Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)

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Syntaxonomical system: Forest, woodland, semidesert and desert potential natural vegetation

IXa. Marshy, chionophilous, pioneer and climactic riparian shrublands and woodlands

68. Alnetea glutinosae Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946

Alnus glutinosa woodlands of swamps and fens, usually long inundated in oceanic meso-supratemperate humid and hyperhumid bioclimatic belt of Atlantic European and Central European and spread up to Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian biogeographic territories (Alnetalia glutinosae: Alnion glutinosae). West European.
Characteristic species: See alliance (68.1).

68a. Alnetalia glutinosae Tüxen 1937
Characteristic species: See alliance (68.1).

68.1. Alnion glutinosae Malcuit 1929
Characteristic species: Carex laevigata, Sphagnum squarrosum, Thelypteris palustris.

69. Betulo carpaticae-Alnetea viridis Rejmánek in Huml, Leps, Prach & Rejmánek 1979

Thickets or microforests of deciduous soft bushes or small trees (Salix sp. pl., Betula carpatica, Betula tortuosa, Alnus viridis, etc.) of orotemperate and boreal oceanic humid and hyperhumid bioclimates, growing on slopes and ravines with deep winter snow packs, shadow faces, avalanche snow deposits, etc., on gleyic or gelic soils rich in organic matter, usually bounded by megaforby communities of Mulgedio-Aconitetea, spread in Alpine-Caucasian and Oroescandinavian mountains, but also occuring locally in the orotemperate hyperhumid belt in snowy and shadow stations of the Pyrenees (Alnetalia viridis: Salicion pentandrae). Eurosiberian.
Characteristic species: See alliance (69.1).

69a. Alnetalia viridis Rübel 1933
Characteristic species: See alliance (69.1).

69.1. Salicion pentandrae Br.-Bl. 1950
Characteristic species: Alnus viridis, Salix aurita, Salix myrsinifolia, Salix pentandra, Salix phylicifolia subsp. basaltica.

70. Nerio-Tamaricetea Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958

Mediterranean and Saharian-Arabian riverine and lacustrine dwarf woodlands, scrubs and tall grasses permanent communities, dominated by rheophyte Tamarix sp. pl., Nerium oleander, Saccharum ravennae, etc., temporarily inundated by fresh, brackish or saline water in infra- to mesomediterranean arid to dry bioclimates, growing on initial soils of river beds, creeks, springs and temporary pools, without running water during long periods of the year (Tamaricetalia) [Tamarisk communities of fresh water river banks and pools (Tamaricion africanae), Tamarisk communities of saline or brackish water on pools, creeks and river banks (Tamaricion boveano-canariensis), tall grass cane-like communities of springs and sandbanks (Imperato cylindricae-Saccharion ravennae), oleander or chaste tree scrubby communities of stony or sandy river beds with occasionally running water (Rubo ulmifolii-Nerion oleandri)]. Mediterranean, Saharian-Arabian, Irarian-Turanian.
Characteristic species: See order (70a).

70a. Tamaricetalia Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958
Characteristic species: Nerium oleander, Polygonum equisetiforme, Tamarix africana var. africana, Tamarix mascatensis.

70.1. Tamaricion africanae Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958
Characteristic species: Tamarix africana var. fluminensis, Tamarix dalmatica, Tamarix gallica var. arborea, Tamarix gallica var. gallica.

70.2. Imperato cylindricae-Saccharion ravennae Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958 nom. mut. propos.
[Imperato cylindricae-Erianthion ravennae]
Characteristic species: Imperata cylindrica, Panicum repens, Saccharum ravennae.

70.3. Tamaricion boveano-canariensis Izco, Fernández-González & A. Molina 1984
Characteristic species: Tamarix boveana, Tamarix canariensis.

70.4. Rubo ulmifolii-Nerion oleandri O. Bolòs 1985
Characteristic species: Lonicera biflora, Vitex agnus-castus.

71. Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae (Rivas-Martínez & Cantó ex Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991) classis nova

Riparian wet decidous woodland and willow communities of Eurosiberian and Mediterranean Regions. Riverine meso-macroforests growing on wet fluvisols with high water-table (Populetalia albae) [temperate Eurosiberian (Alnion incanae), Mediterranean rich soils with slow flowing eutrophic water (Populion albae: Populenion albae = low zones of the river beds sometimes flooded, Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris = upper river bottom zone scarcely flooded), Mediterranean poor sandy or siliceous rock soils on river beds with running oligotrophic waters (Osmundo-Alnion)]; willow wooded and shrubby pioneer communities of the lowest zone of river and streambed usually flooded (Salicetalia purpureae) [Eurosiberian meso-supratemperate wooded willow on flooded deep river beds (Salicion albae), Alpine-Pyrenean and Orocantabric supratemperate and lower orotemperate shrubby willow pioneer communities (Salicion eleagni: Salicenion eleagni = Alpine-Pyrenean, Salicenion cantabricae = Orocantabric), thermo- to supramediterranean and scarcely submediterranean, mostly on semicontinental Iberian Peninsule, on rich soils and eutrophic waters (Salicion discolori-neotrichae), mesomediterranean Lusitan-Extremadurean on siliceous sandy and lithosol streambeds only flooded when heavy rainy periods (Flueggeion tinctoriae), thermo- to supramediterranean Mediterranean West Iberian but spread up to siliceous Oroiberian on sandy soils and oligotrophic waters (Salicion salviifoliae), thermo-mesomediterranean Betic, Gaditan, Aljibic, Tingitanian and Murcian-Almeriensian (Salicion pedicellatae)]. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Alnus glutinosa, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Elymus caninus, Equisetum hyemale, Equisetum telmateia, Frangula alnus subsp. alnus, Humulus lupulus, Populus nigra, Saponaria officinalis, Solanum dulcamara, Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris.

71a. Populetalia albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948
Characteristic species: Aristolochia paucinervis, Aristolochia rotunda, Arum alpinum, Carex grioletii, Carex pendula, Circaea lutetiana, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Hesperis matronalis subsp. candida, Lamium flexuosum, Lathraea clandestina, Listera ovata, Malus sylvestris, Osmunda regalis, Polystichum setiferum, Populus alba, Pyrus pyraster, Ranunculus ficaria subsp. ficaria, Ranunculus ficaria subsp. ficariiformis, Salix atrocinerea, Stegnogramma pozoi, Symphytum tuberosum, Ulmus minor, Vinca difformis.

71.1. Alnion incanae Pawłowski in Pawłowski, Sokołowski & Wallisch 1928
Characteristic species: Aconitum napellus subsp. lusitanicum, Carex brizoides, Carex remota, Carex sylvatica subsp. paui, Chrysosplenium alternifolium, Dryopteris carthusiana, Equisetum sylvaticum, Festuca gigantea, Gagea lutea subsp. lutea, Primula elatior, Prunus padus, Ribes rubrum, Rumex sanguineus, Senecio bayonensis, Stellaria nemorum subsp. montana.

71.2. Populion albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948
(Populenion albae Rivas-Martínez 1975 (71.2a). Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris Rivas-Martínez 1975 (71.2b))
Characteristic species: Arum cylindraceum, Arum italicum subsp. italicum, Celtis australis, Epipactis hispanica, Fraxinus angustifolia (71.2b), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Iris foetidissima.

71.3. Osmundo-Alnion (Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira 1956) Dierschke & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez 1975
Characteristic species: Arisarum proboscideum, Brachypodium gaditanum, Campanula primulifolia, Clematis campaniflora, Frangula alnus subsp. baetica, Holcus grandiflorus, Scrophularia laevigata, Scrophularia scorodonia.

71b. Salicetalia purpureae Moor 1958
Characteristic species: Equisetum xmoorei, Myricaria germanica, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea subsp. lambertiana, Salix purpurea subsp. purpurea, Salix triandra subsp. triandra, Salix xbifida nothosubsp. pseudoeleagnos, Salix xmultidentata, Salix xviciosorum.

71.4. Salicion albae Soó 1930
Characteristic species: Salix alba, Salix xrubens.

71.5. Salicion eleagni Aichinger 1933 nom. mut. propos.
[Salicion incanae]
(Salicenion eleagni Rivas-Martínez & T.E. Díaz suball. nova (71.5a). Salicenion cantabricae Rivas-Martínez & T.E. Díaz suball. nova (71.5b))
Characteristic species: Salix cantabrica (71.5b), Salix daphnoides, Salix xexpectata (71.5b), Salix xpormensis (71.5b), Salix xrijosa (71.5b).

71.6. Salicion discolori-neotrichae Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958 corr.
[Salicion triandro-neotrichae]
Characteristic species: Salix eleagnos subsp. angustifolia, Salix neotricha, Salix triandra subsp. discolor.

71.7. Flueggeion tinctoriae Rivas Goday 1964 nom. mut. propos.
[Securinegion buxifoliae]
Characteristic species: Flueggea tinctoria, Thapsia garganica.

71.8. Salicion salviifoliae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Salix salviifolia subsp. australis, Salix salviifolia subsp. salviifolia, Salix xlegionensis, Salix xmatritensis, Salix xpaui, Salix xpseudosalviifolia, Salix xsecalliana.

71.9. Salicion pedicellatae Galán, A.V. Pérez & Cabezudo in A.V. Pérez, Galán, P. Navas, D. Navas, Y. Gil & Cabezudo 1999
Characteristic species: Salix pedicellata, Salix xmairei.

72. Erico-PineteaHorvat 1959

European class not found in the territory.

IXb. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean climactic zonal and potential natural vegetation

73. Lauro azoricae-Juniperetea brevifoliae Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, F. Prieto, J.C. Costa, Días & Aguiar classis nova

Azorean evergreen broad-leaved micro-mesoforests ("laurisilva") and related seral thicket and mantle communities, hyperoceanic thermo to supratemperate humid-ultrahyperhumid, mostly on poor andosols and substrata, that in cold and rainy zones are covered by a thick acid horizon of organic matter or by a deep ombrogenous blanket bog (Ericetalia azoricae) [thermotemperate submediterranean humid microforest with strong anthropogenic influence on initial soils (Pittosporo undulati-Myricion fayae), thermo to supratemperate humid-ultrahyperhumid edaphoxerofilous microforests or seral thickets and mantle on shallow soils (Culcito macrocarpae-Juniperion brevifoliae: Culcito macrocarpae-Juniperenion brevifoliae = natural potential microforest on lithosols, Pteridio pubescentis-Ericenion azoricae = seral thickets and mantle dominated by the microphanerophyte Erica azorica), micro-mesoforests meso-supratemperate humid-ultrahyperhumid, that represent the climatophilous or meso-hygrophilous head of the natural potential vegetation series (Dryopterido azoricae-Laurion azoricae)]. Azorean.
Characteristic species: Carex peregrina, Dryopteris crispifolia, Erica azorica, Euphorbia stygiana, Hedera azorica, Ilex azorica, Lysimachia azorica, Myrsine retusa, Platanthera micrantha, Smilax divaricata.

73a. Ericetalia azoricae Lüpnitz 1975
Characteristic species: See class (73).

73.1. Culcito macrocarpae-Juniperion brevifoliae Sjögren ex Lüpnitz 1975
(Culcito macrocarpae-Juniperenion brevifoliae Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, F. Prieto, J.C. Costa, Días & Aguiar suball. nova (73.1a). Pteridio pubescentis-Ericenion azoricae Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, F. Prieto, J.C. Costa, Días & Aguiar suball. nova (73.1b))
Characteristic species: Corema azorica, Daphne azorica (73.1b), Juniperus brevifolia, Luzula purpureo-splendens, Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens (73.1b), Vaccinium cylindraceum.

73.2. Pittosporo undulati-Myricion fayae Lüpnitz 1976 nom. inv. propos.
[Myrico fayae-Pittosporion undulati]
Characteristic species: Carex hochstetteriana, Hedychium gardneranum, Picconia azorica, Pittosporum undulatum.

73.3. Dryopterido azoricae-Laurion azoricae Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, F. Prieto, J.C. Costa, Días & Aguiar all. nova
Characteristic species: Carex vulcani, Dryopteris azorica, Laurus azorica, Prunus azorica, Sanicula azorica.

74. Junipero sabinae-Pinetea sylvestris Rivas-Martínez 1965 nom. inv. propos.

Meso- to oromediterranean and supra- to lower orotemperate upper semiarid to hyperhumid, mostly semicontinental and often relict, coniferous micro-mesoforests, juniper-woodlands and related scrubs, Western Mediterranean and Alpine-Caucasian. Natural potential Pinus sylvestris var. pl. forests and Juniperus thurifera woodlands (Junipero sabinae-Pinetalia sylvestris) [basophilous Betic and Oroiberian upper supra- to oromediterranean subhumid and upper supra- to lower orotemperate submediterranean subhumid-humid pinelands of Pinus sylvestris subsp. nevadensis, Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, Pinus nigra subsp. mauretanica or occasionally in the summit of Gudar mountains Pinus uncinata (Junipero sabinae-Pinion ibericae), silicicolous and acidophilous Guadarramean and Oroiberian, and relict in Orocantabric (Pinar de Lillo), upper supra- to lower orotemperate but submediterranean in southern zones, pinelands of Pinus sylvestris var. iberica and in the summits between Urbión and Cebollera mountains Pinus uncinata (Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae), Pyrenean upper supratemperate sometimes submediterranean pinelands or Pinus sylvestris var. catalaunica and Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica more in central and western zones and often at high altitude Pinus uncinata and hybrids (Junipero intermediae-Pinion catalaunicae: Junipero intermediae-Pinenion catalaunicae = acidophilous, Festuco gautieri-Pinenion sylvestris = basophilous), calcicolous, excepcionally silicicolous, meso-supramediterranean and supratemperate submediterranean semiarid to humid, Oroiberian, Low Aragonese, Castilian, Guadarramean and south in Orocantabric, Juniperus thurifera woodlands (Juniperion thuriferae)]; seral or climatophilous scrubby oromediterranean and orotemperate submediterranean subhumid to hyperhumid communities, Carpetan, Oroiberian, Betic and Nevadensian (Juniperetalia hemisphaericae) [Carpetan (Guadarramean and Bejaran-Gredensean) silicicolous orotemperate mostly submediterranean humid-hyperhumid dwarf juniper climactical and broom Cytisus-Echinospartum (Cytision oromediterranei), silicicolous oromediterranean subhumid Nevadensian (Genisto versicoloris-Juniperion hemisphaericae), Betic and Oroiberian calcicolous upper supra-oromediterranean and upper supra orotemperate submediterranean subhumid-humid (Pruno prostratae-Juniperion sabinae)]. Western Mediterranean, Alpine-Caucasian.
Characteristic species: Avenella flexuosa subsp. iberica, Juniperus sabina, Orchis spitzelii.

74a. Junipero sabinae-Pinetalia sylvestris Rivas-Martínez 1965 nom. inv. propos.
Characteristic species: Juniperus communis var. intermedia, Ononis rotundifolia, Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii, Pinus sylvestris var. catalaunica, Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, Poa flaccidula.

74.1. Junipero sabinae-Pinion ibericae Rivas Goday ex Rivas Goday & Borja 1961 corr. Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 nom. inv. propos.
[Pino ibericae-Juniperion sabinae]
Characteristic species: Pinus nigra subsp. mauretanica, Pinus sylvestris subsp. nevadensis, Pinus xrhaetica nothovar. borgiae, Saponaria glutinosa subsp. zapateri.

74.2. Juniperion thuriferae Rivas-Martínez 1969
Characteristic species: Juniperus thurifera.

74.3. Junipero intermediae-Pinion catalaunicae Rivas-Martínez 1983 corr. Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
[Junipero hemisphaericae-Pinion sylvestris]
(Junipero intermediae-Pinenion catalaunicae Rivas-Martínez 1983 corr. Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 (74.3a). Festuco gautieri-Pinenion sylvestris Rivas-Martínez 1983 (74.3b))
Characteristic species: Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica, Pinus xrhaetica nothovar. bolosii.

74.4. Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Festuca braun-blanquetii.

74b. Juniperetalia hemisphaericae Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

74.5. Cytision oromediterranei Tüxen in Tüxen & Oberdorfer 1958 corr. Rivas-Martínez 1987
[Genistion purgantis]
Characteristic species: Echinospartum barnadesii var. hirsutum, Juniperus communis nothosubsp. guadarramica, Sideritis lurida subsp. relegata.

74.6. Genisto versicoloris-Juniperion hemisphaericae Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Cytisus galianoi, Genista versicolor.

74.7. Pruno prostratae-Juniperion sabinae Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Prunus prostrata.

75. Quercetea ilicis Br.-Bl. ex A. & O. Bolòs 1950

Thermo- to supramediterranean semiarid to humid evergreen and semidecidous woodlands, scrublands and maquis of Mediterranean Region (excluded Canarian Subregion) but spread also into meridional submediterranean Eurosiberian territories. Thermo- to supramediterranean dry to humid natural potential micro-mesoforest vegetation growing on base-rich or poor soils but without salinization process or permanent gleyic properties (Quercetalia ilicis) [ thermomediterranean dry to humid Olea sylvestris, Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis or Ceratonia siliqua meso-microforest with thermomediterranean species in the understory, such as Aristolochia baetica, Asparagus aphyllus, Clematis cirrhosa, Chamaerops humilis, Osyris lanceolata, Prasium majus, Rhamnus oleoides, etc., spread in Western Mediterranean Subregion (Querco rotundifoliae-Oleion sylvestris), meso-lower supramediterranean dry to humid climactical meso-microforests and thermo-mesotemperate submediterranean dry to humid xeric permanent communities, growing on Mediterranean Central Iberian and Balearic-Catalan-Provençal Provinces and in the rest of European Western Mediterranean Tyrrhenan territories as well as Cantabrian-Basque and Eastern Pyrenean Sectors and Alpine or Apennine related territories (Quercion ilicis: Quercenion ilicis = at least subhumid Quercus ilex subsp. ilex and Quercus ilex subsp. gracilis euoceanic mesoforests spread in Balearic-Catalan-Provençal, rest of European Tyrrhenian and Cantabrian-Basque territories as well as in neighbouring temperate submediterranean territories, Quercenion rotundifoliae = dry to humid on shallow and mostly base-rich soils in semicontinental Mediterranean Central Iberian, Quercus rotundifolia micro-mesoforests), meso-lower supramediterranean dry to humid on deep or shallow soils Betic and Mediterranean West Iberian mostly on base poor soils (Quercion broteroi: Quercenion broteroi = subhumid-humid mostly euoceanic Quercus suber or Quercus broteroi mesoforests, Paeonio broteroi-Quercenion rotundifoliae = dry to humid mostly semicontinental Quercus rotundifolia micro-mesoforests)]. [The geovicarian fitosociological units are in Eastern Mediterranean: Aristolochio sempervirentis-Quercion ilicis Barbero & Quézel ex Rivas-Martínez all. nova, and in meso-supramediterranean dry to humid Maghrebian: Balanseo glaberrimae-Quercion rotundifoliae Barbero, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez ex Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco in Not. Fitosoc. 19(2): 80. 1986)]. Thermo- to supramediterranean lower semiarid to humid permanent shrubs, mantle forests, seral maquis and dwarf-scrubs communities, which could represent in semiarid the climactical vegetation but in dry to humid only could be a permanent natural community on shallow and xeric biotopes, as well as seral and mantle forests vegetation in Quercetalia ilicis natural potential vegetation territories (Pistacio lentisci-Rhamnetalia alaterni) [thermomediterranean upper semiarid to subhumid euoceanic, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Lusitan-Extremadurean, Betic, Murcian-Almeriensian, Setabensean, Valencian-Tarraconensean and also spread into Maghrebian-Tingitanian, permanent shrubs, mantle forests and seral maquis communities, characterized by Asparagus aphyllus, Rhamnus fontqueri, Rhamnus oleoides, Rhamnus velutinus subsp. almeriensis and Salsola webbi (Asparago albi-Rhamnion oleoidis), thermomediterranean dry-subhumid euoceanic, Balearic-Provençal and Empordanese, permanent shrubs, mantle forests and seral maquis communities (Oleo-Ceratonion), meso-supramediterranean semiarid to humid mostly semicontinental, Western Mediterranean European and also spread, as relict in temperate south Pyrenean slopes and walls on base-rich soils, permanent shrubs, mantle forests and seral maquis communities (Rhamno lycioidis-Quercion cocciferae), thermomediterranean lower semiarid euoceanic frosts or, at least, lacking long time winter frosts, Murcian-Almeriensian and Maghrebian-Moulouyian, shrubby permanent or summer semidecidous dwarf-scrubs communities (Periplocion angustifoliae), thermomediterranean semiarid to lower subhumid hyperoceanic and euoceanic, Western Mediterranean and Maghrebian, permanent shrubs communities growing on coastal sand dunes and paleodunes (Juniperion turbinatae), thermomediterranean and thermotemperate submediterranean dry to subhumid, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and Galician-Portuguese permanent dwarf-scrub communities on littoral active poor dunes as succesion of Ammophiletea: Helichrysion picardii vegetation, and as external windy mantle of Juniperion turbinatae permanent shrubby dune vegetation (Rubio longifoliae-Coremation albi), thermo-mesomediterranean and thermotemperate subhumid- to hyperhumid, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Galician-Potuguese and Maghrebian-Tingitanian, low mantle forests and seral maquis communities growing on poor silicic or sandy podzolic soils (Quercion lusitanicae), upper thermomediterranean to supramediterranean and mesotemperate submediterranean subhumid-humid, Western Mediterranean and neighbouring temperate submediterranean teritories mantle forest and seral maquis communities growing on silicic poor or rich soils but with lost of free carbonates in B horizon (Ericion arboreae), thermo-mesomediterranean and thermotemperate submediterranean humid Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Lusitan-Extremadurean and Cantabrian-Atlantic permanent shrubs and mantle forest growing on poor or rich soils (Arbuto unedonis-Laurion nobilis: Arbuto unedonis-Laurenion nobilis = spread in all the territory, Rhododendrenion pontici = Aljibic and Monchiquensean, mantle of Quercus canariensis and Alnus glutinosa forest characterized by Rhododendron ponticum), thermo- to lower supramediterranean dry to humid Malacitan-Almijarensean, Bermejensean and spread locally in Betic, permanent shrubs with an open canopy of Pinus pinaster subsp. acutisquama or Pinus halepensis growing on soils rich in magnesite, dolomite or serpentine minerals, as well as in eroded clayed or vertic substrata which prevent the development of Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus suber or Quercus faginea subsp. alpestris forests that climatically would correspond (Pino acutisquamae-Juniperion phoeniceae)]. Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Arisarum simorrhinum, Arisarum vulgare, Asparagus acutifolius, Biarum arundanum, Carex halleriana, Clematis cirrhosa var. balearica, Clematis cirrhosa subsp. cirrhosa, Clematis flammula var. flammula, Colutea hispanica, Daphne gnidium, Eryngium tricuspidatum, Lonicera etrusca, Lonicera implexa subsp. implexa, Neotinea maculata, Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, Phillyrea latifolia subsp. media, Pulicaria odora, Rhamnus alaternus var. alaternus, Rubia peregrina subsp. longifolia, Rubia peregrina subsp. peregrina, Smilax aspera var. aspera, Vincetoxicum nigrum.

75a. Quercetalia ilicis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934
Characteristic species: Anemone coronaria, Anemone palmata, Asplenium onopteris, Bupleurum paniculatum, Carex depressa subsp. depressa, Carex distachya, Carex oedipostyla, Dactylorhiza markusii, Doronicum plantagineum, Festuca triflora, Galium maritimum, Galium scabrum, Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. lagunae, Limodorum abortivum subsp. trabutianum, Moehringia pentandra, Orchis cazorlensis, Phillyrea latifolia subsp. latifolia, Piptatherum paradoxum, Quercus canariensis, Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus suber, Quercus xmixta, Rosa sempervirens, Ruscus aculeatus, Smilax aspera var. altissima, Viburnum tinus, Viola alba subsp. dehnhardtii.

75.1. Quercion ilicis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934
(Quercenion ilicis Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Esteve, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez 1960 (75.1a). Quercenion rotundifoliae Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Esteve, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez 1960 (75.1b))
Characteristic species: Arum italicum subsp. majoricense (75.1a), Asperula laevigata (75.1a), Bupleurum rigidum (75.1b), Carex olbiensis (75.1a), Cyclamen balearicum (75.1a), Cyclamen repandum (*) (75.1a), Helleborus lividus (75.1a), Luzula forsteri subsp. catalaunica (75.1a), Quercus ilex subsp. gracilis, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex (75.1a), Teucrium chamaedrys subsp. pinnatifidum. Thalictrum tuberosum (75.1b).

75.2. Quercion broteroi Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira 1956 em. Rivas-Martínez 1975 corr. Ladero 1974
[Quercion fagineae]
(Quercenion broteroi Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco 1986 corr. Rivas-Martínez 1987 (75.2a). Paeonio broteroi-Quercenion rotundifoliae Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco 1986 (75.2b))
Characteristic species: Euphorbia paniculata subsp. monchiquensis (75.2a), Genista tournefortii (75.2b), Hedera maderensis subsp. iberica, Hyacinthoides hispanica, Luzula forsteri subsp. baetica, Paeonia broteroi, Paeonia coriacea (75.2b), Pyrus bourgaeana, Quercus broteroi, Quercus xmarianica (75.2a), Sanguisorba hybrida (75.2a), Senecio lopezii (75.2a), Thapsia nitida subsp. nitida (75.2a).

75.3. Querco rotundifoliae-Oleion sylvestris Barbéro, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco 1986
Characteristic species: Gennaria diphylla, Quercus coccifera subsp. rivasmartinezii, Rubia agostinhoi, Ruscus hypophyllum, Scilla monophyllos, Teucrium scorodonia subsp. baeticum.

75b. Pistacio lentisci-Rhamnetalia alaterni Rivas-Martínez 1975
Characteristic species: Ampelodesmos mauritanica, Anagyris foetida, Arenaria intricata, Asparagus albus, Asparagus horridus, Barlia robertiana, Bupleurum fruticosum, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops humilis, Cneorum tricoccum, Coronilla glauca, Coronilla juncea, Ephedra fragilis, Euphorbia characias, Jasminum fruticans, Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, Juniperus turbinata subsp. turbinata, Myrtus communis, Osyris alba, Osyris lanceolata, Phillyrea angustifolia subsp. angustifolia, Pinus halepensis var. halepensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia terebinthus, Prasium majus, Quercus coccifera subsp. coccifera, Rhamnus alaternus var. parvifolia, Rhamnus lycioides, Rhamnus oleoides subsp. angustifolia, Tetraclinis articulata, Teucrium fruticans, Ziziphus lotus.

75.4. Genisto retamoidis-Phlomidion almeriensis Rivas Goday & Rivas Martínez 1969
[Genisto spartioidis-Phlomidion almeriensis]
Characteristic species: Cytisus fontanesii subsp. plumosus, Cytisus malacitanus, Genista cinerea subsp. murcica, Genista haenseleri, Genista ramosissima, Genista spartioides subsp. retamoides, Lavatera oblongifolia, Phlomis purpurea subsp. almeriensis, Salvia candelabrum, Sideritis lasiantha, Ulex canescens.

75.5. Asparago albi-Rhamnion oleoidis Rivas Goday ex Rivas-Martínez 1975
Characteristic species: Aristolochia baetica, Asparagus aphyllus, Bupleurum gibraltaricum, Calicotome villosa, Euphorbia pedroi, Ononis speciosa, Phlomis purpurea subsp. purpureaRhamnus oleoides subsp. oleoides, Rhamnus velutinus subsp. almeriensis, Salsola webbi, Thapsia nitida subsp. meridionalis, Thymelaea lanuginosa.

75.6. Oleo-Ceratonion siliquae Br.-Bl. ex Guinochet & Drouineau 1944
Characteristic species: Arum pictum subsp. sagittifolium, Bunium macuca subsp. balearicum, Calicotome infesta, Calicotome spinosa, Dracunculus muscivorus, Euphorbia dendroides, Genista majorica, Pinus halepensis var. ceciliae, Teucrium flavum.

75.7. Rhamno lycioidis-Quercion cocciferae Rivas Goday ex Rivas-Martínez 1975
Characteristic species: Ephedra nebrodensis, Genista cinerea subsp. valentina, Rhamnus fontqueri, Teline patens.

75.8. Periplocion angustifoliae Rivas-Martínez 1975
[Querco cocciferae-Tetraclinidion articulatae]
Characteristic species: Calicotome intermedia, Maytenus senegalensis subsp. europaeus, Periploca angustifolia.

75.9. Juniperion turbinatae Rivas-Martínez 1975 corr. 1987
[Juniperion lyciae]
Characteristic species: Ephedra distachya, Juniperus macrocarpa, Juniperus navicularis.

75.10. Rubio longifoliae-Coremation albi Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980
Characteristic species: Antirrhinum linkianum subsp. cirrhigerum, Corema album.

75.11. Quercion lusitanicae Rothmaler 1954 nom. mut. propos.
[Quercion fruticosae]
Characteristic species: Avenella stricta, Bupleurum foliosum, Centaurea africana, Centaurea vicentina, Euphorbia transtagana, Quercus lusitanica, Serratula baetica subsp. alcalae.

75.12. Ericion arboreae (Rivas-Martínez ex Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Izco 1986) Rivas-Martínez 1987
Characteristic species: Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea subsp. arborea, Phillyrea angustifolia subsp. rodriguezii, Serapias nurrica.

75.13. Arbuto unedonis-Laurion nobilis Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
(Arbuto unedonis-Laurenion nobilis Rivas-Martínez & Sánchez-Mata 2001 (75.13a). Rhododendrenion pontici Rivas-Martínez & Sánchez-Mata 2001 nom. mut. propos. [Rhododendrenion baetici] (75.13b))
Characteristic species: Laurus nobilis, Prunus lusitanica, Rhododendron ponticum (75.13b).

75.14. Pino acutisquamae-Juniperion phoeniceae A.V. Pérez & Cabezudo in A.V. Pérez, P. Navas, D. Navas, Y. Gil & Cabezudo 1998 corr. hoc loco
[Pino pinastri-Juniperion phoeniceae]
Characteristic species: Pinus pinaster subsp. acutisquama, Rhamnus myrtifolius, Rhamnus velutinus subsp. velutinus.

76. Querco-Fagetea Br.-Bl. & Vlieger in Vlieger 1937

Thermo- to lower orotemperate, meso- to lower oromediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid and thermo-mesoboreal humid as secondary decidouous forests (Betulo-Populetalia tremulae), hyperoceanic to subcontinental Eurasiatic (Eurosiberian and Mediterranean) and North African Maghrebian mostly climactical deciduous broad-leaved and mixed broad-leaved meso-macroforest growing on many types of rich and poor soils, but absent of wet fluvisols, river beds and flooded horizontal river banks, in which biotopes only a wet deciduous poplar and willow woodland and scrubs communities of the class Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae can be stablished as forest. Meso- to lower orotemperate upper subhumid to ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic to subcontinental Atlantic Central European and Alpine-Caucasian climactical woodlands growing on rich neutral soils (Fagetalia sylvaticae) [meso- to lower orotemperate humid-hyperhumid, Orocantabric, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Cevennean-Pyrenean and local spread to Sorian Oroiberian climactical beech and beech-fir (Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) meso-macroforests (Fagion sylvaticae: Scillo-Fagenion = mesic, Epipactido helleborines-Fagenion sylvaticae = xeric or thermic), supratemperate humid-hyperhumid Orocantabric, Pyrenean and Alpine Tilia platyphyllos, Acer platanoides or Ulmus glabra, deciduous mesoforests growing on stony ravines, torrents, bottom of shadow canyons on wet and rich soils often covered with big boulders and long lasting windy and avalanche snowy winter (Tilio-Acerion), upper supratemperae humid-hyperhumid Pyrenean, Alpine and Balkanic Abies alba meso-macroforests growing on mesic acid soils mostly on shady slopes with long lasting winter snow (Galio rotundifolii-Abietion albae: Saxifrago umbrosae-Abietenion albae = Pyrenean), thermo-to supratemperate upper subhumid to lower hyperhumid Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric and Cevennean-Pyrenean oak (Quercus robur, Quercus pubescens) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) deciduous meso-macroforests growing on silt or clayey rich mesic soils with mollic or umbric A horizon (Pulmonario longifoliae-Quercion roboris), western meridional alliance that could be considered as geovicariant of the more septentrional Carpinion betuli Issler 1931]; thermo- to lower orotemperate, meso-supramediterranean and submediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic to semicontinental, Atlantic Central European but spread to Western Mediterranean, West Alpine and Pyrenean, deciduous oak and beech meso-macroforests growing on poor sandy or loamy acid soils (Quercetalia roboris) [meso-supratemperate humid-hyperhumid septentrional Atlantic Central European deciduous acidophilic oak or oak-beech meso-macroforests where the common oaks in our territories are: Quercus petraea, Quercus huguetiana, Quercus petraea x pubescens and locally in Catalonia Quercus canariensis (Quercion roboris: Quercenion robori-petraeae = Western and southern territories), supratemperate humid and hyperhumid euoceanic and semicontinental climactical beech meso-macroforests, Atlantic (Subatlantic) Central Europaean, Alpine, also spread into Eastern Pyrenean growing on poor acid soils lacking carbonates (Luzulo-Fagion: Luzulo niveae-Fagenion = Eastern Pyrenean), meso- to lower orotemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid euoceanic, occasionally submediterranean but then in shady or wet slopes, acidophilic sessile oak (Quercus petraea), orocantabric oak (Quercus orocantabrica) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) micro to macroforests, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric, Orensan-Sanabrian, Central Pyrenean, Oroiberian and Guadarraman Ayllonensian (Ilici-Fagion: Ilici-Fagenion = beech forests, Luzulo henriquesii-Quercenion petraeae = supra- to lower orotemperate sessile and orocantabric oak forests), thermo- to supratemperate often submediterranean, meso-supramediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic to semicontinental, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and pyrenaic oak (Quercus pyrenaica) pure or mixed micro- to macroforest growing on poor decarbonated soils with an umbric A horizon, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Oroiberian, Western Mediterranean Iberian Peninsule spread to Maghrebian-Riffean mountains (Quercion pyrenaicae: Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae = temperate and submediterranean Eurosiberian territories Quercus robur or mixed Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica meso-macroforest, Quercenion pyrenaicae = Mediterranean territories of Iberian Peninsule and submediterranean mountains just Quercus pyrenaica micro-mesoforests)]; meso-supratemperate and submediterranean, and meso-supramediterranean subhumid-humid Alpine-Caucasian also spread into xerothermic Central European valleys, and Mediterranean euoceanic to subcontinental, very rich and diverse often xeric meso-macroforests of deciduous Quercus sp. pl. and Acer sp. pl. or meridional Abies sp. pl. (Quercetalia pubescentis) [meso-supratemperate and submediterranean subhumid-humid, semicontinental xeric, Alpine-Pyrenean also spread into Central European xerothermic zones and southern valleys as well as Navarran-Alavan territories of Cantabrian-Basque Sector, Quercus pubescens subsp. pubescens and Quercus pubescens subsp. subpyrenaica, and their hybrids (Quercus xcalvescens, Quercus xcerrioides, Quercus xkerneri, Quercus xdesmotricha, etc.) mesoforests, growing on rich soils (Quercion pubescenti-petraeae: Buxo sempervirentis-Quercenion pubescentis = Pyrenean), meso-supramediterranean subhumid-humid euoceanic and semicontinental climactical deciduous micro-mesoforests of Iberian Peninsule organized by Quercus faginea subsp. faginea, Quercus faginea subsp. alpestris or Acer granatense, growing on rich and clayey soils in Mediterranean Central Iberian, Betic, Setabensean, and Valencian-Tarraconensean and seldom spread in Majorcan northern mountains (Aceri granatensis-Quercion fagineae), meso-supramediterranean humid-hyperhumid euoceanic Rondean climactical pinsapo-fir (Abies pinsapo) meso-macroforests growing on deep soils of calcitic dolomite, dolostone and peridotite ultramafic rocks (Paeonio broteroi-Abietion pinsapo)]; meso- to lower orotemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid, thermo-mesoboreal humid-hyperhumid and upper supra-lower oromediterranean humid, Eurosiberian and Mediterranean high mountains, fast growing soft wood micro-mesoforests seral communities of climactical euoceanic to subcontinental hardwood and coniferous forests (Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Junipero-Pinetea) growing on acidic or neutral soils; occasionally they could be potential natural forests (Betulo pendulae-Populetalia tremulae); this order can be considered as geovicariant of Northamerican boreal and temperate secondary forest of Betulo papyriferae-Populetalia tremuloidis Rivas-Martínez, Sánchez-Mata & Costa in Itinera Geobot. 12: 172. 1999 [upper meso- to lower orotemperate humid-hyperhumid, euoceanic to subcontinental, Alpine, Cevennean-Pyrenean and Atlantic-Central European (excluded Atlantic territories of Iberian Peninsule), deciduous seral secondary micro-mesoforests dominated by Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, Populus tremula or Salix caprea, growing on poor acid or neutral rich soils (Corylo avellanae-Populion tremulae), orotemperate humid-hyperhumid, semicontinental, Alpine-Pyrenean secondary microforests of Piceetalia abietis climactical coniferous forests, growing on poor podzolic soils, in the Pyrenees are seral of fir forest Rhododendro-Abietetum albae and black pine forest Rhododendro-Pinetum uncinatae, as well as permanent microforest community on wet poor soils in gullies, avalanche cones, big boulder chaos with long lasting snow, streambeds, etc., usually with Betula pubescens, Betula carpatica or Sorbus aucuparia as dominants (Betulion carpatico-pubescentis), it could be considered as geovicariant of boreal oceanic Betulion tortuosae all. nova hoc loco, meso- to lower orotemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid, submediterranean and seldom upper supra-lower oromediterranean potential natural microforest, as well secondary micro-mesoforests seral of beech, deciduous oaks or Iberian scots pine (Ilici-Fagion, Quercion pyrenaicae, Avenello-Pinion ibericae), dominated by Betula celtiberica, Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri, Corylus avellana or Populus tremula, and spread in Iberian Peninsule (excluded Pyrenees) in Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric, Carpetan-Leonese, Sorian Oroiberian and Nevadensian, but seldom in Magherbian Riff mountains (Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae)]. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Acer campestre, Ajuga reptans, Anemone nemorosa, Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, Arum maculatum, Campanula trachelium, Carex depauperata, Carex digitata, Cephalanthera damasonium, Cephalanthera longifolia, Cephalanthera rubra, Conopodium pyrenaeum subsp. pyrenaeum, Convallaria majalis, Crepis lampsanoides, Daphne laureola subsp. laureola, Dryopteris affinis subsp. affinis, Dryopteris borreri, Dryopteris dilatata, Dryopteris filix-mas, Epipactis helleborine subsp. helleborine, Epipactis microphylla, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Euphorbia hyberna, Fagus sylvatica, Festuca heterophylla, Galanthus nivalis, Hedera helix, Helleborus foetidus, Hepatica nobilis, Hieracium glaucinum, Hieracium murorum, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Ilex aquifolium, Lathraea squamaria, Lilium martagon, Limodorum abortivum subsp. abortivum, Melica nutans, Melitis melissophyllum, Mercurialis perennis, Mycelis muralis, Orchis langei, Oxalis acetosella, Platanthera bifolia, Poa nemoralis subsp. nemoralis, Polystichum aculeatum, Primula acaulis subsp. acaulis, Primula veris subsp. veris, Quercus robur subsp. robur, Rosa arvensis, Sanicula europaea, Solidago virgaurea subsp. virgaurea, Stachys officinalis, Stellaria holostea, Stellaria nemorum subsp. nemorum, Taxus baccata, Tilia xvulgaris, Viola reichenbachiana.

76a. Fagetalia sylvaticae Pawłowski in Pawłowski, Sokołowski & Wallisch 1928
Characteristic species: Actaea spicata, Allium ursinum, Anemone ranunculoides, Calamintha grandiflora, Cardamine impatiens, Carex alba, Carex sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, Carex umbrosa subsp. umbrosa, Carpinus betulus, Conopodium majus subsp. majus, Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida, Cypripedium calceolus, Doronicum pardalianches, Epilobium montanum, Epipactis purpurata, Epipogium aphyllum, Euphorbia dulcis, Festuca altissima, Fraxinus excelsior, Galeobdolon luteum, Galium odoratum, Galium sylvaticum var. pyrenaicum, Helleborus occidentalis, Hordelymus europaeus, Lathyrus occidentalis, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera alpigena, Luzula nivea, Luzula pilosa, Lysimachia nemorum, Maianthemum bifolium, Melica uniflora, Milium effusum, Moehringia trinervia, Neottia nidus-avis, Orchis pallens, Ornithogalum pyrenaicum, Paris quadrifolia, Phyteuma spicatum subsp. spicatum, Polygonatum multiflorum, Potentilla sterilis, Prenanthes purpurea, Prunus avium, Ranunculus nemorosus, Salvia glutinosa, Saxifraga hirsuta subsp. hirsuta, Thalictrum aquilegifolium, Tilia cordata, Veronica montana, Vinca minor.

76.1. Fagion sylvaticae Luquet 1926
(Scillo-Fagenion Oberdorfer ex Rivas-Martínez 1973 (76.1a). Epipactido helleborines-Fagenion sylvaticae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas in Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991 (76.1b))
Characteristic species: Adoxa moschatellina (*), Cardamine heptaphylla, Cardamine pentaphyllos, Carex caudata, Geranium nodosum, Isopyrum thalictroides, Luzula sylvatica subsp. dertosensis (76.1b), Pulmonaria affinis, Scilla lilio-hyacinthus, Scrophularia alpestris.

76.2. Tilio-Acerion Klika 1955
Characteristic species: Acer platanoides, Aruncus dioicus, Stachys sylvatica, Tilia platyphyllos, Ulmus glabra.

76.3. Galio rotundifolii-Abietion albae (Oberdorfer 1962) Rivas-Martínez 1987
(Saxifrago umbrosae-Abietenion albae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 (76.3a))
Characteristic species: Abies alba, Ajuga occidentalis (76.3a), Galium rotundifolium var. rotundifolium, Goodyera repens, Lonicera nigra, Luzula luzulina, Monotropa hypopitys subsp. hypophegea, Saxifraga umbrosa, Veronica urticifolia.

76.4Pulmonario longifoliae-Quercion roboris Rivas-Martínez & Izco all. nova
Characteristic species: Dryopteris aemula, Dryopteris corleyi, Epipactis phyllanthes, Hypericum androsaemum, Phyllitis scolopendrium, Pulmonaria longifolia, Quercus xandegavensis, Quercus xcoutinhoi, Quercus xkerneri nothosubsp. kerneri.

76b. Quercetalia roboris Tüxen 1931

Characteristic species: Arenaria montana, Avenella flexuosa subsp. flexuosa, Blechnum spicant, Carex depressa subsp. basilaris, Ceratocapnos claviculata, Euphorbia angulata, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Hedera hibernica, Hieracium lachenalii, Hieracium maculatum, Hieracium sabaudum, Hieracium umbellatum, Holcus mollis, Hypericum pulchrum, Lathyrus linifolius, Lonicera periclymenum subsp. periclymenum, Luzula forsteri subsp. forsteri, Melampyrum pratense subsp. pratense, Poa chaixii, Polygonatum verticillatum, Prunella hastifolia, Quercus petraea, Quercus xrosacea nothosubsp. rosacea, Teucrium scorodonia subsp. scorodonia, Veronica officinalis.

76.5. Quercion roboris Malcuit 1929
(Quercenion robori-petraeae Rivas-Martínez 1978 (76.5a))
Characteristic species: Hieracium laevigatum, Quercus huguetiana (76.5a).

76.6. Luzulo-Fagion Lohmeyer & Tüxen in Tüxen 1954
(Luzulo niveae-Fagenion Rivas-Martínez 1987 (76.6a))
Characteristic species: Luzula sylvatica subsp. sylvatica.

76.7. Quercion pyrenaicae Rivas Goday ex Rivas-Martínez 1965
(Quercenion pyrenaicae Rivas-Martínez 1975 (76.7a). Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae (Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira 1956) Rivas-Martínez 1975 (76.7b))
Characteristic species: Allium massaessylum (76.7a), Anemone trifolia subsp. albida (76.7b), Genista falcata, Physospermum cornubiense, Quercus pauciradiata (76.7a), Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus robur subsp. broteroana (76.7b), Quercus xarrimatensis (76.7b), Quercus xrosacea nothosubsp. secalliana (76.7b), Quercus xrotensis (76.7a), Ranunculus ollissiponensis subsp. carpetanus (76.7a), Stemmacantha exaltata (76.7a).

76.8. Ilici-Fagion Br.-Bl. 1967
(Ilici-Fagenion Rivas-Martínez 1973 (76.8a). Luzulo henriquesii-Quercenion petraeae Rivas-Martínez & Izco suball. nova (76.8b))
Characteristic species: Galium rotundifolium var. batallae, Homogyne alpina subsp. cantabrica, Luzula sylvatica subsp. henriquesii, Luzula xsomedana subsp. henriquesii (76.8b), Quercus orocantabrica (76.8b), Quercus xtrabutii (76.8b), Saxifraga spathularis.

76c. Quercetalia pubescentis Klika 1933
Characteristic species: Acer monspessulanum, Acer opalus var. opalus, Buglossoides purpureocaerulea, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, Daphne laureola subsp. latifolia, Digitalis lutea, Emerus major, Fraxinus ornus, Hypericum montanum, Lathyrus niger, Primula veris subsp. columnae, Quercus pubescens subsp. pubescens, Saponaria ocymoides, Sorbus aria, Sorbus latifolia, Sorbus torminalis.

76.9. Quercion pubescenti-petraeae Br.-Bl. 1932 nom. mut. propos.
[Quercion pubescenti-sessiliflorae]
(Buxo sempervirentis-Quercenion pubescentis Zólyomi & Jakucs ex Jakucs 1960 (76.9a))
Characteristic species: Acer opalus var. montsiccianum (76.9a), Hypericum hyssopifolium, Narcissus alpestris (76.9a), Quercus pubescens subsp. subpyrenaica (76.9a), Quercus xcalvescens nothosubsp. costae (76.9a), Quercus xcerrioides (76.9a), Quercus xdesmotricha (76.9a), Quercus xkerneri nothosubsp. monserratii (76.9a).

76.10. Aceri granatensis-Quercion fagineae (Rivas Goday, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas Goday, Borja, Esteve, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez 1960) Rivas-Martínez 1987
Characteristic species: Acer granatense, Epipactis helleborine subsp. tremolsii, Epipactis parviflora, Primula acaulis subsp. balearica, Quercus faginea subsp. alpestris, Quercus faginea subsp. faginea, Seseli intricatum.

76.11. Paeonio broteroi-Abietion pinsapo (Rivas-Martínez 1987) Rivas-Martínez & Asensi all. nova, stat. nov.
[Paeonio-Abietenion pinsapo]
Characteristic species: Abies pinsapo, Bunium macuca subsp. macuca, Quercus xjahandiezii nothosubsp. viciosoi.

76d. Betulo pendulae-Populetalia tremulae Rivas-Martínez & Costa ordo novus
Characteristic species: Acer pseudoplatanus, Corylus avellana, Populus tremula, Salix caprea, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus intermedia.

76.12. Corylo avellanae-Populion tremulae (Br.-Bl. ex O. Bolòs 1973) Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1998
Characteristic species: Betula pendula var meridionalis, Betula pendula var. pendula, Quercus xcalvescens nothosubsp. calvescens.

76.13. Betulion carpatico-pubescentis Rivas-Martínez & Costa all. nova
Characteristic species: Betula carpatica, Betula pubescens.

76.14. Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae Rivas-Martínez & Costa all. nova
Characteristic species: Betula celtiberica, Betula fontqueri subsp. fontqueri, Betula fontqueri subsp. parvibracteata.

77. Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Sissingh & Vlieger 1939

Eurosiberian thermo- to supra boreal and orotemperate oceanic and subcontinental subhumid to ultrahyperhumid climactic coniferous forests and related permanent or seral scrub or heath communities, growing on nutrient-poor acid soils as podzols, leptosols or regosols, occasionally with dystric, gleyic, histic or gelic properties. Climactical coniferous forests (Piceetalia abietis) [Pyrenean orotemperate (Seslerio caeruleae-Pinion uncinatae: Seslerio caeruleae-Pinenion uncinatae = neutrophilous or base-rich soils on calcareous bed rock, Rhododendro ferruginei-Pinenion uncinatae = nutrient-poor very acid soils)]; permanent or seral scrubby or heath communities (Vaccinio microphylli-Juniperetalia nanae) [Alpine-Pyrenean upper orotemperate humid-hyperhumid, with long snow cover, on shaded or north exposition, mesic biotopes and very acid nutrient-poor soils (Rhododendro-Vaccinion), Alpine-Pyrenean and spread and relict in Apennine Highlands, Orocantabric, Orensan-Sanabriensean and Estrelensean orotemperate subhumid to ultrahyperhumid, dwarfed shrub and heaths of wind-swept places without long snow cover, sunny expositions or xeric biotopes (Juniperion nanae)]. Eurosiberian.
Characteristic species: Corallorhiza trifida, Lonicera caerulea, Moneses uniflora, Orthilia secunda, Pyrola chlorantha, Rosa pendulina.

77a. Piceetalia abietis Pawłowski in Pawłowski, Sokołowski & Wallisch 1928
Characteristic species: Homogyne alpina subsp. alpina, Listera cordata, Lycopodium annotinum, Melampyrum pratense subsp. alpestre, Monotropa hypopitys subsp. hypopitys, Pyrola minor.

77.1. Seslerio caeruleae-Pinion uncinatae Vigo 1974
(Seslerio caeruleae-Pinenion uncinatae Vigo (1974) 1979 (77.1a). Rhododendro ferruginei-Pinenion uncinatae Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991 (77.1b))
Characteristic species: Epipactis atrorubens (77.1a), Pinus uncinata, Sorbus chamaemespilus.

77b. Vaccinio microphylli-Juniperetalia nanae Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1998
Characteristic species: Huperzia selago, Hypericum richeri subsp. burseri, Juniperus communis subsp. nana, Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. microphyllum.

77.2. Rhododendro-Vaccinion Br.-Bl. ex G. & J. Br.-Bl. 1931
Characteristic species: Astrantia minor, Gentiana burseri, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga geranioides, Sorbus sudetica.

77.3. Juniperion nanae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Sissingh & Vlieger 1939
Characteristic species: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. uva-ursi, Cotoneaster integerrimus var. pyrenaicus, Genista sanabrensis, Thymelaea calycina.

IXc. Canarian and Madeiran potential and natural vegetation

78. Chamaecytiso-Pinetea canariensis Rivas Goday & Esteve ex Esteve 1969 nom. mut. propos.

[Cytiso-Pinetea canariensis]
Canarian Pinus canariensis climactical meso-macroforests and mantle of pine forest meso-supramediterranean dry and lower subhumid, but in upper timberline zone in oromediterranean dry and semiarid bioclimatic belt it is a dense climactical shrubby of brooms dominated by Spartocytisus supranubius or Adenocarpus viscosus (Chamaecytiso-Pinetalia canariensis). Pinus canariensis formations in infra-thermomediterranean subhumid represent pioneer communities on lava fields, in thermomediterranean semiarid territories they can grow with Olea cerasiformis and Juniperus canariensis communities, and as planted, protected by men or selected by fires, the canarian pine grows vigorously in the "monte verde" (Pruno-Lauretea) natural potential territory; this non natural type of pine forest can be easily recognized because of the dense Myrico-Ericion communities in the understory. [Climactical pine forests (Cisto-Pinion canariensis), upper timberline climactical shrubby communities, as well as the mantle of pine forest and also the pioneer related communities in oromediterranean dry and semiarid (Spartocytision supranubii)]. Canarian.
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus viscosus subsp. viscosus, Adenocarpus viscosus subsp. spartioides, Andryala pinnatifida subsp. teydensis, Bufonia paniculata, Carlina xeranthemoides, Descurainia gonzalezii, Erysimum scoparium, Juniperus cedrus subsp. cedrus, Micromeria lachnophylla, Nepeta teydea, Pimpinella cumbrae, Pinus canariensis, Plantago webbii, Polycarpaea tenuis, Pterocephalus lasiospermus, Scrophularia glabrata, Tolpis webbii.

78a. Chamaecytiso-Pinetalia canariensis Rivas Goday & Esteve ex Esteve 1969 nom. mut. propos.
[Cytiso-Pinetalia canariensis]
Characteristic species: See alliance (78.1).

78.1. Cisto-Pinion canariensis Rivas Goday & Esteve ex Esteve 1969
Characteristic species: Argyranthemum adauctum subsp. dugourii, Bystropogon origanifolius var. canariae, Bystropogon origanifolius var. ferrensis, Bystropogon origanifolius var. origanifolius, Bystropogon origanifolius var. palmensis, Chamaecytisus proliferus subsp. angustifolius, Chamaecytisus proliferus subsp. meridionalis, Chamaecytisus proliferus var. calderae, Cistus osbaeckiaefolius, Cistus symphytifolius var. leucophyllus, Cistus symphytifolius var. symphytifolius, Descurainia lemsii, Lotus campylocladus, Lotus hillebrandii, Lotus holosericeus, Lotus spartioides, Micromeria benthamii, Micromeria lanata, Micromeria pineolens, Micromeria varia subsp. meridionalis, Sideritis oroteneriffae, Sideritis soluta, Teline stenopetala subsp. spachiana, Tinguarra montana.

78.2. Spartocytision supranubii Oberdorfer ex Esteve 1973 nom. mut. propos.
[Spartocytision nubigeni]
Characteristic species: Argyranthemum teneriffae, Arrhenatherum calderae, Bencomia exstipulata, Cheirolophus teydis, Descurainia bourgeauana, Descurainia gilva, Echium auberianum, Echium wildpretii, Erigeron cabrerae, Genista benehoavensis, Helianthemum juliae, Sideritis eriocephala, Spartocytisus supranubius, Stemmacantha cynaroides, Viola cheiranthifolia, Viola palmensis.

79. Kleinio-Euphorbietea canariensis (Rivas Goday & Esteve 1965) Santos 1976

Canarian succulent Euphorbia and scrub climactical desertic mediterranean and related edaphoxerophilous permanent xeric mediterranean communities, infra and lower thermomediterranean arid and lower semiarid, growing on lava fields and leptosols with andic properties (Kleinio-Euphorbietalia canariensis: Aeonio-Euphorbion canariensis). Canarian.
Characteristic species: Allagopappus dichotomus, Argyranthemum coronopifolium, Argyranthemum gracile, Argyranthemum sundingii, Asparagus arborescens, Asparagus nesiotes, Asparagus pastorianus, Asteriscus intermedius, Atalanthus capillaris, Atalanthus microcarpus, Atalanthus pinnatus, Bystropogon odoratissimus, Campylanthus salsoloides, Caralluma burchardii, Ceropegia dichotoma, Ceropegia fusca, Convolvulus floridus, Echium brevirame, Euphorbia aphylla, Euphorbia balsamifera, Euphorbia berthelotii, Euphorbia canariensis, Euphorbia handiensis, Euphorbia lamarckii, Euphorbia regis-jubae, Helianthemum canariense, Kickxia sagitata, Kickxia scoparia, Kleinia nerifolia, Micromeria hyssopifolia var. kuegleri, Micromeria teneriffae var. cordifolia, Neochamaelea pulverulenta, Pancratium canariense, Parolinia intermedia, Parolinia ornata, Periploca laevigata, Plocama pendula, Reichardia famarae, Reichardia ligulata var. ligulata, Reseda scoparia, Rubia fruticosa subsp. melanocarpa, Rutheopsis herbanica, Scilla haemorrhoidalis, Seseli webbii, Sideritis dendrochahorra.

79a. Kleinio-Euphorbietalia canariensis (Rivas Goday & Esteve 1965) Santos 1976
Characteristic species: See class (79).

79.1. Aeonio-Euphorbion canariensis Sunding 1972
Characteristic species: See class (79).

80. Rhamno crenulatae-Oleetea cerasiformis Santos ex Rivas-Martínez 1987 nom. inv. propos.

[Oleo cerasiformis-Rhamnetea crenulatae]
Canarian and Madeiran microphyllous and sclerophyllous Olea and Juniper microforests (occasionally also succulent Euphorbia, broomy Retama, clump of palms (Phoenix canariensis) or dense secondary shrubby or mantle forest of Hypericum canariense) and seral open dwarf-scrub of Cistus or Micromeria communities infra to mesomediterranean semiarid and dry. Climactical microforests, permanent and related communities (Rhamno-Oleetalia cerasiformis) [Canarian (Mayteno canariensis-Juniperion canariensis), Madeiran infra-thermomediterranean (Mayteno umbellatae-Oleion maderensis)]; seral and pioneer in lithosols dwarf-scrub communities (Micromerio hyssopifoliae-Cistetalia monspeliensis) [Canarian infra to mesomediterranean, also in lithosols as substitution of Pinus canariensis and "monte verde" dry communities (Micromerio hyssopifoliae-Cistion monspeliensis), Madeiran infra-thermomediterranean, mostly in lithosols as permanent vegetation or mantle of Maytenus and Olea maderensis climactical communities (Soncho ustulati-Artemision argenteae)]. Canarian and Madeiran.
Characteristic species: Convolvulus scoparius, Dracaena draco subsp. draco, Echium aculeatum, Justicia hyssopifolia, Rubia fruticosa subsp. fruticosa.

80a. Rhamno crenulatae-Oleetalia cerasiformis Santos 1983 nom. inv. propos.
[Oleo cerasiformis-Rhamnetalia crenulatae]
Characteristic species: Asparagus scoparius, Bupleurum salicifolium subsp. salicifolium, Erysimum bicolor, Globularia salicina, Hypericum canariense var. floribundum, Jasminum odoratissimum, Juniperus turbinata subsp. canariensis, Tamus edulis, Teucrium heterophyllum.

80.1. Mayteno canariensis-Juniperion canariensis Santos & F. Galván ex Santos 1983 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Anagyris latifolia, Androcymbium hierrense, Argyranthemum callichryson, Argyranthemum escarrei, Asparagus plocamoides, Asparagus umbellatus subsp. umbellatus, Brachypodium arbuscula, Bupleurum handiense, Bupleurum salicifolium subsp. aciphyllum, Bystropogon plumosus, Convolvulus lopezsocasi, Dorycnium eriophthalmum, Echium decaisnei subsp. purpuriense, Echium giganteum, Echium strictum, Euphorbia atropurpurea, Marcetella moquiniana, Maytenus canariensis, Olea cerasiformis, Phoenix canariensis, Retama rhodorhizoides, Rhamnus crenulata, Ruta pinnata, Sideritis brevicaulis, Sideritis pumila, Spartocytisus filipes, Teline osyrioides subsp. osyrioides, Teline osyrioides subsp. sericea, Vicia cirrhosa.

80.2. Mayteno umbellatae-Oleion maderensis Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000 nom. inv. propos.
[Oleo maderensis-Maytenion umbellatae]
Characteristic species: Asparagus umbellatus subsp. lowei, Chamaemeles coriacea, Convolvulus massonii, Crambe fruticosa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia piscatoria, Genista tenera, Helichrysum melaleucum, Jasminum azoricum, Maytenus umbellata, Olea maderensis, Plantago maderensis, Sonchus pinnatus, Sonchus ustulatus subsp. maderensis.

80b. Micromerio hyssopifoliae-Cistetalia monspeliensis Pérez de Paz, Del Arco & Wildpret 1990 nom. inv. propos.
[Cisto monspeliensis-Micromerietalia hyssopifoliae]
Characteristic species: Carlina salicifolia.

80.3. Micromerio hyssopifoliae-Cistion monspeliensis Pérez de Paz, Del Arco & Wildpret 1990 nom. inv. propos.
[Cisto monspeliensis-Micromerion hyssopifoliae]
Characteristic species: Echium decaisnei subsp. decaisnei, Micromeria herpyllomorpha, Micromeria hyssopifolia subsp. hyssopifolia, Micromeria varia subsp. rupestris, Micromeria varia subsp. varia.

80.4. Soncho ustulati-Artemision argenteae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Artemisia argentea, Cheirolophus massonianus, Erysimum maderense, Helichrysum monizii, Micromeria thymoides subsp. thymoides, Phagnalon bennetii, Sonchus ustulatus subsp. ustulatus.

81. Polycarpaeo niveae-Traganetea moquini Santos ex Rivas-Martínez & Wildpret classis nova

Canarian and West Oceanic Sahara hyperoceanic and euoceanic inframediterranean arid, shrubby and dwarf-scrub desertic sand dune communities, growing on deep sandy regosols (Zygophyllo fontanesii-Polycarpaetalia niveae) [tall and dwarf scrub permanent communities in coastal and inland sand dunes (Traganion moquini), dwarf-scrub and perennial-grass unstable communities on littoral mobile sand dunes (Polycarpaeo niveae-Euphorbion paraliae)]. Canarian and West Oceanic Sahara.
Characteristic species: Polycarpaea nivea, Zygophyllum fontanesii.

81a. Zygophyllo fontanesii-Polycarpaetalia niveae Santos ex Géhu, Biondi, Géhu-Franck, Hendoux & Mossa 1996
Characteristic species: See class (81).

81.1. Traganion moquini Sunding 1972
Characteristic species: Androcymbium psamophilum, Lotus lancerottensis, Pulicaria burchardii, Traganum moquini, Zygophyllum gaetulum.

81.2. Polycarpaeo niveae-Euphorbion paraliae Rivas-Martínez & Wildpret all. nova
Characteristic species: Polygonum balansae var. tectifolium, Senecio leucanthemifolius var. falcifolius.

82. Pruno hixae-Lauretea novocanariensis Oberdorfer 1965 corr. hoc loco

[Pruno lusitanicae-Lauretea azoricae]
Canarian and Madeiran evergreen broad-leaved mesoforests ("laurisilva", "monte verde") and their seral thicket and mantle communities, included the neighbouring hygrophilous or riparian willow and bramble related communities. Hyperoceanic infra to supramediterranean and meso-supratemperate dry to ultrahyperhumid, natural potential vegetation (Pruno hixae-Lauretalia novocanariensis) [Canarian thermo-mesomediterranean upper subhumid-humid mesoforests (Ixantho viscosae-Laurion novocanariensis), Canarian and Madeiran infra-mesomediterranean dry to subhumid micro-mesoforests (Visneo mocanerae-Apollonion barbujanae), Madeiran thermo-mesotemperate submediterranean humid to hyperhumid mesoforests (Sibthorpio peregrinae-Clethrion arboreae), Madeiran supratemperate upper hyperhumid to ultra hyperhumid microforests (Polysticho falcinelli-Ericion arboreae)]; thicket and mantle seral vegetation (Andryalo-Ericetalia) [Canarian and Madeiran infra to mesomediterranean dense shrubby communities seral or mantle of Pruno-Lauretalia primary forest dominated by Erica arborea (subsp. canariensis), Ilex canariensis or Myrica faya (Myrico fayae-Ericion arboreae), Canarian thermo-mesomediterranean broom mantle dominated by species of Adenocarpus, Chamaecytisus and Teline (Telino canariensis-Adenocarpion foliolosi), Madeiran meso-supratemperate substitution scrubby or permanent rupicolous Erica maderensis communities (Bystropogono punctati-Telinion maderensis)]; hygrophilous or riparian willows and brambles Canarian and Madeiran communities (Rubo bollei-Salicetalia canariensis) [riparian willow deciduous willow microforests (Salicion canariensis), dense brambles and lianas humid mantle (Rubio periclymeni-Rubion ulmifolii)]. Canarian and Madeiran.
Characteristic species: Bencomia caudata, Carex canariensis, Cedronella canariensis, Erica arborea subsp. canariensis, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum grandifolium, Ilex canariensis, Myrica faya, Phyllis nobla, Rhamnus glandulosa, Smilax canariensis.

82a. Andryalo-Ericetalia Oberdorfer 1965
Characteristic species: Andryala pinnatifida subsp. pinnatifida.

82.1. Myrico fayae-Ericion arboreae Oberdorfer 1965
Characteristic species: Bystropogon canariensis, Canarina canariensis, Convolvulus canariensis, Cryptotaenia elegans, Dracunculus canariensis, Gesnouinia arborea, Myrica rivasmartinezii, Rubia fruticosa subsp. periclymenum, Sideritis canariensis, Sideritis macrostachya.

82.2. Telino canariensis-Adenocarpion foliolosi Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus foliolosus, Chamaecytisus proliferus subsp. proliferus, Chamaecytisus proliferus var. canariae, Chamaecytisus proliferus var. palmensis, Cistus chinamadensis, Teline canariensis, Teline pallida, Teline rosmarinifolia subsp. eurifolia, Teline splendens, Teline stenopetala subsp. microphylla, Teline stenopetala subsp. stenopetala.

82.3. Bystropogono punctati-Telinion maderensis Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Argyranthemum pinnatifidum subsp. montanum, Argyranthemum pinnatifidum subsp. pinnatifidum, Bunium brevifolium, Bystropogon punctatus, Erica maderensis, Juniperus cedrus subsp. maderensis, Plantago malato-belizii, Sideritis candicans, Teline maderensis.

82b. Pruno hixae-Lauretalia novocanariensis Oberdorfer ex Rivas-Martínez, Arnaiz, Barreno & A. Crespo 1977 corr. hoc loco
[Pruno-Lauretalia azoricae]
Characteristic species: Euphorbia longifolia, Euphorbia mellifera, Heberdenia excelsa, Hedera canariensis, Laurus novocanariensis, Ocotea foetens, Persea indica, Prunus hixa.

82.4. Ixantho viscosae-Laurion novocanariensis Oberdorfer ex Santos in Rivas-Martínez, Arnaiz, Barreno & A. Crespo 1977 corr. hoc loco
[Ixantho-Laurion azoricae]
Characteristic species: Carex perrauderiana, Dryopteris oligodonta, Erica platycodon subsp. platycodon, Ilex platyphylla, Isoplexis canariensis, Ixanthus viscosus, Luzula canariensis, Pleiomeris canariensis, Sambucus palmensis.

82.5. Visneo mocanerae-Apollonion barbujanae Rivas-Martínez in Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Apollonias barbujana, Arbutus canariensis, Ilex lopezlilloi, Picconia excelsa, Semele androgyna, Sideroxylon marmulano, Viburnum rigidum, Visnea mocanera.

82.6. Sibthorpio peregrinae-Clethrion arboreae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Aracniodes webbianum, Berberis maderensis, Carex lowei, Cirsium latifolium, Clethra arborea, Dryopteris aitoniana, Dryopteris maderensis, Erica platycodon subsp. maderenicola, Festuca donax, Goodyera macrophylla, Hedera maderensis subsp. maderensis, Ilex perado, Isoplexis sceptrum, Luzula seubertii, Melanoselinum decipiens, Musschia wollastonii, Pittosporum coriaceum, Polystichum drepanum, Rosa mandonii, Rubus grandifolius, Ruscus streptophyllus, Sambucus lanceolata, Sibthorpia peregrina, Sonchus fruticosus, Sorbus maderensis.

82.7. Polysticho falcinelli-Ericion arboreae Rivas-Martínez, Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim & Sequeira all. nova
Characteristic species: Polystichum falcinellum, Polystichum xmaderense, Vaccinium padifolium.

82c. Rubo bollei-Salicetalia canariensis Rivas-Martínez in Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Ageratina riparia, Urtica morifolia.

82.8. Rubio periclymeni-Rubion ulmifolii (Oberdorfer 1965) Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Rubus bollei.

82.9Salicion canariensis Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Salix canariensis, Scrophularia hirta.