Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxonomical system: Heathland, dwarf scrub and scrub vegetation

VIIIa. Heathland and dwarf scrub vegetation

61. Calluno-Ulicetea Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Klika & Hadač 1944

Heathland and moorland ("brezales", "tojares", "brezal-jarales") dwarf scrub seral communities by firing, grazing or wood-cutting, of acidophilous deciduous or sclerophyllous natural potential meso-macroforests, spread in Atlantic Subatlantic Cévennean-Pyrenean and Western Mediterranean poor soils, in thermo to supratemperate and thermo to supramediterranean subhumid to hyperhumid oceanic and hyperoceanic bioclimates on eroded dystric cambisols or ferric podzols with very acid raw humus and occasionally gleyic or stagnic properties (Ulicetalia minoris) [Subatlantic Eastern Pyrenean and Auvergnean supratemperate (Genisto-Vaccinion), Central and West Iberian Peninsula subhumid to hyperhumid temperate and mediterranean (Ericion umbellatae: Ericenion aragonensis = supratemperate and submediterranean Carpetan-Leonese, Oroiberian and Toledan Mountains, Ericenion umbellatae = thermo-mesomediterranean and submediterranean subhumid to hyperhumid euoceanic and semi-hyperoceanic Sado-Divisorian Lusitan-Extremadurean Minhean and Dourian Littoral), Gaditan-Algarvian and Tingitanian thermo-mesomediterranean subhumid to hyperhumid (Stauracanthion boivinii), Cantabrian-Atlantic Orocantabric South Britannic thermo to supratemperate, exceptionally lower orotemperate, euoceanic and hyperoceanic (Daboecion cantabricae), very exposed coastal cliffs splashed by strong sea wind with attenuate saline spray thermo-mesotemperate Cantabrian-Atlantic and locally Dividing Portuguese (Dactylido maritimae-Ulicion maritimi), Azorean pioneer and lithosols thermo-supratemperate and submediterranean hyperoceanic and humid-hyperhumid (Daboecion azoricae), Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian Tingitanian Mediterranean Central and West Iberian and Cantabrian-Atlantic thermo to supra mediterranean and temperate hydromorphic heathlands with gleyic or stagnic properties (Genistion micrantho-anglicae). Atlantic Subatlantic Cévennean-Pyrenean Western Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Agrostis curtisii, Allium ericetorum, Avenula lodunensis subsp. lodunensis, Calluna vulgaris f. vulgaris, Erica cinerea, Erica scoparia, Erica vagans, Genista pilosa, Halimium alyssoides, Halimium umbellatum, Lithodora prostrata, Scorzonera humilis, Simethis mattiazzi, Tuberaria lignosa, Ulex latebracteatus, Ulex minor, Viola lactea.

61a. Ulicetalia minoris Quantin 1935
Characteristic species: See class (61).

61.1. Genisto-Vaccinion Br.-Bl. 1926
[Ulicion minoris]
Characteristic species: Cytisus lotoides.

61.2. Ericion umbellatae Br.-Bl., P. Silva, Rozeira & Fontes 1952
(Ericenion aragonensis Rivas-Martínez 1979 (61.2a). Ericenion umbellatae Rivas-Martínez 1979 (61.2b))
Characteristic species: Cistus psilosepalus, Erica australis subsp. aragonensis (61.2a), Erica australis subsp. australis, Erica umbellata, Genista triacanthos, Halimium ocymoides, Lavandula viridis, Luzula lactea (61.2a), Polygala microphylla, Pterospartum lasianthum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Serratula monardii var. abulensis (61.2b), Stauracanthus spectabilis subsp. vicentinus (61.2b), Thymelaea broteriana, Thymelaea procumbens, Thymelaea subrepens (61.2a), Thymelaea villosa (61.2b), Thymus lusitanicus (61.2b), Thymus villosus (61.2b), Tuberaria globulariifolia, Ulex jussiaei subsp. jussiaei (61.2b), Ulex micranthus (61.2b), Ulex parviflorus subsp. airensis (61.2b).

61.3. Dactylido maritimae-Ulicion maritimi Géhu 1975
Characteristic species: Ulex europaeus f. maritimus, Ulex gallii f. humilis, Ulex jussiaei subsp. congestus, Ulex latebracteatus f. humilis.

61.4. Daboecion cantabricae (Dupont ex Rivas-Martínez 1979) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Alchemilla angustiserrata, Carex asturica, Centaurium scilloides, Cirsium filipendulum, Daboecia cantabrica, Erica ciliaris, Erica mackaiana, Festuca ovina subsp. hirtula, Festuca paniculata subsp. longiglumis, Laserpitium prutenicum subsp. doufourianum, Leucanthemum gallaecicum, Pseudarrhenatherum longifolium, Pterospartum cantabricum, Serratula tinctoria var. seoanei, Thymelaea coridifolia, Ulex gallii subsp. breoganii, Ulex gallii subsp. gallii.

61.5. Stauracanthion boivinii (Rivas-Martínez 1979) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Asphodelus roseus, Avenula lodunensis subsp. albinervis, Centaurea crocata, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Echinospartum ibericum subsp. aljibicum, Genista tridens, Halimium lasianthum, Pedicularis sylvatica subsp. lusitanica, Satureja salzmannii, Stauracanthus boivinii, Tuberaria major.

61.6. Daboecion azoricae Lüpnitz 1975
Characteristic species: Daboecia azorica.

61.7. Genistion micrantho-anglicae Rivas-Martínez 1979
Characteristic species: Cheirolophus uliginosus, Erica lusitanica, Euphorbia polygalifolia, Euphorbia uliginosa, Festuca querana, Genista anglica subsp. ancistrocarpa, Genista anglica subsp. anglica, Genista berberidea, Genista carpetana, Genista micrantha, Leuzea longifolia, Potentilla erecta var. herminii, Thymelaea dendrobryum.

62. Cisto-Lavanduletea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Molinier & Wagner 1940

Thermo to supramediterranean dry and semiarid scarcely subhumid silicicolous or calcifugous Western Mediterranean secondary scrub communities, chiefly organized by Cistaceae and Labiatae, producers of a mor with very acid and aromatic compounds ("jarales", "tomillares", "cantuesales") result of the destruction of the natural potential sclerophyllous micro-mesoforest vegetation by fires or wood cutting and subsequent erosion of the upper layer of the soils. Deep sandy paleodune soils mostly in Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian (Stauracantho genistoidis-Halimietalia commutati: Coremation albi); thermo-mesomediterranean on salic and mafic bed rock materials in autochthonous or allochthonous soils (Lavanduletalia stoechadis) [Balearic-Catalan-Provençal and Murcian-Almeriensian (Cistion ladaniferi), thermo-mesomediterranean mostly euoceanic Mediterranean West Iberian and Betic (Ulici-Cistion ladaniferi), upper meso-supramediterranean mostly semicontinental Mediterranean West Iberian and Mediterranean Central Iberian (Cistion laurifolii), Betic ultramafic (Staehelino-Ulicion baetici)]. Western Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Armeria colorata, Calluna vulgaris f. elegantissima, Cistus salviifolius, Cytinus hypocistis subsp. macracanthus, Halimium viscosum, Orchis mascula subsp. olbiensis, Orchis morio subsp. champagneuxii, Orchis morio subsp. picta.

62a. Lavanduletalia stoechadis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Molinier & Wagner 1940
Characteristic species: Cistus crispus, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus monspeliensis, Cistus populifolius, Cytinus hypocistis subsp. hypocistis, Narcissus triandrus subsp. pallidulus.

62.1. Cistion ladaniferi Br.-Bl. ex A. & O. Bolòs 1950
Characteristic species: Centaurea paniculata subsp. hanrii, Dianthus multiceps subsp. multiaffinis, Hypericum australe, Lavandula stoechas.

62.2. Cistion laurifolii Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Monasterio, Galiano & Rivas-Martínez 1956
Characteristic species: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. crassifolia, Aster aragonensis, Cistus laurifolius, Lavandula pedunculata, Lotus corniculatus subsp. carpetanus, Thymus leptophyllus subsp. leptophyllus.

62.3. Ulici argentei-Cistion ladaniferi Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira 1965
Characteristic species: Astragalus lusitanicus, Centaurea sagredoi, Centaurea tartesiana, Genista hirsuta subsp. hirsuta, Genista umbellata subsp. equisetiformis, Lavandula sampaioana subsp. sampaioana, Lithodora lusitanica, Sideritis lacaitae, Sideritis marianica, Sideritis paulii, Thymelaea lythroides, Ulex argenteus, Ulex borgiae, Ulex eriocladus.

62.4. Staehelino-Ulicion baetici Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1969
Characteristic species: Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum, Armeria carratracensis, Centaurea carratracensis, Genista lanuginosa, Halimium atriplicifolium subsp. serpentinicola, Scorzonera baetica, Serratula baetica subsp. baetica, Staehelina baetica, Ulex baeticus subsp. baeticus.

62b. Stauracantho genistoidis-Halimietalia commutati Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990
Characteristic species: See alliance (62.5).

62.5. Coremation albi Rothmaler 1943
Characteristic species: Armeria macrophylla, Armeria pinifolia, Armeria velutina, Avenula hackelii subsp. hackelii, Cistus libanotis, Dianthus broteri subsp. hinoxianus, Halimium calycinum, Halimium halimifolium, Halimium verticillatum, Lavandula sampaioana subsp. lusitanica, Serratula baetica subsp. lusitanica var. sampaiana, Serratula monardii var. algarviensis, Serratula monardii var. monardii, Sideritis perezlarae, Stauracanthus genistoides, Stauracanthus spectabilis subsp. spectabilis, Thymus albicans subsp. albicans, Thymus albicans subsp. donyanae, Thymus camphoratus, Thymus capitellatus, Ulex australis subsp. australis, Ulex australis subsp. welwitschianus, Ulex subsericeus.

63. Cisto-Micromerietea Oberdorfer 1954

European class not found in the territory.

64. Rosmarinetea officinalis Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas classis nova

Rich and diversified dwarf scrub secondary communities as result of destruction of shrubland or forest natural potential vegetation by fires or agricultural uses and subsequent erosion of the upper layer of the soil and often with a stony debris cover, in thermo to oromediterranean arid to subhumid calcicolous, gypseous or dolomiticolous mother rocks in Western Mediterranean. Thermo to supramediterranean upper semiarid to subhumid Western Mediterranean mostly on calcareous and marly eroded soils (Rosmarinetalia officinalis) [Balearic-Catalan-Provençal euoceanic (Rosmarino-Ericion: Rosmarino-Ericenion = Balearic-Valencian-Tarraconensian and Catalan-Valencian, Teucrio-Thymenion piperellae = Setabensean subhumid, Halimienion halimifolii = coastal calcareous sandy soils), calcicolous thermo-lower mesomediterranean dry to subhumid oceanic and hyperoceanic Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and Western Lusitan-Extremadurean (Saturejo-Thymbrion capitatae: Eryngio-Ulicenion erinacei = hyperoceanic coastal Western Algarvian, Saturejo-Thymbrenion capitatae = Aljibic, Rondean and Aracenian-Pacenian, Serratulo-Thymenion sylvestris = Dividing Portuguese and Arrabidean), thermo-supramediterranean dolomiticolous Balearic (Hypericion balearici), meso-supramediterranean dry and subhumid calcicolous Betic (Lavandulo-Echinospartion boissieri), meso-supramediterranean calcicolous mostly semicontinental Mediterranean Central Iberian (Sideritido-Salvion lavandulifoliae: Xero-Aphyllanthenion = upper meso and supramediterranean dry and subhumid Castilian, Saturejo-Erinaceenion = supramediterranean Oroiberian, Sideritido ilicifoliae-Thymenion loscosii = mesomediterranean semiarid and dry Low Aragonese), calcicole and dolomitic lithosols Setabensean spread up to Murcian-Almeriensian and Valencian and Castellonian (Hypericion ericoidis), meso-supramediterranean and submediterranean upper dry and subhumid Catalan-Valencian and Eastern Pyrenean (Helianthemo italici-Aphyllanthion)]; gypsisols on Triassic or Tertiary Era rocks of Mediterranean Central Iberian Province, Murcian-Almeriensian Province and rare in Betic Province (Gypsophiletalia, Lepidion subulati: Lepidienion subulati = dry meso-supramediterranean Castilian but only local in Betic, Gypsophilo-Santolinenion viscosae = semiarid thermomediterranean Almeriensian, Gypsophilenion hispanicae = semiarid and dry supra and mesomediterranean Low Aragonese, Thymo-Teucrienion libanitidis = semiarid thermo-mesomediterranean Alicantine-Murcian); upper supra and oromediterranean dry and subhumid calcicole chamaephytic cushion-shaped Betic and Atlas Mountains spread up to Setabensean summits (Erinaceetalia: Xeroacantho-Erinaceion); thermo-mesomediterranean semiarid and arid on hard compact calcareous or clayey with stony debris and vertic marls occasionally with heavy metals Murcian-Almeriensian and Moulouyian Mauritanian (Anthyllidetalia terniflorae) [thermomediterranean Murcian-Almeriensian calcareous, clayey eroded soils often with a stony debris soils cover or littoral and fossil dunes (Thymo-Sideritidion leucanthae: Thymo-Sideritidenion leucanthae = Alicantine-Murcian, Helianthemo almeriensis-Sideritidenion pusillae = Almeriensian), thermomediterranean Almeriensian vertic marls with competitive heavy metals against calcium (Anthyllido-Salsolion papillosae), mesomediterranean semiarid Murcian-Manchean (Sideritidion bourgaeanae)]; thermo to oromediterranean dry to subhumid dolomiticolous Betic (Convolvuletalia boissieri) [supra-oromediterranean microphyllous dwarf chamaephyte (Andryalion agardhii), thermo to lower supramediterranean chamaephyte (Lavandulion lanatae)]. Western Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Anthyllis cytisoides, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. gandogeri, Aphyllanthes monspeliensis, Argyrolobium zanonii, Asperula cynanchica subsp. brachysiphon, Astragalus chlorocyaneus, Astragalus granatensis, Atractylis humilis, Bupleurum fruticescens, Cheirolophus intybaceus, Cistus albidus, Convolvulus lanuginosus subsp. lanuginosus, Coris monspeliensis, Coronilla minima subsp. lotoides, Digitalis obscura subsp. obscura, Dorycnium pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum, Fumana ericoides subsp. ericoides, Fumana hispidula, Fumana thymifolia, Globularia alypum, Helianthemum syriacum, Helianthemum violaceum, Hippocrepis squamata, Ononis tridentata subsp. angustifolia, Picris hispanica, Rosmarinus officinalis, Sideritis incana var. incana, Staehelina dubia, Thesium humifusum subsp. divaricatum, Thymelaea hirsuta, Thymus vulgaris subsp. vulgaris.

64a. Rosmarinetalia officinalis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934
Characteristic species: Aristolochia pistolochia, Astragalus alopecuroides subsp. alopecuroides, Astragalus glaux, Catananche caerulea, Centaurea pinae, Cephalaria leucantha, Cistus clusii, Cytinus ruber, Cytisus fontanesii subsp. fontanesii, Dianthus hispanicus subsp. hispanicus, Elaeoselinum hispanicum, Euphorbia flavicoma subsp. flavicoma, Euphorbia isatidifolia, Euphorbia nicaeensis var. hispanica, Euphorbia nicaeensis var. nicaeensis, Fritillaria nigra subsp. boissieri, Fumana ericoides subsp. montana, Fumana laevipes, Fumana laevis, Genista cinerea subsp. ausetana, Genista hispanica subsp. hispanica, Genista scorpius, Genista umbellata subsp. umbellata, Globularia vulgaris, Halimium atriplicifolium subsp. atriplicifolium, Hedysarum boveanum subsp. europaeum, Helianthemum apenninum subsp. apenninum, Helianthemum asperum, Helianthemum cinereum subsp. rotundifolium, Helianthemum croceum subsp. stoechadifolium, Helianthemum hirtum subsp. hirtum, Hippocrepis bourgaei, Iberis nazarita, Lavandula latifolia, Lithodora fruticosa, Ononis minutissima, Ononis pusilla, Onosma hispanica, Orobanche latisquama, Paronychia aretioides, Satureja barceloi, Satureja graeca var. latifolia, Satureja obovata subsp. obovata, Scorzonera hispanica subsp. crispatula, Serratula flavescens subsp. leucantha, Serratula pinnatifida, Sideritis fruticulosa, Teucrium bicoloreum, Teucrium capitatum subsp. capitatum, Thymelaea pubescens subsp. elliptica, Thymelaea tinctoria, Viola arborescens.

64.1. Rosmarino-Ericion multiflorae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Font Quer, G. Braun-Blanquet, Frey, Jansen & Moor 1935 nom. conserv. propos.
[Rosmarinion officinalis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934]
(Rosmarino-Ericenion multiflorae Stübing, Peris & Costa 1989 (64.1a). Teucrio latifolii-Thymenion piperellae Stübing, Peris & Costa 1989 (64.1b). Halimienion halimifolii Rivas-Martínez & Costa in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, P. Soriano, Pérez-Badia, Llorens & Roselló 1992 (64.1c))
Characteristic species: Anthyllis lagascana (64.1b), Anthyllis onobrychioides (64.1b), Arenaria aggregata subsp. pseudarmeriastrum (64.1b), Aristolochia bianorii (64.1a), Centaurea antennata (64.1a), Centaurea linifolia subsp. caballeroi, Centaurea rouyi var. rouyi (64.1b), Centaurea spachii, Cistus creticus, Cytinus hypocistis subsp. pityusensis, Dianthus hispanicus subsp. contestanus (64.1c), Dianthus multiceps subsp. multiceps, Dianthus hispanicus subsp. fontqueri (64.1b), Dianthus pungens subsp. pungens, Erica multiflora, Erica terminalis, Genista dorycnifolia, Genista hirsuta subsp. erioclada, Genista tricuspidata subsp. lucida, Guillonea scabra, Helianthemum caput-felis, Helianthemum croceum subsp. cavanillesianum, Helianthemum croceum subsp. molle, Helianthemum marifolium subsp. marifolium, Helianthemum origanifolium subsp. origanifolium, Hippocrepis fruticescens, Lavandula dentata, Linum suffruticosum subsp. suffruticosum, Lotus tetraphyllus (64.1a), Ononis fruticosa var. microphylla, Phlomis italica (64.1a), Polygala rupestris, Salvia blancoana subsp. mariolensis (64.1b), Satureja innota (64.1a), Satureja microphylla subsp. rodriguezii, Satureja montana subsp. innota, Satureja nervosa, Satureja obovata subsp. valentina (64.1b), Sideritis ilicifolia subsp. cardoana, Sideritis leucantha subsp. albicaulis, Sideritis tragoriganum subsp. tragoriganum, Teucrium aragonense subsp. integrifolium, Teucrium homotrichum (64.1b), Teucrium marum subsp. spinescens, Teucrium polium subsp. album (64.1a), Teucrium xcoeleste, Thymelaea argentata (64.1b), Thymelaea sanamunda, Thymelaea tartonraira subsp. valentina (64.1b), Thymelaea velutina (64.1c), Thymus piperella (64.1b), Thymus vulgaris subsp. aestivus, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria var. apodum.

64.2. Saturejo-Thymbrion capitatae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1969 nom. conserv. et mut. propos.
[Eryngio-Ulicion erinacei Rothmaler 1943]
(Eryngio-Ulicenion erinacei (Rothmaler 1943) Rivas-Martínez suball. nova (64.2a). Saturejo-Thymbrenion capitatae (Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1969) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 nom. mut. propos. (64.2b). Serratulo estremadurensis-Thymenion sylvestris Capelo, J.C. Costa, Espírito-Santo & Lousã 1993 (64.2c))
Characteristic species: Armeria platyphylla (64.2c), Avenula hackelii subsp. algarbiensis (64.2a), Cistus palhinhae (64.2a), Helianthemum hirtum subsp. bethuricum, Helianthemum origanifolium subsp. andalusicum, Hyacinthoides vicentina, Iberis microcarpa, Rosmarinus xmendizabali, Satureja graeca var. micrantha, Serratula baetica subsp. lusitanica var. lusitanica (64.2c), Serratula leucantha subsp. neglecta, Sideritis algarbiensis subsp. algarbiensis (64.2a), Sideritis algarbiensis subsp. lusitanica, Sideritis grandiflora, Sideritis reverchonii, Teucrium compactum subsp. rixanense, Teucrium eriocephalum subsp. eriocephalum, Thymbra capitata, Thymus longiflorus subsp. longiflorus, Thymus lotocephalus, Thymus sylvestris (64.2c), Ulex baeticus subsp. scaber, Ulex densus (64.2c).

64.3. Hypericion balearici O. Bolòs & R. Molinier 1958
Characteristic species: Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. balearica, Astragalus balearicus, Euphorbia maresii subsp. balearica, Genista valdes-bermejoi, Hypericum balearicum, Ononis crispa, Rosmarinus palaui, Teucrium marum subsp. subspinosum.

64.4. Lavandulo-Echinospartion boissieri Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1969 nom. mut. propos.
[Lavandulo-Genistion boissieri]
Characteristic species: Allium chrysonemum, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. arundana, Arenaria arcuatociliata, Astragalus bourgaeanus, Astragalus cavanillesii, Carduncellus hispanicus subsp. macrocephalus, Centaurea boissieri subsp. boissieri, Centaurea boissieri subsp. prostrata, Centaurea gadorensis, Centaurea monticola subsp. monticola, Cephalaria linearifolia, Dianthus anticarius subsp. subbaeticus, Echinospartum boissieri, Erysimum favargeri, Erysimum fitzii, Genista pseudopilosa, Helianthemum rossmaessleri subsp. rossmaessleri, Hippocrepis rupestris, Nepeta hispanica, Phlomis crinita subsp. composita, Phlomis xtrullenquei nothosubsp. almijarensis, Ptilostemon hispanicus, Ranunculus malessanus, Salvia blancoana subsp. blancoana, Salvia lavandulifolia subsp. vellerea, Salvia oxyodon, Salvia phlomoides subsp. boissieri, Salvia pseudovellerea, Scorzonera reverchonii, Sideritis flaviflora, Sideritis laxespicata, Teucrium leonis, Teucrium luteum subsp. contortostylum, Teucrium luteum subsp. similatum, Teucrium webbianum, Thymus clandestinus, Thymus funkii subsp. burilloi, Thymus membranaceus subsp. membranaceus, Thymus orospedanus, Thymus tenuifolius.

64.5. Sideritido incanae-Salvion lavandulifoliae (Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1969) Izco & A. Molina 1989
(Xero-Aphyllanthenion Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1969 (64.5a). Saturejo gracilis-Erinaceenion anthyllidis Izco & A. Molina 1989 (64.5b). Sideritido ilicifoliae-Thymenion loscosii Rivas-Martínez, Cantó, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata suball. nova (64.5c))
Characteristic species: Astragalus clusianus, Astragalus turolensis, Centaurea linifolia subsp. linifolia (64.5c), Centaurea toletana var. argecillensis (64.5a), Centaurea toletana var. cavanillesiana (64.5a), Dianthus algetanus subsp. algetanus, Euphorbia minuta subsp. minuta (64.5c), Genista pumila subsp. pumila (64.5a),Genista pumila subsp. rigidissima (64.5b), Genista xsegurae (64.5a), Hippocrepis commutata, Knautia subscaposa, Lavandula angustifolia subsp. turolensis (64.5b), Linum suffruticosum subsp. differens, Onobrychis matritensis (64.5a), Salvia lavandulifolia subsp. lavandulifolia, Salvia phlomoides subsp. phlomoides, Satureja intricata subsp. gracilis, Sideritis ilicifolia subsp. ilicifolia (64.5c), Sideritis pungens subsp. pungens, Sideritis spinulosa (64.5c), Sideritis tragoriganum subsp. funkiana (64.5a), Sideritis tragoriganum subsp. mugronensis (64.5a), Teucrium expansum (64.5b), Teucrium gnaphalodes subsp. ilerdense (64.5c), Thymelaea pubescens subsp. pubescens, Thymus loscosii (64.5c), Thymus xaragonensis (64.5c), Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (64.5c), Veronica tenuifolia subsp. tenuifolia.

64.6. Hypericion ericoidis Esteve ex Costa & Peris 1985
Characteristic species: Galium balearicum, Hypericum ericoides, Sideritis sericea, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria var. balearicum.

64.7. Helianthemo italici-Aphyllanthion monspeliensis Díez Garretas, Fernández-González & Asensi 1998
Characteristic species: Aster willkommii subsp. catalaunicus, Centaurea alba subsp. costae, Centaurea alba subsp. maluqueri, Centaurea emigrantis, Crocus nevadensis subsp. marcetii, Dianthus costae, Genista teretifolia, Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. italicum, Hippocrepis scorpioides, Knautia arvensis subsp. collina, Lavandula angustifolia subsp. pyrenaica, Leucanthemum favargeri, Leucanthemum pallens, Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. monserratianum, Linum campanulatum, Onosma tricerosperma subsp. fastigiata, Salvia lavandulifolia subsp. pyrenaeorum, Scabiosa macropoda, Scorzonera hirsuta, Teucrium aragonense subsp. aragonense, Thymus fontqueri.

64b. Erinaceetalia anthyllidis Quézel 1953
Characteristic species: Bupleurum spinosum, Erinacea anthyllis, Thymus gadorensis.

64.8. Xeroacantho-Erinaceion (Quézel 1953) O. Bolòs 1967
Characteristic species: Alyssum longicaule, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. microcephala, Arenaria alfacarensis, Arenaria murcica, Armeria lanceobracteata, Artemisia villosa subsp. villosa, Astragalus nevadensis, Astragalus sempervirens subsp. giennensis, Centaurea boissieri subsp. funkii, Centaurea jaennensis, Erodium foetidum subsp. valentinum, Erysimum mediohispanicum, Genista longipes subsp. gadorensis, Genista longipes subsp. longipes, Genista longipes subsp. viciosoi, Hippocrepis castroviejoi, Hippocrepis nevadensis, Leucanthemum arundanum, Satureja intricata subsp. intricata, Scabiosa andryalifolia, Sideritis carbonellis, Sideritis giennensis, Sideritis glacialis subsp. virens, Teucrium lerrouxii, Teucrium oxylepis subsp. oxylepis, Vella spinosa, Veronica tenuifolia subsp. fontqueri.

64c. Gypsophiletalia Bellot & Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Monasterio, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez 1957
Characteristic species: Herniaria fruticosa, Lepidium subulatum.

64.9. Lepidion subulati Bellot & Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Monasterio, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez 1957
(Lepidienion subulati Alcaraz, P. Sánchez, De la Torre, Ríos & J. Alvarez 1991 (64.9a). Gypsophilo-Santolinenion viscosae (Rivas Goday & Esteve 1968) Díez-Garretas, Fernández-González & Asensi 1998 (64.9b). Gypsophilenion hispanicae (Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958) A. Molina, Loidi & Fernández-González 1993 (64.9c). Thymo-Teucrienion libanitidis (Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Monasterio, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez 1957) Alcaraz, P. Sánchez, De la Torre, Ríos & J. Alvarez 1991 nom. mut. propos. (64.9d))
Characteristic species: Arenaria cavanillesiana (64.9a), Astragalus alopecuroides subsp. grosii, Boleum asperum (64.9c), Centaurea hyssopifolia (64.9a), Coris hispanica (64.9b), Euphorbia minuta subsp. moleroi (64.9c), Gypsophila hispanica (64.9c), Gypsophila struthium, Hedysarum boveanum subsp. palentinum, Helianthemum alypoides (64.9b), Helianthemum origanifolium subsp. conquense (64.9a), Helianthemum squamatum, Jurinea pinnata, Koeleria castellana (64.9a), Launaea fragilis subsp. fragilis, Launaea pumila, Ononis tridentata subsp. crassifolia, Ononis tridentata subsp. tridentata, Rosmarinus eriocalix (64.9b), Santolina viscosa (64.9b), Teucrium balthazaris (64.9b), Teucrium capitatum subsp. gypsicola (64.9a), Teucrium carolipaui subsp. fontqueri (64.9b), Teucrium lepicephalum (64.9d), Teucrium libanitis (64.9d), Teucrium pumilum subsp. pumilum, Teucrium turredanum (64.9b), Teucrium xestevei (64.9d), Teucrium xsagarrae (64.9d), Thymus lacaitae (64.9a), Vella pseudocytisus subsp. pseudocytisus (64.9a).

64d. Anthyllidetalia terniflorae Rivas Goday, Rigual, Esteve, Borja & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas Goday & Borja 1961
Characteristic species: Anthyllis terniflora, Anthyllis xmedia, Astragalus hispanicus, Centaurea intybacea, Cistus heterophyllus subsp. carthaginensis, Convolvulus lanuginosus subsp. sericeus, Coris monspeliensis subsp. rivasiana, Elaeoselinum tenuifolium, Helianthemum almeriense subsp. scopulorum, Helianthemum cinereum subsp. cinereum, Helianthemum viscarium subsp. hispidulum, Helichrysum decumbens, Hippocrepis scabra, Linum suffruticosum subsp. jimenezii, Onobrychis stenorhiza, Paronychia suffruticosa, Satureja obovata subsp. canescens, Serratula flavescens subsp. mucronata, Sideritis murgetana subsp. murgetana, Teucrium capitatum subsp. gracillimum, Teucrium murcicum subsp. murcicum, Thymus hyemalis.

64.11. Thymo moroderi-Sideritidion leucanthae O. Bolòs 1957 corr. Alcaraz, T.E. Díaz, Rivas-Martínez & P. Sánchez 1989
[Thymo longiflori-Sideritidion leucanthae]
(Thymo moroderi-Sideritidenion leucanthae Rivas-Martínez suball. nova (64.11a). Helianthemo almeriensis-Sideritidenion pusillae (Alcaraz, T.E. Díaz, Rivas-Martínez & P. Sánchez 1989) Rivas-Martínez suball. nova, stat. nov. (64.11b))
Characteristic species: Centaurea lagascae, Dianthus charidemi (64.11b), Fumana fontanesii, Helianthemum almeriense subsp. almeriense, Helianthemum guerrae, Helianthemum marminorensis, Sideritis chamaedryfolia subsp. chamaedryfolia, Sideritis chamaedryfolia subsp. littoralis, Sideritis ibanyezii, Sideritis leucantha subsp. leucantha (64.11a), Sideritis murgetana subsp. littoralis (64.11a), Sideritis osteoxyla (64.11b), Sideritis pusilla subsp. granatensis (64.11b), Sideritis pusilla subsp. pusilla, Teucrium carolipaui subsp. carolipaui (64.11a), Teucrium carthaginense, Teucrium cavanillesianum (64.11b), Teucrium charidemi (64.11b), Teucrium eriocephalum subsp. almeriense (64.11b), Teucrium murcicum subsp. hieronymi (64.11b), Teucrium xguemesii (64.11b), Teucrium xportusmagnii (64.11b), Thymus longiflorus subsp. ciliatus, Thymus membranaceus subsp. murcicus, Thymus xdiazii (64.11a), Vella lucentina (64.11a).

64.12. Anthyllido terniflorae-Salsolion papillosae Rivas Goday & Esteve 1968
Characteristic species: Anabasis articulata, Diplotaxis lagascana subsp. intricata, Euzomodendron bourgeanum, Herniaria fontanesii subsp. almeriana, Limonium album, Limonium carthaginense, Limonium estevei, Limonium tabernense, Moricandia foetida, Salsola papillosa, Sideritis pusilla subsp. alhamillensis, Teucrium lanigerum.

64.13Sideritidion bourgaeanae Peinado & Martínez-Parras in Peinado, Alcaraz & Martínez-Parras 1992
Characteristic species: Helianthemum rossmaessleri subsp. hieronymi, Sideritis bourgaeana, Sideritis leucantha subsp. incana, Sideritis murgetana subsp. pauciflora, Sideritis serrata, Teucrium franchetianum, Teucrium martinii, Thymus antoninae, Thymus funkii subsp. funkii, Thymus xparadoxus.

64e. Convolvuletalia boissieri Rivas-Martínez, Pérez-Raya & Molero ex Díez Garretas & Asensi 1994
Characteristic species: Anthyllis polycephala, Anthyllis ramburii, Anthyllis tejedensis subsp. tejedensis, Centaurea funkii, Centaurea granatensis, Convolvulus boissieri, Digitalis obscura subsp. laciniata, Erodium astragaloides, Festuca plicata, Fumana procumbens subsp. baetica, Fumana scoparia subsp. paradoxa, Helianthemum estevei subsp. suffruticosum, Helianthemum neopiliferum, Helianthemum pannosum, Helianthemum viscidulum subsp. raynaudii, Hippocrepis eriocarpa, Onobrychis argentea, Ononis cephalotes, Pterocephalus spathulatus, Thymus granatensis.

64.14. Andryalion agardhii Rivas-Martínez ex Rivas Goday & Mayor 1966
Characteristic species: Alyssum baeticum, Andryala agardhii, Anthyllis rupestris, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. argyrophylla, Arenaria caesia, Arenaria racemosa, Arenaria tomentosa, Armeria filicaulis subsp. trevenqueana, Armeria villosa subsp. longiaristata, Centaurea genesii-lopezii, Chamaespartium undulatum, Erodium boissieri, Erodium daucoides, Erysimum cazorlense, Festuca segimonensis, Globularia spinosa, Hedysarum costaetalentii, Helianthemum frigidulum, Jasione crispa subsp. segurensis, Leucanthemopsis spathulifolia, Lithodora nitida, Rothmaleria granatensis, Santolina elegans, Scabiosa pulsatilloides, Scorzonera albicans.

64.15. Lavandulion lanatae (Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz 1984) Rivas-Martínez, Molero & Pérez-Raya all. nova, stat. nov.
Characteristic species: Alyssum atlanticum, Anthyllis tejedensis subsp. plumosa, Arenaria delaguardiae, Erysimum rondae, Helianthemum estevei subsp. estevei, Helianthemum viscidulum subsp. viscidulum, Lavandula lanata, Sideritis arborescens, Sideritis incana var. occidentalis, Teucrium eriocephalum subsp. serranum, Teucrium reverchoni, Thymelaea angustifolia, Thymus baeticus, Thymus funkii subsp. sabulicola, Ulex parviflorus subsp. rivasgodayanus.

VIIIb. Seral and mantle shrublands

65. Cytisetea scopario-striati Rivas-Martínez 1975

Forest mantle seral or permanent edaphoxerophilous shrubby communities on poor or rich soils dominated by brooms - Leguminosae scrub nano and microphanerophyte with long flexible and slender green stems and branches - spread in Western Mediterranean, Atlantic and Subatlantic territories, on humic non eroded soils without gleyic or stagnic properties as climactical or mantle and secondary vegetation of sclerophyllous or deciduous climactic forests in thermo to supratemperate and thermo to supramediterranean semiarid to hyperhumid ("retamares", "piornales"). Silicicolous Atlantic, Subatlantic and Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula, except thermo-mesomediterranean subhumid and humid of Aljibic Andalusian and Vallesan-Empordanese Catalan territories (Cytisetalia scopario-striati) [Mediterranean Central and West Iberian in upper meso and supramediterranean subhumid to humid (Genistion floridae), thermo-mesomediterranean dry Iberian Peninsula (Retamion sphaerocarpae), thermomediterranean dry and subhumid sandy soils of Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian (Retamion monospermae), Orocantabric West Carpetan-Leonese Cantabrian-Basque and Oroiberian Sorian meso to supratemperate and submediterranean locally lower orotemperate oceanic subhumid to hyperhumid (Genistion polygaliphyllae), Cantabrian-Atlantic Carpetan-Leonese: Orensan Tras-os-Montanian, Estrelensean and Britannic thermo to supratemperate and submediterranean hyperoceanic semihyperoceanic and euoceanic (Ulici europaei-Cytision striati), supramediterranean subhumid Nevadensian (Adenocarpion decorticantis), Cévennean-Pyrenean - geovicarius of Subatlantic Sarothamnion scoparii Tüxen in Preising 1949 - meso-supratemperate humid (Cytision oromediterraneo-scoparii)]; Tirrenian, Maghrebian, Ajibic and Catalan-Valencian thermo-mesomediterranean subhumid-humid, mantle of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and Quercus canariensis forests (Cytiso villosi-Telinetalia monspessulanae: Telinion monspessulano-linifoliae).
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus complicatus, Adenocarpus telonensis, Cytisus scoparius subsp. reverchonii, Pteridium aquilinum var. aquilinum, Retama sphaerocarpa.

65a. Cytisetalia scopario-striati Rivas-Martínez 1975
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus anisochilus subsp. lainzii, Cytisus grandiflorus subsp. grandiflorus, Cytisus multiflorus, Cytisus oromediterraneus, Cytisus scoparius subsp. scoparius, Genista hystrix, Orobanche rapum-genistae.

65.1. Genistion floridae Rivas-Martínez 1974
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus argyrophyllus, Adenocarpus hispanicus subsp. gredensis, Adenocarpus hispanicus subsp. hispanicus, Cytisus striatus subsp. eriocarpus, Echinospartum barnadesii var. barnadesii, Genista cinerascens, Genista florida subsp. florida.

65.2. Retamion sphaerocarpae Rivas-Martínez 1981
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus aureus subsp. aureus, Cytisus grandiflorus subsp. cabezudoi, Cytisus scoparius subsp. bourgaei, Genista polyanthos.

65.3. Genistion polygaliphyllae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus hispanicus subsp. neilense, Cytisus cantabricus, Echinospartum ibericum subsp. ibericum, Echinospartum ibericum subsp. pulviniformis, Genista florida subsp. polygaliphylla, Genista obtusiramea, Genista xrivasgodayana, Teucrium salviastrum.

65.4. Ulici europaei-Cytision striati Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus anisochilus subsp. anisochilus, Cytisus commutatus, Cytisus ingramii, Cytisus striatus subsp. striatus, Ulex europaeus.

65.5. Adenocarpion decorticantis (Rivas-Martínez & F. Valle ex F. Valle 1985) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus decorticans, Genista cinerea subsp. speciosa.

65.6. Cytision oromediterraneo-scoparii Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Sánchez-Mata all. nova
Characteristic species: Senecio adonidifolius.

65.8. Retamion monospermae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó all. nova
Characteristic species: Adenocarpus aureus subsp. gibbsianus, Cytisus striatus subsp. megalanthus (*), Cytisus striatus subsp. welwitschii, Retama monosperma.

65b. Cytiso villosi-Telinetalia monspessulanae Rivas-Martínez, Galán & Cantó ordo novus
Characteristic species: Cytisus villosus, Teline linifolia, Teline monspessulana.

65.7. Telinion monspessulano-linifoliae Rivas-Martínez, Galán & Cantó all. nova
Characteristic species: Cytisus arboreus (*), Cytisus baeticus, Cytisus catalaunicus.

66. Rhamno-Prunetea Rivas Goday & Borja ex Tüxen 1962

Deciduous shrubby mesophytic and xerophytic mantle and seral communities mostly of Querco-Fagetea and Salici-Populetea nigrae forest vegetation dominated by microphanerophytes mainly thorny and prickly scrambling shrubs developed on rich nutrient humic soils at forest edges towards fields grasslands or river-banks, also as permanent communities on shallow stony soils in cliffs, steep slopes or mountain gullies and snow cones in Eurosiberian and Mediterranean Regions ("espinales", "zarzales", "setos", "bardissas"). Hard wood shrubs forest mantle and related thorn and prickly scrubby communities (Prunetalia spinosae) [Alpine, Central European, Pyrenean, Orocantabric and Oroiberian meso-supratemperate and submediterranean mostly semicontinental on base-rich soils (Berberidion vulgaris: Berberidenion vulgaris = Pyrenean and Orocantabric in Fagion climactical territory, Berberidenion seroi = Prepyrenean and Oroiberian forestal soils in Quercion humilis, Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Junipero sabinae-Pinion ibericae climactical territories, Amelanchiero-Buxenion = Pyrenean Oroiberian eroded soils in Quercion humilis, Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Junipero intermediae-Pinion catalaunicae climactical territories), Western Mediterranean and Atlantic thermo to supramediterranean and thermo to lower supratemperate mesophytic soils (Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii: Lonicerenion periclymeni = Atlantic thermo-mesotemperate mesophytic soils in Pulmonario-Quercion roboris climactical territory, Pruno-Rubenion ulmifolii = Balearic-Catalan-Provençal and Thyrrhenian, thermo-mesomediterranean in Quercenion ilicis and Populion albae territories, Rosenion carioti-pouzinii = Mediterranean Central and West Iberian, meso-supramediterranean mesic soils in Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Populion albae territories, Tamo-Viburnenion lantanae = Atlantic and Pyrenean meso to lower supratemperate mesic base-rich soils in Quercion humilis, Pulmonario-Quercion roboris and Alnion incanae territories), Betic supra and lower oromediterranean subhumid and humid on rich soils in Paeonio-Quercenion rotundifoliae, Aceri-Quercion fagineae and Paeonio-Abietion pinsapo climactical territories (Lonicero arboreae-Berberidion hispanicae), thermo-mesotemperate Cantabrian-Atlantic mesic poor soil in Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae and Pulmonario-Quercion roboris territories (Frangulo-Pyrion cordatae)]; light wood and fast grow scrubby and prickly scrambling bramble communities growing on rich nitrified soils as forest mantle on mountain cones and gullies mostly in Central European Alpine and Pyrenean territories (Sambucetalia racemosae) [supra-lower orotemperate Alpine and Pyrenean locally in Oroiberian Sorian high mountains on moist rich soils often with megaforbs (Sambuco racemosae-Salicion capreae), supratemperate humid Central European rich soils scrambling bramble communities partially spread in Pyrenean (Pruno-Rubion radulae)]. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Amelanchier ovalis, Clematis vitalba, Cornus sanguinea, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus insititia, Prunus spinosa, Rosa canina, Rubus caesius, Sambucus nigra.

66a. Prunetalia spinosae Tüxen 1952
Characteristic species: Crataegus laevigata, Euonymus europaeus, Ligustrum vulgare, Lonicera xylosteum, Prunus mahaleb, Rhamnus cathartica, Ribes alpinum, Rosa agrestis, Rosa corymbifera, Rosa elliptica, Rosa nitidula, Rosa pimpinellifolia, Rosa squarrosa, Rosa stylosa, Rosa vosagiaca, Rubus bifrons, Rubus canescens, Rubus corylifolius, Rubus godronii, Rubus thyrsoideus, Rubus vigoi, Viburnum lantana.

66.1. Berberidion vulgaris Br.-Bl. 1950
(Berberidenion vulgaris Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991 (66.1a). Berberidenion seroi Rivas-Martínez, Loidi & Arnaiz 1986 (66.1b). Amelanchiero-Buxenion (O. Bolòs & Romo in Romo 1989) I. Soriano & Sebastià 1990 (66.1c))
Characteristic species: Berberis hispanica subsp. seroi (66.1b), Berberis vulgaris subsp. cantabrica (66.1a), Berberis vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (66.1a), Clematis recta, Cotoneaster tomentosus, Hippophae fluviatilis, Ononis aragonensis (66.1c), Rhamnus alpina, Rhamnus saxatilis, Ribes uva-crispa, Rosa glauca (66.1a), Rosa jacetana (66.1b), Rosa myriacantha (66.1b), Rosa rubiginosa, Rosa tomentosa, Rosa villosa, Rubus pauanus (66.1b), Viburnum opulus.

66.2. Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii O. Bolòs 1954
(Lonicerenion periclymeni (Géhu, De Foucault & Delelis 1983) Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991 (66.2a). Rosenion carioti-pouzinii Arnaiz ex Loidi 1989 (66.2b). Pruno-Rubenion ulmifolii Arnaiz & Loidi 1983. (66.2c). Tamo-Viburnenion lantanae Géhu, De Foucault & Delelis 1983 (66.2d))
Characteristic species: Coriaria myrtifolia (66.2b), Lonicera implexa subsp. valentina (66.2b), Lonicera periclymenum subsp. hispanica (66.2a), Prunus spinosa subsp. insititioides (66.2b), Rosa andegavensis (66.2d), Rosa deseglisei (66.2c), Rosa micrantha, Rosa pouzinii, Rosa xpervirens (66.2d), Rubus brigantinus (66.2a), Rubus castellarnaui (66.2c), Rubus castroviejoi (66.2a), Rubus gallaecicus (66.2a), Rubus henriquesii (66.2a), Rubus ulmifolius.

66.3. Lonicero arboreae-Berberidion hispanicae O. Bolòs 1954
Characteristic species: Berberis hispanica subsp. hispanica, Cotoneaster granatensis, Crataegus granatensis, Crataegus laciniata, Lonicera arborea, Lonicera splendida, Ononis reuteri, Prunus ramburii.

66.4. Frangulo alni-Pyrion cordatae Herrera, F. Prieto & Loidi 1991
Characteristic species: Pyrus cordata, Rubus cyclops, Rubus sampaioanus.

66b. Sambucetalia racemosae Oberdorfer ex Passarge in Scamoni 1963
Characteristic species: Rubus hirtus, Rubus idaeus, Sambucus racemosa.

66.5. Sambuco racemosae-Salicion capreae Tüxen & Neumann ex Oberdorfer 1957
Characteristic species: See order (66b).

66.6. Pruno-Rubion radulae Weber 1974
Characteristic species: Rubus geniculatus, Rubus muricola, Rubus radula, Rubus serpens, Rubus timbal-lagravei.

67. Lonicero-Rubetea plicati Haveman, Schaminée & Stortfelder in Stortfelder, Schaminée & Hommel 1999

European class not found in the territory.