North American boreal and western temperate forest vegetation

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Daniel Sánchez-Mata & Manuel Costa

Itinera Geobotanica 12:5-316 (1999)


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Description of Plant Communities: Pinion contortae

7. Pinion contortae alliancia nova hoc loco

Typus nominis: Lonicero ledebourii-Pinetum contortae associatio nova hoc loco.

Hyperoceanic and Oceanic Temperate (euhyperoceanic, euoceanic), Oceanic Boreal (semicontinental) and Pluviseasonal Oceanic Mediterranean (euhyperoceanic); mesoboreal to lower supratemperate sometimes submediterranean, mesomediterranean and thermoboreal; humid and hyperhumid; shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata) coniferous micro- and mesoforests and permanent communities growing on regosols and rankers spreading into coastal sand dunes and rocky slopes in the Boreal Oceanic Eastern Alaskan, Oregonian-Vancouverian Coastal and Northern Californian Coastal Sectors.

Bioclimatic diagnosis: Ic 5-21, Io 6.0-24.0, Itc < 280, Tp 670-1400, Tps 370-480, Tmin < 8, m < 4. [Booc, Teho, Teoc, Mopo-Mbo, Tbo, Hbor, Ste, Mte, Mme-Hum, Hhu].

We distinguish within the alliance Pinion contortae two associations (figures 19, 24, 25): 7a. Lonicero ledebourii-Pinetum contortae: Hyperoceanic and Oceanic Temperate (euhyperoceanic to euoceanic), submediterranean, Pluviseasonal Oceanic Mediterranean (euhyperoceanic) humid to hyperhumid spreading into Oregonian-Vancouverian Coastal and Northern Californian Coastal Sectors, 7b. Junipero depressae-Pinetum contortae: Oceanic Boreal (euoceanic and semicontinental) humid to hyperhumid spreading into Boreal Oceanic Eastern Alaskan Sector territories.

Characteristic species: Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia, Lonicera ledebourii, Myrica californica, Pinus contorta var. contorta, Pinus muricata.

7a. Lonicero ledebourii-Pinetum contortae associatio nova hoc loco

Hyperoceanic Temperate (euhyperoceanic and barely hyperoceanic) Oceanic Temperate (euoceanic) and Pluviseasonal Oceanic Mediterranean (euhyperoceanic); humid to lower hyperhumid; shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), and mainly in southern territories, bishop pine (Pinus muricata), coniferous micro- and mesoforests and psammophilous or coastal lithophilous permanent communities growing on regosols or lithosols and distributed throughout the Oregonian-Vancouverian Coastal and Northern Californian Coastal Sectors territories.

Bioclimatic diagnosis: Ic 5-11, Io 6.0-18.0, Itc 180-280, Tp 1000-1400, Tps 390-480, Tmin < 8, m < 4. [Teho, Mepo-Mte, Mme-Hum, Lhhu-Sbm].

Table 30 holds six relevés sampled in sandy coast areas of Oregon in which the characteristic species Pinus contorta var. contorta, Pinus muricata, Lonicera ledebourii and Myrica californica are several common plants. Also is remarkable the presence of some companion species such as Baccharis pilularis s. l. and Lithocarpus densiflorus, and particularly the psammophilous mediterranean neophyte "marram grass" Ammophila arenaria subsp. australis (Mabille) M.Laínz [Ammophila arenaria auct. amer., non (L.) Link] introduced by the Spaniards centuries ago.

 Table 30
7a. Lonicero ledebourii-Pinetum contortae

(Pinion contortae, Tsugetalia mertensiano heterophyllae)

Altitude (1=10m) 1 1 2 1 3 6 2
Number of species 12 13 13 13 16 17 14
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6 7
Trees:
Pinus contorta 4 2 4 4 3 4 V
Picea sitchensis 2 4 2 2 3 2 V
Pinus muricata 1 2 . 1 . . III
Lithocarpus densiflorus . . 1 . . + II
Thuja plicata . . . . 1 . I
Characteristic species:
Gaultheria shallon 3 3 3 3 4 3 V
Lonicera ledebourii 2 3 + 2 1 1 V
Myrica californica 2 2 1 + 1 2 V
Maianthemum dilatatum 2 1 . + 2 1 IV
Vaccinium ovatum + + + . 3 3 IV
Rubus parviflorus + . + . 1 . III
Polystichum munitum + . . . 2 2 III
Rubus leucodermis . + . + + . III
Frangula purshiana . . . . 1 + II
Rubus macropetala . . . . + 2 II
Companion species:
Pteridium pubescens 1 2 + 2 1 1 V
Baccharis pilularis . + 2 . . 2 III
Satureja douglasii . + . 2 . + III

Other species. Characteristic species: Arctostaphylos columbiana + in 3. Rhododendron macrophyllum 1, Vaccinium parvifolium 1 in 5. Rubus spectabilis 1, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi + in 6. Companion species: Ammophila australis 1 in 1, 2 in 4. Cytisus scoparius + in 2 and 4. Ceanothus thyrsiflorus 1 in 3 and 6. Garrya elliptica 1 in 3. Leymus mollis 1 in 4.

Localities: 1. Oregon: Lincoln Co. Waldport. Governor Patterson Memorial State Park. 44º25'N-124º05'W. NW, 30%, 10 m, 40 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1996b: 108). 2. Oregon: Lincoln Co. Beachside State Park, between San Marine and Waconda Beach. 44º22'N-124º05'W. W, 35%, 12 m, 40 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1996b:96). 3. Oregon: Curry Co. Between Nesika Beach and Ophir. 42º31'N-124º24'W. SW, 35%, 8 m, 30 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1998a: 20). 4. Oregon: Lincoln Co. Beachside State Park, between San Marine and Waconda Beach.. 44º23'N-124º05'W. W, 30%, 12 m, 40 cm, 200 m2 (reg. 1996b:97). 5. Oregon: Douglas Co. Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, between Reedsport and Westlake. 43º47'N-124º09'W. W, 35%, 25 m, 130 cm, 500 m2, holotypus ass. (reg. 1997: 5). 6. Oregon: Curry Co. Samuel H. Boardman State Park. 42º10'N-124º21'W. W, 5%, 20 m, 50 cm, 400 m2 (reg. 1998a: 19). 7. Synthesized table.

Map Figure 24. Distribution of the coastal coniferous forest associations belonging to alliance 7. Pinion contortae: 7a. Lonicero ledebourii-Pinetum contortae: Hyperoceanic Temperate, Oceanic Temperate (submediterranean) and Pluviseasonal Oceanic Mediterranean, humid to hyperhumid in Oregonian-Vancouverian Coastal and Northern Californian Coastal Sectors, 7b. Junipero depressae-Pinetum contortae: Oceanic Boreal (euoceanic and semicontinental), humid to hyperhumid in Boreal Oceanic Eastern Alaskan Biogeographic Sector.Figure 24. Distribution of the coastal coniferous forest associations belonging to alliance 7. Pinion contortae: 7a. Lonicero ledebourii-Pinetum contortae: Hyperoceanic Temperate, Oceanic Temperate (submediterranean) and Pluviseasonal Oceanic Mediterranean, humid to hyperhumid in Oregonian-Vancouverian Coastal and Northern Californian Coastal Sectors, 7b. Junipero depressae-Pinetum contortae: Oceanic Boreal (euoceanic and semicontinental), humid to hyperhumid in Boreal Oceanic Eastern Alaskan Biogeographic Sector.

Type relevé (holotypus): Table 30, relevé n. 5. Rivas-Martínez reg. 1997: 5. 23.09.97, made with Dr. Sánchez-Mata and P. Rodríguez-Rojo. Site: Oregon: Douglas Co. Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, between Redsport and Westlake. 43º47'N-124º09'W. 30 m, W, 35%, 30 m, 130 cm, 300 m2. Physiognomy and habitat: Shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) macroforest. Estimated bioclimatic factors: Hyperoceanic Temperate, barely hyperoceanic (Ic ~ 8), upper mesotemperate (Itc ~ 220), lower hyperhumid (Io ~ 13), Positive Summer Temperature Tps ~ 420, submediterranean (Ios2 ~ 1.5). Biogeographic location: Rocky Mountain Region, North-Western Pacific Subregion, Cascade Province, Oregonian-Vancouverian Coastal Sector, Oregonian Coastal Subsector. Floristic combination: Linnaeo-Piceetea characteristic species, trees: 3 Picea sitchensis, 3 Pinus contorta var. contorta, 1 Thuja plicata. Others: 1 Frangula purshiana, 1 Galium trifidum, 4 Gaultheria shallon, 2 Holodiscus discolor, 1 Lonicera ledebourii, 2 Maianthemum dilatatum, 1 Myrica californica, 2 Polystichum munitum, 1 Rhododendron macrophyllum, + Rubus leucodermis, 1 Rubus parviflorus, + Rubus ursinus, 3 Vaccinium ovatum, 1 Vaccinium parvifolium. Companion species: 1 Blechnum spicant, 1 Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens.

7b. Junipero depressae-Pinetum contortae associatio nova hoc loco

Oceanic Boreal (semicontinental) and hemiboreal; upper humid and ultrahyperhumid; shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) slope lithophilous coniferous micro- or mesoforests and permanent communities growing on lithosols (rankers) throughout the Boreal Oceanic Eastern Alaskan Sector (Haines-Juneau Subsector) and Canadian Coastal Mountains Sector territories (North Canadian Coastal Mountains Subsector).

Bioclimatic diagnosis: Ic 11-21, Io 10.0-24.0, Tp 670-900, Tps 370-420, Tmin < 3, m < -1. [Beoc, Teooc-Mbo, Tbo, Hbo-Uhum, Hhu].

Table 31 shows three relevés sampled in Alaska near Haines. Within the characteristic species are common some trees such as Pinus contorta var. contorta, Acer glabrum var. douglasii and Picea sitchensis and some shrubs such as Juniperus communis var. depressa, Amelanchier semiintegrifolia and Shepherdia canadensis, which also represent some good differential species against the most southern geovicariant forest association Lonicero ledebourii-Pinetum contortae.

Table 31
7b. Junipero depressae-Pinetum contortae

(Pinion contortae, Tsugetalia mertensiano-heterophyllae)

Altitude (1=10 m) 3 7 4 5
Number of species 17 20 21 19
Ordinal number 1 2* 3 4
Trees:
Pinus contorta 5 5 5 3
Acer douglasii 2 1 . 2
Picea sitchensis (S2) 1 + . 2
Betula neoalaskana . . + 1
Characteristic species:
Juniperus depressa 3 3 2 3
Symphoricarpos laevigatus 3 3 2 3
Arctostaphylos adenotricha 3 2 3 3
Shepherdia canadensis 2 3 3 3
Rosa sayi 2 3 2 3
Amelanchier semiintegrifolia 2 2 2 3
Elymus subsecundus 1 2 1 3
Sorbus sitchensis + 1 . 2
Aquilegia formosa 1 . 1 2
Viola adunca . 1 1 2
Ribes lacustre . + 2 2
Solidago subserrata . + + 2
Companion species:
Salix scouleriana 1 3 2 3
Cryptogramma sitchensis + 1 1 3
Saxifraga tricuspidata + 1 + 3
Polypodium glycyrrhiza + + + 3

Other species. Characteristic species: Viburnum edule 1 in 1. Poa stenantha 1, Salix alaxensis + in 2. Companion species: Hylocomium splendens 2, Achillea arctica +, Cerastium arvense + in 3. Potentilla convallaria + in 3.

Localities: 1. Alaska: Haines, Mt. Ripinski. 59º15'N-135º32'W. S, 40%, 10 m, 30 cm, 100 m2 (reg. 1994a: 156). 2. Alaska: Haines, Mt. Ripinski. 59º16'N-135º33'W. S, 50%, 14 m, 40 cm, 200 m2, tangel cambisol on gneissic rock, holotypus ass. (reg. 1994a: 157). 3. Alaska: Haines, Klehini River. 59º15'N-135º26'W. SW, 50%, 10 m, 30 cm, 200 m2, (reg. 1994a: 161). 4. Synthesized table.

Type relevé (holotypus): Table 31, relevé n. 2. Rivas-Martínez reg. 1994a: 157. 25.08.94, made with Drs. Asensi, Costa, Fernández-González & Molero. Site: Alaska: Haines, Mt. Ripinski. 59º16'N-135º33'W. 70 m, S, 50%, 14 m, 40 cm, 200 m2, tangel cambisol on gneissic rocks. Physiognomy and habitat: Shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) open mesoforest. Estimated bioclimatic factors: Oceanic Boreal, semicontinental (Ic ~ 19), upper thermoboreal (Tp 710), upper humid (Io ~ 11.0), Positive Summer Temperature Tps ~ 410. Biogeographic location: Rocky Mountain Region, North-Western Pacific Subregion, Boreal Oceanic Alaskan Province, Boreal Oceanic Eastern Alaskan Sector. Floristic combination: Linnaeo-Piceetea characteristic species, trees: 1 Acer glabrum var. douglasii, + Picea sitchensis, 5 Pinus contorta var. contorta. Others: 2 Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia, 2 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. adenotricha, 2 Elymus trachycaulus subsp. subsecundus, 3 Juniperus communis var. depressa, + Ribes lacustre, 3 Rosa acicularis subsp. sayi, 3 Shepherdia canadensis, + Solidago canadensis var. subserrata, 1 Sorbus sitchensis var. sitchensis, 3 Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus, 1 viola adunca. Companion species: 1 Cryptogramma sitchensis, 1 Poa stenantha, + Polypodium glycyrrhiza, + Salix alaxensis var. alaxensis, 3 Salix scouleriana, 1 Saxifraga tricuspidata.