristic species:
Prunus melanocarpa 2 3 1 1 2 3 V
Salix amygdaloides 2 . 1 2 2 1 IV
Rosa woodsii + 1 + 1 . 1 IV
Cornus sericea 1 1 1 . + 1 IV
Symphoricarpos occidentalis 1 2 2 . . 3 IV
Amelanchier alnifolia 1 1 + . . . III
Prunus americana . . 2 2 + . III
Toxicodendron rydbergii . . . 1 + 1 III
Rhus trilobata . 2 + . . . II
Clematis grosseserrata . 3 . . . 2 II
Glycyrrhiza lepidota . 1 . . . 1 II
Alnus tenuifolia . . . 1 2 . II
Salix exigua . . . . 2 2 II
Companion species:
Brachypodium sylvaticum 2 2 2 1 1 . IV
Dactylis glomerata 1 1 . 1 1 . IV
Saponaria officinalis . . 1 2 1 1 IV
Verbascum thapsus . . . . + + II

Other species. Trees: Populus xacuminata + in 2. Acer glabrum 2 in 4. Characteristic species: Clematis columbiana 2 in 3. Companion species: Bromus inermis 2 in 3. Urtica gracilis 2 in 6.

Localities: 1. South Dakota: Lawrence Co. Between Spearfish and Belle Fourche, Redwater River. 44º35'N-103º52'W. E, 22 m, 70 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1995d: 178). 2. Wyoming: Big Horn Co. Bighorn National Forest, Shell. 44º33'N-107º47'W. N, 25 m, 100 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1996b: 53). 3. Montana: Park Co. Livington, Yellowstone River. 45º40'N-110º32'W. N, 20 m, 60 cm, 100 m2 (reg. 1994b: 65 bis). 4. Colorado: Boulder Co. Between El Vado and Whelman, Boulder Creek. 40º00'N-105º21'W. E, 20 m, 100 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1995d: 1). 5. Colorado: Boulder Co. El Vado, Boulder Creek. 40º00'N-105º20'W. SE, 20 m, 70 cm, 200 m2 holotypus ass. (reg. 1995d: 2). 6. Alberta: Between Irvine and Dunmore, Saskatchewan River. 49º57'N-110º25'W. W, 20 m, 150 cm, 400 m2 (reg. 1995 d: 161). 7. Synthesized table.

Type relevé (holotypus): Table 63, relevé n. 5. Rivas-Martínez reg. 1995d: 2. 26.08.95, made with Dr. Costa. Site: Colorado: Boulder Co. Roosevelt National Forest. El Vado, Boulder Creek. 40º00'N-105º20'W. 1630 m, SW, 20 m, 70 cm, 200 m2. Estimated bioclimatic factors: Xeric Temperate, subcontinental (Ic ~ 22), lower supratemperate (Tp ~ 1280), upper dry (Io ~ 3.5), Positive Summer Temperature Tps ~ 630. Biogeographic location: Rocky Mountain Region, Rocky Mountain Subregion, Central-Eastern Rocky Mountain Province, Colorado Rockies Sector, Colorado-Wyoming Rockies Subsector. Floristic combination: Linnaeo-Piceetea characteristic species, trees: 1 Acer negundo var. negundo, 3 Populus angustifolia, 3 Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera. Others: 2 Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia, + Cornus sericea subsp. sericea, + Prunus americana, 1 Prunus virginiana var. melanocarpa, 2 Salix amygdaloides, 2 Salix exigua, + Toxicodendron rydbergii. Companion species: 1 Brachypodium sylvaticum, 1 Dactylis glomerata, 1 Saponaria officinalis, + Verbascum thapsus.

Map

 
Figure 36. Distribution of the riparian cottonwood forest associations belonging to order Vf. Populetalia angustifolio-deltoidis, 14. Populion angustifolio-moniliferae (left of dotted line): 14a. Populetum angustifolio-moniliferae, 14b. Betulo occidentalis-Populetum angustifoliae, 14B. Platano occidentalis-Populion deltoidis (right of dotted line).

14b. Betulo occidentalis-Populetum angustifoliae associatio nova hoc loco

Cottonwood and riparian forests growing along river banks, streams and water-courses emerging in the bluffs on alluvials soils and distributed throughout the Rocky Mountain Subregion and adjacent Great Basin Region territories (figure 34). This narrow-leaved cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) and water birch (Betula occidentalis) water course mesoforests, spreading into Continental and Xeric Temperate bioclimate areas, as well as in Continental Pluviseasonal and Xeric Mediterranean bioclimate territories (subcontinental), in meso-, and lower orotemperate, hemiboreal, supra-, oromediterranean; dry and subhumid bioclimatic belt areas. The climactical coniferous adjacent forests, belong to different associations of Pino scopulorum-Pseudotsugion glaucae alliance and reach the lower orotemperate subhumid belt of the Central-Eastern Rocky Mountain Province to blue spruce forest association (Piceetum pungentis).

Bioclimatic diagnosis: Ic 21-28, Io 2.0-5.2, Tp 740-1400, Tps 450-650, Tmin <-1, m < -7. [Texe, Teco, Mepc, Mexc-Ste, Sme, Ome-Dry, Shu-Sbm].

Table 64 shows three relevés from Utah Rockies Sector. In these areas the dominant small trees are narrow-leaved cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) and water birch (Betula occidentalis), occasionally associated with the Rockies and High Plains continental boxelder (Acer negundo var. interius) and western mountain maple (Acer glabrum). Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera should be absent in this association, and Rosa nutkana and Mahonia repens looks to have preference for this riparian association of the alliance.

Table 64
14b. Betulo occidentalis-Populetum angustifoliae

(Populion angustifolio-moniliferae, Populetalia trichocarpo-deltoidis)

Altitude (1=10m) 165 168 195 176
Number of species 14 15 15 15
Ordinal number 1 2* 3 4
Trees:
Populus angustifolia 4 5 5 3
Betula occidentalis 2 2 2 3
Acer glabrum 1 2 . 2
Acer interius . . 2 1
Characteristic species:
Prunus melanocarpa 2 1 + 3
Cornus sericea 1 2 3 3
Equisetum hyemale 1 + 2 3
Osmorhiza berteroi 1 + + 3
Rosa nutkana + 2 2 3
Alnus tenuifolia 2 2 . 2
Mahonia repens + 1 . 2
Amelanchier alnifolia + . + 2
Symphoricarpos occidentalis . + + 2
Salix scouleriana . + + 2
Companion species:
Brachypodium sylvaticum 2 1 1 3
Fragaria bracteata + 1 1 3
Dactylis glomerata . 1 1 2

Other species. Characteristic species: Physocarpus malvaceus 1 in 1. Sambucus microbotrys + in 3. Companion species: Carex sp. + in 1, 1 in 2.

Localities: 1. Utah: Salt Lake Co. Wasatch-Cache National Forest, Big Cottonwood Canyon. 40º38'N-111º36'W. W, 25 m, 60 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1996b: 28). 2. Utah: Salt Lake Co. Wasatch-Cache National Forest, Big Cottonwood Canyon, Solitude Valley. 40º38'N-111º36'W. NW, 25 m, 70 cm, 200 m2, holotypus ass. (reg. 1996b: 29). 3. Utah: Salt Lake Co. Wasatch-Cache National Forest, Redman Campground, Silver Lake. 40º37'N-111º35'W. NW, 20 m, 60 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1996b: 30). 4. Synthesized table.

Type relevé (holotypus): Table 64, relevé n. 2. Rivas-Martínez reg. 1996b: 29. 28.08.96, made with Drs. Llorens and Sánchez-Mata. Site: Utah: Salt Lake Co. Wasatch-Cache National Forest. Big Cottonwood Canyon. 40º38'N-111º36'W. 1680 m, W, 30 m, 60 cm, 200 m2. Estimated bioclimatic factors: Pluviseasonal Continental Mediterranean, subcontinental (Ic ~ 26), upper supratemperate (Tp ~ 1000), upper dry (Io ~ 3.2), Positive Summer Temperature Tps ~ 550. Biogeographic location: Rocky Mountain Region, Rocky Mountain Subregion, Central-Eastern Rocky Mountain Province, Utah Rockies Sector. Floristic combination: Linnaeo-Piceetea characteristic species, trees: 2 Acer glabrum var. glabrum, 5 Populus angustifolia. Others: 2 Alnus incana subsp. tenuifolia, 2 Betula occidentalis, 1 Cornus sericea subsp. sericea, + Equisetum hiemale, 1 Mahonia repens, + Osmorhiza berteroi, 1 Prunus virginiana var. melanocarpa, 2 Rosa nutkana, + Salix scouleriana, + Symphoricarpos occidentalis. Companion species: 1 Brachypodium sylvaticum, 1 Dactylis glomerata, 1 Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

14B. Platano occidentalis-Populion deltoidis prov.

Continental and Oceanic Temperate (euoceanic, semicontinental, subcontinental and eucontinental); infra-, thermo-, meso-, and supratemperate, (including hemiboreal territories in it northeastern boundaries); subhumid and humid; cottonwood and riparian forests distributed throughout the North American Atlantic Region territories, mostly eastside of Prairies Province, and growing on deep alluvial and riparian soils (fluvisols and gleysols). Catenally with the drier forests, they are in contact with the hardwood deciduous woodlands of the North American Atlantic class Querco-Fagetea grandifoliae.

Bioclimatic diagnosis: Ic 17-38, Io 4.5-10.0, Itc < 470, Tp 800-2500, Tps 500-900, Tmin < 12, m < 7.

Characteristic species: Acer saccharinum, Betula nigra, Betula populifolia, Fraxinus pensylvanica, Platanus occidentalis, Populus deltoides subsp. deltoides, Populus grandidentata, Populus heterophylla, Rhododendron maximum, Salix caroliniana, Salix nigra, Ulmus americana.