Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxonomical system: Grassland and meadow vegetation

VIIa. Therophytic grasslands

50. Tuberarietea guttatae (Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre 1952) Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1963 nom. mut. propos.

[Helianthemetea guttati]
Pioneer spring and early summer ephemeral plant communities dominated by non nitrophilous annual short herbs and grasses, thermo to lower oromediterranean xeric and pluviseasonal, also spread in thermo to supratemperate in Mediterranean Region, but localized only in dry or initial soils inside the Eurosiberian Region mostly in submediterranean or steppic territories. Acidophilous or calcifugous communities (Tuberarietalia guttatae) [thermo to lower supramediterranean on sandy-loamy soils (Tuberarion guttatae: Tuberarienion guttatae = sandy-loamy soils, Sedenion caespitosi = very shallow soils), supramediterranean and meso-supratemperate in Eurosiberian and Catalan-Valencian (Thero-Airion), supra to lower oromediterranean in Mediterranean West Iberian and local on poor soils in Mediterranean Central Iberian (Molineriellion laevis), meso to lower oromediterranean succulent ephemere therophytic communities on very shallow and initial soils of cohesive siliceous rocks in Mediterranean West Iberian and related Iberian territories (Sedion pedicellato-andegavensis)]; deep sandy soils and coastal or continental paleodunes in Western Mediterranean (Malcolmietalia) [meso-lower supramediterranean semicontinental Mediterranean West Iberian (Corynephoro articulati-Malcolmion patulae), thermo-mesomediterranean euoceanic Mediterranean West Iberian and Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian (Hymenocarpo hamosi-Malcolmion trilobae)]; calcium carbonate, clayey, gypseous, dolomite, serpentine or mafic rich soils in Mediterranean and southern Eurosiberian (Brachypodietalia distachyi) [thermomediterranean semiarid Murcian-Almeriensian (Stipion capensis), ephemere in gypseous bare soils (Sedo-Ctenopsion gypsophilae), dolomite, serpentine or mafic rich soils mostly in Betic biogeographical province (Omphalodion commutatae), thermo to supramediterranean pluviseasonal or thermo-mesotemperate mostly submediterranean on calcium carbonate or clayey soils (Brachypodion distachyi)]; coastal dunes with moving sand and wind salt spray, Mediterranean and Cantabrian-Atlantic (Cutandietalia maritimae) [Balearic-Catalan-Provençal and the rest of Thyrrhenian coast (Alkanno-Maresion nanae), Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Betic, Murcian-Almeriensian and Tingitanian coast (Linarion pedunculatae), Canarian (Ononidion tournefortii)]. North African-Eurasiatic.
Characteristic species: Acinos arvensis, Alyssum minutum, Alyssum simplex, Arenaria conimbricensis, Arenaria leptoclados, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Asterolinon linum-stellatum, Cerastium brachypetalum subsp. brachypetalum, Cerastium brachypetalum subsp. strigosum, Cerastium pumilum, Cerastium semidecandrum, Crucianella angustifolia, Crupina vulgaris, Erophila verna subsp. spathulata, Evax pygmaea, Galium parisiense, Helianthemum ledifolium, Helianthemum papillare, Helianthemum salicifolium var. intermedium, Helianthemum salicifolium var. salicifolium, Herniaria cinerea, Hippocrepis ciliata, Hippocrepis multisiliquosa, Lathyrus setifolius, Leontodon taraxacoides subsp. hispidus, Medicago coronata, Medicago littoralis, Medicago minima, Mibora minima, Minuartia dichotoma, Minuartia hybrida subsp. hybrida, Petrorhagia nanteuilii, Pistorinia hispanica, Prolongoa hispanica, Scleranthus polycarpos, Scleranthus verticillatus, Sedum rubens, Silene colorata, Silene conica, Trifolium campestre, Trifolium stellatum, Valerianella dentata, Veronica praecox, Veronica verna, Vicia lathyroides.

50a. Tuberarietalia guttatae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Molinier & Wagner 1940 nom. mut. propos.
[Helianthemetalia guttati]
Characteristic species: Aira caryophyllea subsp. caryophyllea, Aira cupaniana, Aira elegantissima, Andryala integrifolia var. corymbosa, Anthoxanthum aristatum, Aphanes cornucopioides, Aphanes microcarpa, Arabis nova subsp. iberica, Briza maxima, Briza minor, Campanula lusitanica subsp. lusitanica, Eryngium tenue, Filago lutescens, Helianthemum aegyptiacum, Hymenocarpos lotoides, Jasione montana subsp. gracilis, Lathyrus sphaericus, Linaria saxatilis subsp. saxatilis, Linaria spartea, Logfia gallica, Logfia minima, Lotus conimbricensis, Micropyrum tenellum, Moenchia erecta, Molineriella laevis, Ornithopus compressus, Ornithopus perpusillus, Psilurus incurvus, Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. bucephalophorus, Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. gallicus, Silene portensis, Silene psammitis subsp. psammitis, Silene scabriflora subsp. scabriflora, Teesdalia nudicaulis, Tolpis barbata, Trifolium arvense, Trifolium striatum, Trifolium strictum, Trifolium sylvaticum, Tuberaria guttata, Vulpia bromoides, Vulpia myuros.

50.1. Tuberarion guttatae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Molinier & Wagner 1940 nom. mut. propos.
[Helianthemion guttati]
(Tuberarienion guttatae Rivas-Martínez 1978 nom. mut. propos. (50.1a). Sedenion caespitosi Rivas-Martínez 1978 (50.1b))
Characteristic species: Aira tenorii, Airopsis tenella, Coronilla dura, Corynephorus divaricatus, Galium divaricatum, Helianthemum sanguineum, Hymenocarpos cornicina, Hypochoeris glabra, Jasione montana subsp. montana, Lathyrus angulatus, Lathyrus inconspicuus, Linaria intricata, Linum trigynum, Molineriella minuta subsp. australis, Molineriella minuta subsp. minuta, Onobrychis caput-galli, Ononis cintrana, Ononis varelae, Ornithopus pinnatus, Paronychia cymosa, Paronychia echinulata, Plantago bellardii, Pterocephalus diandrus, Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, Scleranthus delortii, Sedum caespitosum (50.1b), Senecio minutus, Silene mariana, Teesdalia coronopifolia, Tolpis umbellata, Vulpia muralis.

50.2. Thero-Airion Tüxen & Oberdorfer 1958
Characteristic species: Aira caryophyllea subsp. multiculmis, Aira praecox, Apera interrupta, Cerastium diffusum, Myosotis stricta, Silene scabriflora subsp. megacalycina, Spergula morisonii, Veronica dillenii.

50.3. Molineriellion laevis Br.-Bl., P. Silva, Rozeira & Fontes 1952 nom. mut. propos.
[Molinerion laevis]
Characteristic species: Cerastium ramosissimum, Ctenopsis delicatula, Evax lasiocarpa, Hispidella hispanica, Holcus annuus subsp. duriensis, Holcus gayanus, Linaria elegans, Linaria saxatilis var. minor, Micropyrum patens, Periballia involucrata, Trifolium phleoides subsp. willkommii, Trisetum ovatum.

50.4. Sedion pedicellato-andegavensis Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata 1986
Characteristic species: Sedum andegavense, Sedum arenarium, Sedum pedicellatum, Sedum willkommianum.

50b. Malcolmietalia Rivas Goday 1958
Characteristic species: Agrostis tenerrima, Anthoxanthum ovatum subsp. ovatum, Aphanes maroccana, Avellinia michelii, Biscutella microcarpa, Coronilla repanda, Corynephorus articulatus, Erodium bipinnatum, Evax asterisciflora, Evax lusitanica, Hymenocarpos hamosus, Leucojum trichopyllum, Lotus castellanus, Lotus hispidus, Ononis diffusa, Ornithopus isthmocarpus, Ornithopus sativus, Ornithopus xmacrorrhynchus, Pimpinella villosa, Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. hispanicus, Rumex roseus, Silene micropetala, Silene sclerocarpa, Vulpia membranacea.

50.5. Corynephoro articulati-Malcolmion patulae Rivas Goday 1958
Characteristic species: Loeflingia hispanica, Malcolmia triloba subsp. patula.

50.6. Hymenocarpo hamosi-Malcolmion trilobae Rivas Goday 1958 nom. mut. propos.
[Anthyllido hamosae-Malcolmion lacerae]
Characteristic species: Anthoxanthum ovatum subsp. macranthum, Arenaria algarbiensis, Arenaria emarginata, Corynephorus macrantherus, Hippocrepis salzmannii, Linaria algarviana, Linaria tursica, Loeflingia baetica var. tavaresiana, Lotus arenarius, Malcolmia triloba subsp. gracillima, Malcolmia triloba subsp. triloba, Ononis baetica var. baetica, Ononis baetica var. donanensis, Ononis broteriana, Ononis dentata, Ononis hackelii, Pseudorlaya minuscula, Silene gaditana, Silene gracilis, Silene stockeni, Trisetum dufourei, Vulpia fontquerana.

50c. Brachypodietalia distachyi Rivas-Martínez 1978
[Trachynietalia distachyae]
Characteristic species: Ajuga iva, Alyssum alyssoides subsp. alyssoides, Ammoides pusilla, Arabis auriculata, Arabis nova subsp. nova, Arenaria ciliaris, Arenaria modesta subsp. tenuis, Arenaria obtusiflora, Atractylis cancellata, Bombycilaena discolor, Bombycilaena erecta, Brachyapium dichotomum, Bufonia tenuifolia, Bupleurum semicompositum, Campanula decumbens var. decumbens, Campanula decumbens var. pseudospecularioides, Campanula lusitanica subsp. specularioides, Cerastium gracile, Clypeola jonthlaspi, Crucianella patula, Crupina crupinastrum, Echinaria capitata, Euphorbia exigua, Euphorbia falcata, Garidella nigellastrum, Hippocrepis biflora, Hypochoeris achyrophorus, Limonium echioides, Linum strictum, Medicago laciniata, Micropus supinus, Narduroides salzmannii, Nauplius aquaticus, Neatostema apulum, Nonea micrantha, Odontites longiflorus subsp. longiflorus, Odontites luteus, Odontites viscosus subsp. viscosus, Ononis laxiflora, Ononis pubescens, Ononis reclinata subsp. mollis, Ononis reclinata subsp. reclinata, Polygala monspeliaca, Saxifraga tridactylites, Scabiosa sicula, Scabiosa stellata subsp. stellata, Scandix australis, Sideritis romana, Silene oropediorum, Tetragonolobus requienii, Thymelaea salsa, Trachynia distachya, Trifolium lucanicum, Valerianella discoidea, Valerianella eriocarpa, Valerianella microcarpa, Vulpia hispanica subsp. hispanica, Vulpia unilateralis, Xeranthemum cylindraceum, Xeranthemum inapertum.

50.10. Stipion capensis Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs ex Izco 1974 nom. mut. propos.
[Stipion retortae]
Characteristic species: Alyssum linifolium, Astragalus pauciflorus, Diplotaxis lagascana subsp. lagascana, Eryngium ilicifolium, Filago fuscescens, Filago micropodioides, Koelpinia linearis, Lagoecia cuminoides, Lasiopogon muscoides, Leucanthemum paludosum subsp decipiens, Leysera leyseroides, Limonium lobatum, Linaria benitoi, Linaria nigricans, Linaria oligantha, Mantisalca duriaei, Neotorularia torulosa, Notoceras bicorne, Ononis ornithopodioides, Ononis sicula, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago notata, Plantago ovata, Pteranthus dichotomus, Scorpiurus muricatus, Silene littorea subsp. ascendens.

50.11. Sedo-Ctenopsion gypsophilae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez ex Izco 1974
Characteristic species: Campanula fastigiata, Centaurium quadrifolium var. parviflorum, Centaurium quadrifolium var. quadrifolium, Clypeola eriocarpa, Ctenopsis gypsophila, Chaenorhinum grandiflorum subsp. grandiflorum, Chaenorhinum reyesii, Chaenorhinum rupestre, Chaenorhinum serpyllifolium subsp. serpyllifolium, Erodium pulverulentum, Linaria amethystea subsp. albiflora, Linaria glauca subsp. aragonensis, Mantisalca iserniana.

50.12. Omphalodion commutatae Rivas-Martínez, Izco & Costa ex Izco 1976 corr. Pérez-Raya, Molero & J. López 1991
[Omphalodion brassicifoliae]
Characteristic species: Arenaria capillipes, Arenaria pomelii, Arenaria retusa subsp. arundana, Arenaria retusa subsp. retusa, Chaenorhinum macropodum, Chaenorhinum rubrifolium subsp. raveyi, Erodium recoderi, Eryngium grossii, Iberis fontqueri, Jasione penicillata, Linaria huteri, Linaria oblongifolia, Linaria platycalyx, Linaria salzmannii var. flava, Linaria saturejoides var. angustealata, Linaria saturejoides var. saturejoides, Omphalodes commutata, Pistorinia breviflora, Platycapnos tenuilobus subsp. paralelus, Silene germana, Silene inaperta subsp. serpentinicola, Silene psammitis subsp. lasiostyla.

50.13. Brachypodion distachyi Rivas-Martínez 1978 nom. mut. propos.
[Trachynion distachyae]
Characteristic species: Alyssum alyssoides subsp. hispanicum, Androsace elongata subsp. breistrofferi, Arenaria modesta subsp. modesta, Buglossoides arvensis subsp. gasparrinii, Bupleurum baldense, Callipeltis cucullaria, Campanula dichotoma subsp. afra, Campanula dichotoma subsp. dichotoma, Campanula dichotoma subsp. semisecta, Campanula erinus, Cerastium semidecandrum var. sennenii, Chaenorhinum grandiflorum subsp. carthaginense, Chaenorhinum minus, Chaenorhinum rubrifolium subsp. rubrifolium, Clypeola microcarpa, Daucus durieua, Erysimum incanum subsp. matritense, Euphorbia sulcata, Helianthemum angustatum, Hornungia petraea, Jasione blepharodon, Linaria micrantha, Linaria simplex, Minuartia hamata, Minuartia mediterranea, Minuartia montana, Nepeta ucranica subsp. braun-blanquetii, Nepeta ucranica subsp. hispanica, Odontites kaliformis, Odontites longiflorus subsp. lateritia, Odontites viscosus subsp. oscensis, Omphalodes linifolia, Ononis pendula subsp. boissieri, Scabiosa stellata subsp. simplex, Scandix stellata subsp. velutina, Silene almolae, Thymelaea passerina, Trisetum loeflingianum, Trisetum scabriusculum, Valerianella multidentata, Velezia rigida, Vulpia hispanica subsp. montana, Wangenheimia lima.

50d. Cutandietalia maritimae Rivas-Martínez, Díez Garretas & Asensi ordo novus
Characteristic species: Catapodium hemipoa, Cutandia maritima, Erodium laciniatum, Ononis variegata, Phleum arenarium, Polycarpon alsinifolium, Polycarpon diphyllum, Pseudorlaya pumila, Rostraria littorea subsp. littorea, Silene niceensis, Silene ramosissima, Triplachne nitens, Vulpia fasciculata.

50.7. Alkanno-Maresion nanae Rivas Goday ex Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1963 corr. Díez Garretas, Asensi & Rivas-Martínez 2001
[Alkanno-Malcolmion]
Characteristic species: Chaenorhinum formenterae, Malcolmia ramosissima, Maresia nana, Rostraria littorea subsp. salzmannii, Silene cambessedesii, Silene sericea var. balearica, Wahlenbergia nutabunda.

50.8. Linarion pedunculatae Díez Garretas, Asensi & Esteve ex Díez Garretas 1984
Characteristic species: Chaenorhinum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum, Hedypnois arenaria, Herniaria algarvica, Hypecoum littorale, Linaria ficalhoana, Linaria munbyana subsp. pygmaea, Linaria pedunculata var. lutea, Linaria pedunculata var. pedunculata, Ononis cossoniana, Silene littorea subsp. littorea.

50.9. Ononidion tournefortii Géhu, Biondi, Géhu-Franck, Hendoux & Mossa 1996
Characteristic species: Lotus sessilifolius var. sessilifolius, Ononis tournefortii.

VIIb. Perennial xerophytic and mesophytic grasslands

51. Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Br.-Bl. 1949

Anthropogenic grazed baso-neutrophilous or a bit acidophilous mesophytic or slightly xerophytic nutrient-rich pastures largelly covered by perennial grasses, meso-supratemperate submediterranean and meso-supramediterranean, dry to humid, oceanic to subcontinental steppic, Eurosiberian and Western Mediterranean, growing on deep rich and well drained soils without gleyic properties. Atlantic, Mid-European, Alpine-Pyrenean, Appenine and Oroiberian, meso-supratemperate oceanic subhumid-humid and submediterranean non steppic, closed short-grass pastures (Brometalia erecti) [Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric, Pyrenean and Oroiberian mesophytic grasslands (Potentillo montanae-Brachypodion rupestris: Potentillo montanae-Brachypodienion rupestris = baso-neutrophilous calcicolous, Chamaespartio-Agrostienion capillaris = some what acidophilous often silicicolous), Pyrenean and Oroiberian meso-xerophytic, often submediterranean, cryoturbated (Teucrio pyrenaici-Bromion erecti)]; Western Mediterranean and Alpine-Pyrenean meso-supramediterranean and meso-supratemperate submediterranean dry-subhumid oceanic or semicontinental tall grass pastures on basophilous to neutrophilous deep soils (Brachypodietalia phoenicoidis) [Western Mediterranean meso-supramediterranean oceanic usually on deep clayey soils (Brachypodion phoenicoidis), Alpine-Pyrenean meso-supratemperate submediterranean semicontinental mostly on calcareous soils (Artemisio albae-Dichanthion ischaemi)]. Western Mediterranean, Alpine-Caucasian.
Characteristic species: Aceras anthropophorum, Allium carinatum, Anacamptis pyramidalis, Anthericum ramosum, Avenula pratensis subsp. pratensis, Bromus erectus, Campanula glomerata subsp. glomerata, Carex caryophyllea, Carex montana, Centaurium erythraea subsp. erythraea, Centaurea scabiosa var. scabiosa, Cirsium acaule subsp. acaule, Dianthus carthusianorum, Erigeron acer, Euphorbia cyparissias, Euphrasia stricta, Filipendula vulgaris, Gagea pratensis, Galium verum var. verum, Himantoglossum hircinum, Koeleria macrantha, Koeleria pyramidata, Leontodon hispidus subsp. hispidus, Linum catharticum, Medicago falcata, Ononis spinosa subsp. procurrens, Ophrys apifera, Ophrys insectifera subsp. insectifera, Orchis purpurea, Orchis ustulata, Orobanche caryophyllacea, Orobanche elatior, Orobanche gracilis, Orobanche lutea, Phleum phleoides, Pimpinella saxifraga, Plantago media, Prunella laciniata, Salvia pratensis, Sanguisorba minor subsp. minor, Scabiosa columbaria subsp. columbaria, Spiranthes spiralis, Teucrium chamaedrys subsp. chamaedrys, Thymus pulegioides.

51a. Brometalia erecti Br.-Bl. 1936
Characteristic species: Alyssum montanum, Astragalus austriacus, Astragalus danicus, Carlina acaulis, Carlina vulgaris, Euphrasia alpina subsp. pulchra, Festuca nigrescens subsp. nigrescens, Gentiana cruciata, Gentianella ciliata, Gymnadenia odoratissima, Helianthemum nummularium subsp. nummularium, Hippocrepis comosa, Luzula campestris subsp. campestris, Onobrychis viciifolia subsp. viciifolia, Ononis spinosa subsp. spinosa, Orchis militaris, Orchis morio subsp morio, Orchis simia, Phyteuma orbiculare subsp orbiculare, Potentilla neumanniana var. neumanniana, Prunella grandiflora, Pulsatilla rubra, Ranunculus bulbosus subsp. bulbifer, Ranunculus bulbosus subsp. bulbosus, Seseli annuum, Trifolium aureum, Trifolium montanum, Veronica orsiniana, Veronica spicata.

51.1. Potentillo montanae-Brachypodion rupestris Br.-Bl. 1967 corr. hoc loco
[Potentillo-Brachypodion pinnati]
(Potentillo montanae-Brachypodienion rupestris J. Guitián, Izco & Amigo 1989 (51.1a). Chamaespartio-Agrostienion capillaris Vigo 1982 (51.1b))
Characteristic species: Acinos alpinus subsp. pyrenaeus, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. sampaioana, Armeria castellana, Asphodelus albus subsp. occidentalis, Avenula pratensis subsp. requienii, Brachypodium rupestre, Carduncellus mitissimus subsp. mitissimus, Carduus argemone, Carduus paui, Chamaespartium sagittale (51.1b), Dianthus pyrenaicus subsp. pyrenaicus (51.1b), Dianthus seguieri subsp. requienii (51.1b), Erodium castellanum (51.1b), Festuca marginata subsp. alopecuroides (51.1b), Galium idubedae (51.1b), Leucanthemum maximum, Phyteuma orbiculare subsp. ibericum, Potentilla montana, Seseli cantabricum, Sideritis hyssopifolia subsp. caureliana, Veronica senneni.

51.2. Teucrio pyrenaici-Bromion erecti Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
[Onobrychidenion hispanicae]
Characteristic species: Avenula pratensis subsp. vasconica, Carduncellus hispanicus subsp. hispanicus, Carduncellus mitissimus subsp. pseudomitissimus, Cirsium acaule subsp. microcephalum, Narcissus jacetanus, Onobrychis hispanica, Teucrium pyrenaicum subsp. guarense, Teucrium pyrenaicum subsp. pyrenaicum, Veronica prostrata subsp. scheereri.

51b. Brachypodietalia phoenicoidis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934
Characteristic species: Allium paniculatum, Allium roseum, Allium scorodoprasum subsp. rotundum, Allium vineale, Althaea cannabina, Aster sedifolius, Asteriscus spinosus, Avenula pratensis subsp. gonzaloi, Brachypodium phoenicoides, Cachrys sicula, Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa, Centaurea scabiosa var. cephalariifolia, Dorycnium pentaphyllum var. candicans, Echinops ritro, Echium vulgare subsp. argentae, Elytrigia campestris, Elytrigia intermedia, Ferula communis, Galium lucidum, Gladiolus illyricus, Hypericum perfoliatum, Hypericum perforatum var. perforatum, Hyssopus officinalis subsp. canescens, Inula helenoides, Mantisalca salmantica, Medicago sativa subsp. falcata, Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, Melica ciliata subsp. magnolii, Nepeta tuberosa subsp. reticulata, Ononis spinosa subsp. antiquorum, Ophrys fusca, Ophrys insectifera subsp. subinsectifera, Ophrys scolopax, Orchis italica, Picris hieracioides subsp. villarsii, Salvia valentina, Salvia verbenaca subsp. horminoides, Sanguisorba minor subsp. balearica, Scorzonera angustifolia var. angustifolia, Seseli tortuosum, Sixalix atropurpurea subsp. amansii, Stipa bromoides, Tragopogon crocifolius, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis.

51.3. Brachypodion phoenicoidis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934
Characteristic species: Gypsophila bermejoi, Hieracium peleteranum, Lathyrus pulcher, Scorzonera angustifolia var. minor, Silene diclinis, Tanacetum cinerariifolium, Tragopogon castellanus, Tragopogon dubius, Urospermum dalecampii.

51.4. Artemisio albae-Dichanthion ischaemi X. Font ex Rivas-Martínez & M.L. López all. nova
Characteristic species: Artemisia campestris subsp. campestris, Cleistogenes serotina, Dichanthium ischaemum, Hyssopus officinalis subsp. aristatus, Onobrychis supina.

52. Festuco hystricis-Ononidetea striatae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas classis nova

Dry basophilous grasslands rich in hemicryptophytes, pulvinate chamaephytes or dwarf cushion scrubs, growing on soils with ephemeral snow cover, often with cryoturbation phenomena and without gleyic character; spread in semicontinental and subcontinental supra-oromediterranean and meso to orotemperate, mostly submediterranean, subhumid to hyperhumid Western Mediterranean, Orocantabric and Alpine-Pyrenean territories. Temperate and submediterranean Alpine-Pyrenean, Orocantabric, Cantabrian-Atlantic and mediterranean and submediterranean Catalan-Valencian (Ononidetalia striatae) [Eastern Prepyrenean and Catalan-Valencian calcareous and occasionally dolomiticolous meso-supramediterranean but mostly submediterranean rich chamaephyte communities on lithosols (Genistion lobelii), supratemperate and submediterranean Eastern Pyrenean and Catalan-Valencian open grasslands rich in pulvinate chamaephyte on cryoturbated rendzinic dark soils (Ononidion striatae), orotemperate Central Pyrenean and Eastern Pyrenean swards (Festucion gautieri: Festucenion gautieri = mostly open cryoturbated grasses communities, Saponarienion caespitosae = intensely cryoturbated free of snow cover and rich in pulvinate chamaephyte), upper supratemperate and lower orotemperate tall grass from early season snow free Pyrenean communities (Festucion spadiceae), Prepyrenean supra-orotemperate mostly submediterranean dwarf cushion scrubs (Echinospartion horridi), meso to orotemperate Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabric and spread as far as submediterranean Castilian Cantabrian grasslands rich in dwarf cushion scrubs on deep or rendzinic soils (Genistion occidentalis)]; Castilian, Betic and Oroiberian supra-oromediterranean subhumid-humid and submediterranean, spread up to Orocantabric and Maghrebian humid high mountains intensely cryoturbated communities (Festuco hystricis-Poetalia ligulatae) [supra-orotemperate Orocantabric open swards on calcareous south and wind exposed lithosols (Festucion burnatii), supramediterranean and submediterranean Castilian Cantabric mostly dwarf chamaephyte on calcareous clayey soils (Plantagini discoloris-Thymion mastigophori), Castilian, Oroiberian and Betic supra-oromediterranean rich in biodiversity intensely grazed and cryoturbated short grasslands (Sideritido fontquerianae-Arenarion microphyllae)]. Southwestern Eurosiberian and Western Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Achillea odorata, Acinos alpinus subsp. meridionalis, Adonis vernalis, Aethionema marginatum, Allium senescens subsp. montanum, Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. serpyllifolium, Anthericum liliago, Anthyllis montana, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. vulnerarioides, Arenaria grandiflora, Artemisia alba, Aster linosyris, Bupleurum ranunculoides, Carduncellus monspelliensium, Carex humilis, Carex liparocarpos, Chamaespartium delphinense, Coronilla minima subsp. minima, Draba aizoides subsp. estevei, Festuca gautieri, Festuca gracilior, Fumana procumbens subsp. procumbens, Globularia borjae, Inula montana, Koeleria vallesiana subsp. humilis, Lotus corniculatus subsp. delortii, Medicago suffruticosa, Ononis cristata, Orchis mascula subsp. mascula, Paronychia kapela subsp. serpyllifolia, Plantago monosperma, Poa badensis subsp. multiflora, Potentilla cinerea, Potentilla neumanniana var. hirsuta, Potentilla xzapateri, Ranunculus gramineus var. gramineus, Satureja montana subsp. montana, Serratula nudicaulis, Seseli montanum subsp. montanum, Tragopogon lamottei, Trinia glauca, Valeriana tuberosa.

52a. Ononidetalia striatae Br.-Bl. 1950
Characteristic species: Arenaria aggregata, Asphodelus albus subsp. delphinensis, Astragalus monspessulanus, Astragalus sempervirens subsp. sempervirens, Astragalus sempervirens subsp. catalaunicus, Brimeura amethystina subsp. amethystina, Carex brevicollis, Carlina acanthifolia subsp. cynara, Crepis albida subsp. albida, Crepis albida subsp. macrocephala, Erodium foetidum subsp. glandulosum, Eryngium bourgatii subsp. bourgatii, Festuca liviensis, Festuca ochroleuca subsp. bigorronensis, Festuca ochroleuca subsp. ochroleuca, Fritillaria nigra subsp. nigra, Genista jordanii, Globularia cordifolia, Globularia punctata, Globularia xfuxeensis, Gypsophila repens, Helianthemum canum subsp. incanum, Helianthemum nummularium var. roseum, Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. alpestre, Hieracium cerinthoides, Iberis saxatilis, Koeleria vallesiana subsp. abbreviata, Lactuca perennis, Leontodon crispus, Linum milletii subsp. milletii, Linum tenuifolium, Linum viscosum, Minuartia villarii, Ononis striata, Ornithogalum monticolum, Paradisea liliastrum, Peucedanum schottii, Pimpinella tragium subsp. lithophila, Plantago argentea, Scabiosa graminifolia, Scorzonera aristata, Scorzonera purpurea, Senecio doronicum subsp. gerardii, Sideritis hyssopifolia subsp. hyssopifolia, Stipa eriocaulis, Teucrium polium subsp. aureum, Thymus vulgaris subsp. palearensis.

52.1. Genistion lobelii Molinier 1934
Characteristic species: Centaurea podospermifolia, Cytisus ardoinii (*), Dianthus brachyanthus subsp. tarraconensis, Erodium foetidum subsp. rupestre, Genista lobelii (*), Genista villarsii (*), Leucanthemum burnatii (*), Sempervivum calcareum (*), Sideritis subspinosa, Teucrium luteum subsp. luteum.

52.2. Ononidion striatae Br.-Bl. & Susplugas 1937
Characteristic species: Brimeura amethystina subsp. fontqueri, Euphorbia duvalii, Genista delphinensis, Gentiana clusii subsp. corbariensis (*), Leucanthemum graminifolium, Narcissus assoanus, Onosma fastigiata, Senecio provincialis var. corbariensis, Sesleria caerulea subsp. elegantissima, Thesium catalaunicum, Thymus willkommii.

52.3. Festucion gautieri Br.-Bl. 1948 nom. mut. propos.
[Festucion scopariae]
(Festucenion gautieri Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1991 (52.3a). Saponarienion caespitosae (P. Montserrat & Villar 1987) Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1991 (52.3b))
Characteristic species: Androsace vitaliana subsp. vitaliana, Arenaria tetraquetra, Asperula pyrenaica, Erysimum humile subsp. pyrenaicum, Erysimum seipkae, Festuca altopyrenaica, Globularia xgallisieri, Helictotrichon sedenense subsp. gervaisii (52.3b), Onobrychis pyrenaica, Onosma bubani, Onosma tricerosperma subsp. alpicola (52.3b), Saponaria caespitosa (52.3b), Seseli nanum, Sideritis hyssopifolia subsp. eynensis, Taraxacum aragonicum, Thymelaea nivalis.

52.4. Festucion spadiceae Nègre 1969
Characteristic species: Carduus medius, Festuca spadicea, Iris latifolia.

52.5. Genistion occidentalis Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Digitalis parviflora, Euphorbia flavicoma subsp. occidentalis, Festuca rivas-martinezii subsp. rectifolia, Genista legionensis, Genista occidentalis, Genista xnorpalentina, Helianthemum canum subsp. cantabricum, Helianthemum croceum subsp. cantabricum, Helianthemum nummularium subsp. urrielense, Helictotrichon cantabricum, Leucanthemum gaudinii subsp. cantabricum, Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. eliasii, Lithodora diffusa, Sesleria argentea subsp. hispanica, Sideritis brachycalix, Sideritis hyssopifolia subsp. castellana, Sideritis hyssopifolia subsp. santanderina, Sideritis ovata, Thymelaea ruizii.

52.6. Echinospartion horridi Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1991
Characteristic species: Arenaria oscensis, Brassica turbonis, Cotoneaster integerrimus var. masclansii, Echinospartum horridum, Onosma pyrenaica, Sideritis hyssopifolia subsp. guillonii.

52b. Festuco hystricis-Poetalia ligulatae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1963
Characteristic species: Allium moly, Artemisia pedemontana subsp. assoana, Dianthus brachyanthus subsp. cantabricus, Draba hispanica subsp. hispanica, Festuca hystrix, Festuca marginata subsp. andres-molinae, Poa ligulata, Potentilla pensylvanica var. sanguisorbifolia, Scabiosa columbaria subsp. tomentosa, Senecio doronicum subsp. lagascanus, Veronica tenuifolia subsp. javalambrensis.

52.7. Sideritido fontquerianae-Arenarion microphyllae Rivas Goday & Borja 1961 corr. hoc loco
[Sideritido pulvinatae-Arenarion aggregatae]
Characteristic species Androsace vitaliana subsp. assoana, Anthemis tuberculata, Arenaria erinacea subsp. microphylla, Astragalus muticus, Astragalus tremolsianus, Dianthus algetanus subsp. turolensis, Erodium cazorlanum, Erodium foetidum subsp. celtibericum, Festuca indigesta subsp. hackeliana, Festuca nevadensis, Festuca reverchonii, Linum milletii subsp. appressum, Linum salsoloides, Potentilla reuteri, Seseli montanum subsp. granatensis, Sideritis camarae, Sideritis glacialis subsp. fontqueriana, Sideritis pungens subsp. javalambrensis, Sideritis pungens subsp. vigoi, Silene mellifera subsp. nevadensis, Thalictrum foetidum subsp. valentinum, Thymelaea granatensis, Thymus godayanus.

52.8. Festucion burnatii Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez ex Mayor, Andrés, Martínez, F. Navarro & T.E. Díaz 1973
Characteristic species: Arenaria erinacea subsp. cantabrica, Armeria bigerrensis subsp. legionensis, Artemisia chamaemelifolia subsp. cantabrica, Centaurea janerii subsp. babiana, Draba cantabriae subsp. cantabriae, Draba cantabriae subsp. izcoi, Draba lebrunii, Festuca burnatii, Oreochloa confusa, Saxifraga conifera.

52.9. Plantagini discoloris-Thymion mastigophori A. Molina & Izco 1989
Characteristic species: Arenaria vitoriana, Genista pumila subsp. elias-sennenii, Onobrychis reuteri, Plantago discolor, Thymus mastigophorus.

53. Koelerio-Corynephoretea Klika in Klika & V. Novák 1941

Meso-supratemperate and meso-supramediterranean pioneer open perennial drougth-stressed grasslands, rich in ephemerous therophytes, spread in oceanic and subcontinental Eurosiberian and Western Mediterranean pluviseasonal territories, growing on initial sandy or sandy-skeletal nutrient poor soils (Corynephoretalia canescentis) [sublittoral and internal temperate and mediterranean (Corynephorion canescentis), coastal temperate pioneer sand dunes (Koelerion arenariae)]. European Holarctic.
Characteristic species: See order (53a).

53a. Corynephoretalia canescentis Klika 1934
Characteristic species: Carex arenaria, Corynephorus canescens.

53.1. Corynephorion canescentis Klika 1931
Characteristic species: Carex praecox, Plantago lanceolata subsp. sphaerostachya.

53.2. Koelerion arenariae Tüxen 1937 nom. mut. propos.
[Koelerion albescentis]
Characteristic species: Asparagus prostratus, Ceratodon conicus, Festuca vasconcensis, Galium verum var. maritimum (*), Hypnum cupressiforme var. lacunosum, Jasione sessiliflora subsp. sabularia, Koeleria cristata subsp. arenaria, Poa humilis, Tortula ruraliformis.

54. Poetea bulbosae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez 1978

Western Mediterranean oceanic thermo- to supramediterranean upper semiarid to humid pastures, produced by adequate sheep pasture, grazed and manured, dominated by dwarf perennial grasses and other nutritious prostrate chamaephytes and hemicryptophytes as Poa bulbosa, clovers and plantains. These characteristic very productive and extensive anthropogenic Western Mediterranean perennial grassland communities, dry up in early summer but from the beginning of autumnal rainy season they grow fast and remain green and fertile during winter; benefit from the holes of the dense sward carpet during the spring sprout a large number of adapted therophytes (Poetalia bulbosae) [silicicolous thermo- to supramediterranean dry to lower subhumid (Periballio-Trifolion subterranei), calcicolous thermo-mesomediterranean upper semiarid to subhumid (Astragalo sesamei-Poion bulbosae), baso-neutrophilous on clayey chromic luvisols thermo-lower mesomediterranean subhumid-humid, Betic, Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and Maghrebian (Plantaginion serrariae)]. Western Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Bellis annua subsp. annua, Bellis annua subsp. microcephala, Bellis sylvestris var. pappulosa, Bellis sylvestris var. sylvestris, Gynandriris sisyrinchium, Leontodon tuberosus.

54a. Poetalia bulbosae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas Goday & Ladero 1970

Characteristic species: Erodium botrys, Herniaria glabra var. glaberrima, Herniaria glabra var. glabra, Parentucellia latifolia, Paronychia argentea, Poa bulbosa var. bulbosa, Poa bulbosa var. vivipara, Ranunculus paludosus, Romulea ramiflora, Scorpiurus vermiculatus, Taraxacum obovatum, Trifolium nigrescens, Trifolium pallidum, Trifolium subterraneum subsp. oxaloides, Trifolium suffocatum, Trifolium tomentosum.

54.1. Periballio-Trifolion subterranei Rivas Goday 1964 nom. inv. propos.
[Trifolio subterranei-Periballion]
Characteristic species: Astragalus cymbaecarpos, Onobrychis humilis, Ranunculus pseudomillefoliatus, Trifolium gemellum, Trifolium glomeratum, Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum.

54.2. Plantaginion serrariae Galán, Morales & Vicente 2000
Characteristic species: Biscutella baetica, Erodium primulaceum, Hypochoeris radicata subsp. platylepis, Merendera filifolia, Plantago serraria, Ranunculus bullatus.

54.3. Astragalo sesamei-Poion bulbosae Rivas Goday & Ladero 1970 nom. inv. propos.
[Poo bulbosae-Astragalion sesamei]
Characteristic species: Astragalus echinatus, Astragalus epiglottis, Astragalus incanus, Astragalus macrorhizus, Astragalus scorpioides, Astragalus sesameus, Astragalus stella, Convolvulus lineatus, Erodium cavanillesii, Lupinus micranthus, Medicago intertexta, Ophrys incubacea, Plantago albicans, Plantago loeflingii, Trifolium scabrum, Trigonella gladiata.

55. Sedo-Scleranthetea Br.-Bl. 1955

Perennial succulent Crassulaceae (Sedum, Sempervivum) and other dwarf chamaephyte and geophyte Eurosiberian and Mediterranean open communities, accompanied by ephemeral therophytes, growing on lithosols and rock surfaces of cohesive siliceous or calcareous substrata, in thermo- to lower orotemperate and thermo- to supramediterranean semiarid to hyperhumid. Siliceous cohesive rocks mostly on temperate (Sedo-Scleranthetalia) [Atlantic hyperoceanic and euoceanic thermo- to supratemperate humid-hyperhumid (Sedion anglici), Pyrenean, Orocantabric, Oroiberian and West Carpetan-Leonese, oceanic supra- to lower orotemperate and submediterranean subhumid to hyperhumid (Sedion pyrenaici)]; calcareous cohesive rocks and stony shallow soils on Temperate and Mediterranean (Alysso-Sedetalia) [Atlantic Mid-European and Alpine-Pyrenean meso- to lower orotemperate dry to humid (Alysso-Sedion albi), Western Mediterranean thermo- to lower supramediterranean semiarid to subhumid (Sedion micrantho-sediformis)]. Eurosiberian and Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Anthemis saxatilis, Potentilla hirta, Sempervivum tectorum, Taraxacum laevigatum.

55a. Sedo-Scleranthetalia Br.-Bl. 1955
Characteristic species: Anthemis carpatica, Cerastium arvense subsp. strictum, Potentilla argentea, Potentilla rupestris, Rumex acetosella subsp. acetosella, Scleranthus perennis, Sedum amplexicaule subsp. amplexicaule, Sedum annuum, Sedum brevifolium, Sedum rupestre, Sempervivum arachnoideum, Sempervivum montanum var. montanum, Silene rupestris.

55.1. Sedion anglici Br.-Bl. & Tüxen 1952
Characteristic species: Centaurea corcubionensis, Ornithogalum broteroi, Sedum anglicum subsp. anglicum, Sedum pruinatum, Thymus caespititius.

55.2. Sedion pyrenaici Tüxen ex Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas in T.E. Díaz & F. Prieto 1994
Characteristic species: Agrostis truncatula subsp. commista, Minuartia laricifolia subsp. diomedis, Scleranthus polycnemoides, Sedum anglicum subsp. pyrenaicum, Sedum montanum, Sempervivum tectorum var. andreanum, Sempervivum vicentei subsp. cantabricum, Sempervivum vicentei subsp. paui, Sempervivum vicentei subsp. vicentei, Spergula rimarum.

55b. Alysso-Sedetalia Moravec 1967
Characteristic species: Sedum amplexicaule subsp. tenuifolium.

55.3. Alysso-Sedion albi Oberdorfer & Müller in Müller 1961
Characteristic species: Sedum acre, Sedum album, Sedum sexangulare.

55.4. Sedion micrantho-sediformis Rivas-Martínez, P. Sánchez & Alcaraz ex P. Sánchez & Alcaraz 1993
Characteristic species: Sedum gypsicola, Sedum sediforme subsp. dianium, Sedum sediforme subsp. sediforme.

56. Lygeo-Stipetea Rivas-Martínez 1978 nom. conserv. propos.

[Thero-Brachypodietea Br.-Bl. ex A. & O. Bolòs 1950 (art. 36, 52)]
Mediterranean perennial basophilous xerophytic tall bunchy dense or short open grasslands (pseudo-steppes), without any salinization process or gleyic properties in the soils. In the ecological succession they represent one of the first subseral stages of the climactical bush or sclerophilous xeric forest of Quercetea ilicis. Spread in all Mediterranean Region but with Western Mediterranean optimum, in thermo- to supramediterranean oceanic semiarid to subhumid, on deep calcareous rich soils. Western Mediterranean tall or short grasslands (Lygeo-Stipetalia) [Western Mediterranean thermo-mesomediterranean semiarid and dry bunchy tall grassland communities dominated by Stipa tenacissima, growing on deep calcareous and clayey soils without any temporary hydric process or salinity (Stipion tenacissimae), Western Mediterranean thermo-mesomediterranean semiarid and dry dense grassland communities dominated by Lygeum spartum growing on deep clayey flat soils often with vertic properties, occasionally with a light temporary hydric process, but without salinity (Agropyro pectinati-Lygeion sparti), Betic upper meso-supramediterranean dry and subhumid tall grass communities growing on humus rich deep calcareous soils (Festucion scariosae), Western Mediterranean thermo- to supramediterranean semiarid to subhumid open short grasslands dominated by Brachypodium retusum, growing on calcareous soils often with a stony or gravel upper layer produced by erosion of the fine grained mineral elements, and representing in the succession a more degradated stage than the previous tall grasslands (Thero-Brachypodion retusi), Betic thermo- to supramediterranean dry and subhumid open short grasslands dominated by Brachypodium boissieri, growing on magnesite or dolomite rich soils formed by alteration of dolostone or serpentine rocks (Triseto velutini-Brachypodion boissieri), Western Mediterranean thermo- to supramediterranean semiarid and dry short open slightly subnitrophilous grasslands dominated by Stipa sp. pl., growing on eroded shallow calcareous soils (Stipion parviflorae)]; Mediterranean infra- to mesomediterranean semiarid to subhumid subnitrophilous tall bunchy grasslands mainly on rich soils growing on rocky or clayey slopes and old crop-fields, dominated by Paleotropical-Mediterranean Andropogoneae (Hyparrhenietalia hirtae). Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Allium pallens, Allium sphaerocephalon, Allium stearnii, Arrhenatherum album, Asphodelus cerasiferus, Bituminaria bituminosa, Brachypodium retusum, Convolvulus althaeoides, Dactylis hispanica subsp. hispanica, Dipcadi serotinum, Gladiolus italicus, Ophrys vernixia, Phagnalon saxatile subsp. saxatile.

56a. Lygeo-Stipetalia Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958 nom. conserv. propos.
[Thero-Brachypodietalia Br.-Bl. ex Bharucha 1933 (art. 36, 52)]
Characteristic species: Allium baeticum, Asphodelus ayardii, Avenula bromoides var. bromoides, Avenula bromoides var. straminea, Leuzea conifera, Linum narbonense, Narcissus dubius, Ophrys dyris, Ophrys lutea, Ornithogalum narbonense, Stipa capillata, Stipa juncea var. cabanasii, Stipa juncea var. juncea, Stipa offneri, Thapsia dissecta.

56.1. Thero-Brachypodion retusi Br.-Bl. 1925 nom. mut. propos.
[Thero-Brachypodion ramosi]
Characteristic species: Allium chamaemoly subsp. chamaemoly, Allium chamaemoly subsp. longicaulis, Allium moschatum, Arenaria valentina, Arenaria xdecipiens, Biarum dispar, Eryngium dilatatum, Leucojum valentinum, Ophrys bombyliflora, Ophrys tenthredinifera, Orchis papilionacea subsp. grandiflora, Phlomis lychnitis, Stipa pauneroana.

56.2. Agropyro pectinati-Lygeion sparti Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
[Eremopyro cristati-Lygeion sparti]
Characteristic species: Colchicum triphyllum, Ferula loscosii, Lygeum spartum, Pseudocytisus integrifolius subsp. integrifolius, Pseudocytisus integrifolius subsp. paui.

56.3. Stipion tenacissimae Rivas-Martínez 1978
Characteristic species: Allium melananthum, Armeria castroviejoi, Armeria vestita, Avenula gervaisii subsp. arundana, Avenula gervaisii subsp. gervaisii, Avenula gervaisii subsp. murcica, Helictotrichon filifolium subsp. filifolium, Lapiedra martinezii, Stipa lagascae var. australis, Stipa lagascae var. lagascae, Stipa tenacissima.

56.4. Festucion scariosae Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz 1984
Characteristic species: Asphodelus macrocarpus subsp. rubescens, Centaurea pulvinata, Festuca capillifolia, Festuca scariosa, Helictotrichon filifolium subsp. arundanum, Helictotrichon filifolium subsp. cazorlense, Helictotrichon filifolium subsp. velutinum, Stipa apertifolia var. nevadensis.

56.5. Stipion parviflorae De la Torre, Alcaraz & Vicedo 1996
Characteristic species: Lavandula multifida, Stipa barbata, Stipa bufensis, Stipa cazorlensis, Stipa clausa subsp. matritensis, Stipa iberica subsp. austroiberica, Stipa iberica subsp. iberica, Stipa parviflora var. parviflora, Stipa parviflora var. pilosa.

56.6. Triseto velutini-Brachypodion boissieri Rivas-Martínez, Molero & Pérez-Raya all. nova
Characteristic species: Brachypodium boissieri, Trisetum velutinum.

56b. Hyparrhenietalia hirtae Rivas-Martínez 1978
Characteristic species: See alliance (56.7).

56.7. Hyparrhenion hirtae Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira 1956
Characteristic species: Allium subvillosum, Andropogon distachyos, Andryala integrifolia var. integrifolia, Andryala laxiflora, Aristida caerulescens, Daucus crinitus, Daucus setifolius, Festuca caerulescens, Heteropogon contortus, Hyparrhenia hirta, Hyparrhenia sinaica, Lathyrus clymenum, Pennisetum setaceum, Satureja graeca var. graeca.

57. Stipo giganteae-Agrostietea castellanae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999

Silicicolous perennial grasslands rich in endemics, seral of Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus suber, Quercus faginea, Quercus broteroi and Quercus pyrenaica natural potential forests, meso and supramediterranean dry to humid and submediterranean of Mediterranean West Iberian and West Orocantabric, but spread in the rest of the neighbouring Western Mediterranean biogeographic territories, arriving locally to Northafrican Rif West valleys (Agrostietalia castellanae) [bunchy grasslands on deep cambisols meso-supramediterranean dry to subhumid (Agrostio castellanae-Stipion giganteae), supramediterranean and supratemperate humid (Festucion merinoi), meso-supramediterranean dry to subhumid meadow-like usually heavy grazed on gleyic cambisols (Agrostion castellanae)]. Western Mediterranean. A similar silicicolous perennial grassland exists on shallow soils in meso-supratemperate submediterranean hyperhumid summit zones of Madeiran biogeographic province in the natural potential vegetation territory of Polysticho falcinelli-Ericion arboreae microforests (Parafestucetalia albidae, Deschampsio maderensis-Parafestucion albidae).
Characteristic species: Agrostis castellana, Dactylis hispanica subsp. lusitanica, Festuca paniculata subsp. multispiculata, Gaudinia fragilis var. fragilis, Malva tournefortiana, Sanguisorba verrucosa.

57a. Agrostietalia castellanae Rivas Goday in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980
Characteristic species: Allium guttatum subsp. sardoum, Armeria lacaitae, Armeria segoviensis, Carex divisa subsp. chaetophylla, Festuca durandoi subsp. livida, Luzula campestris subsp. nevadensis, Ranunculus gramineus var. luzulifolius, Rumex acetosella subsp. angiocarpus, Rumex papillaris, Serapias lingua, Serapias parviflora, Thapsia villosa.

57.1. Agrostion castellanae Rivas Goday 1958 corr. Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1963
[Agrostion castellanae-tenuis]
Characteristic species: Armeria gaditana, Asphodelus aestivus, Asphodelus bento-rainhae subsp. bento-rainhae, Avenula lodunensis subsp. cintrana, Avenula lodunensis subsp. gaditana, Centaurea tentudaica, Festuca ampla subsp. ampla, Festuca ampla subsp. simplex, Holcus annuus subsp. annuus, Serapias viridis, Thapsia minor, Trifolium cernuum, Trifolium retusum.

57.2. Festucion merinoi Rivas-Martínez & Sánchez-Mata in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata 1986 corr. Rivas-Martínez & Sánchez-Mata 2002 hoc loco
[Festucion elegantis]
Characteristic species: Armeria beirana, Asphodelus bento-rainhae subsp. salmanticus, Festuca baetica, Festuca elegans subsp. elegans, Festuca elegans subsp. merinoi, Festuca graniticola, Phalacrocarpon oppositifolium, Phalacrocarpon hoffmannseggii, Ranunculus nigrescens.

57.3. Agrostio castellanae-Stipion giganteae Rivas Goday ex Rivas-Martínez & Fernández-González 1991
Characteristic species: Arrhenatherum baeticum, Asphodelus albus subsp. carpetanus, Centaurea amblensis, Centaurea aristata subsp. langeana, Centaurea ornata var. macrocephala, Centaurea paniculata subsp. castellana, Elaeoselinum gummiferum, Euphorbia oxyphylla, Festuca paniculata subsp. capillifolia, Stipa clausa subsp. clausa, Stipa gigantea.

57b. Parafestucetalia albidae Rivas-Martínez, Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim & Sequeira ordo novus
Characteristic species: See alliance (57.4).

57.4. Deschampsio maderensis-Parafestucion albidae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Agrostis obtusissima, Anthyllis lemanniana, Armeria maderensis, Crepis vesicaria subsp. andryaloides, Parafestuca albida, Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. fruticescens.

58. Violetea calaminariae Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Ernst 1965

European class not found in the territory.

VIIc. Meadow and chionophilous grassland vegetation

59. Molinio-Arrhenatheretea Tüxen 1937

Mesophile to wet often manured meadows and pastures communities on deep and moist soils, widely spread by grazed and antrophic activities in temperate, boreal (thermoboreal) and mediterranean territories all over the world, but with Eurasiatic optimum and origin. Temperate mesophile eutrophic manured meadows on well drained fertile minerale soils, mostly Eurosiberian (Arrhenatheretalia) [meso-supratemperate mowed at least twice a year (Arrhenatherion), upper supra-and lower orotemperate and thermoboreal mowed once a year (Triseto-Polygonion bistortae), meso-supratemperate and supramediterranean nutrient rich damp soils, developed pastures by intensive grazing (Cynosurion cristati)]; temperate pastures and medows in permanent moist often peaty soils occasionally mowed, mostly Eurosiberian (Molinietalia caeruleae) [meso-supratemperate oligo-mesotrophic unmanured moist pastures (Molinion caeruleae), meso to lower orotemperate manured meadows, semicontinental and subcontinental, often on inundated soils (Calthion palustris), thermo to supratemperate and mediterranean oceanic rushy pastures usually unmanured on marshy or mineral peaty soils (Juncion acutiflori)]; mediterranean summer green pastures and grasslands, growing on deep and damp soils (Holoschoenetalia vulgaris) [thermo to supramediterranean club-rushy pastures (Molinio-Holoschoenion: Molinio-Holoschoenenion = meso-eutrophic base-rich soils, Brizo-Holoschoenenion = oligo-mesotrophic base poor soils), meso-supramediterranean grasslands on temporary wet clayey, often expanded, base-rich soils (Deschampsion mediae), thermomediterranean Betic and Tingitanian grasslands on temporary wet vertic soils (Gaudinio verticicolae-Hordeion bulbosi)]; thermo-mesomediterranean and thermo-mesotemperate Cantabrian-Atlantic temporary inundated or submerged river meadows rich in stoloniferous decumbent neo-tropical alloctonous perennial grasses on mineral muddy soils (Crypsio-Paspaletalia distichi, Paspalo distichi-Polypogonion viridis: Paspalo distichi-Polypogonenion viridis = fresh water, Spergulario-Paspalenion vaginati = marine brackish water); temperate and mediterranean wide spread trampled and grazed hygrophilous perennial creeping pastures and low forb communities, often temporary inundated, on moist to wet eutrophic soils rich in organic and mineral nutrients (Plantaginetalia majoris) [supra-orotemperate and oromediterranean heavely overgrazed or trampled swards dominated by the perennial creeping grass Poa supina (Poion supinae), thermo to supramediterranean grazed and trampled summer swards growing on moist nutrient rich soils, usually dominated by creeping sedges and grasses (Trifolio fragiferi-Cynodontion dactyli), meso-supratemperate and thermo to supramediterranean rushy pastures heavely grazed growing on temporary inundated but summer moist mineral and organic nutrient rich soils (Mentho-Juncion inflexi), meso to orotemperate and meso to oromediterranean heavely trampled and overgrazed, occasionally inundated, widely spread pioneer perennial grass-like and low forb communities growing on rich and summer moist soils with excess of dung and nutrients (Potentillion anserinae)]. Almost cosmopolitan (non tropical).
Characteristic species: Agrostis capillaris, Agrostis xmurbeckii, Alopecurus pratensis, Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. odoratum, Arrhenatherum elatius subsp. bulbosum, Cardamine pratensis, Carex distans, Carex flacca, Centaurea jacea, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Crepis capillaris, Dactylis glomerata, Dactylorhiza elata subsp. sesquipedalis, Dactylorhiza sambucina, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Festuca pratensis, Holcus lanatus, Hypericum tetrapterum, Knautia arvernensis, Lathyrus pratensis, Linum angustifolium, Lotus corniculatus subsp. corniculatus, Oenanthe lachenalii, Orchis coriophora subsp. coriophora, Orchis coriophora subsp. martrinii, Orchis laxiflora, Phleum pratense subsp. serotinum, Plantago lanceolata subsp. lanceolata, Poa pratensis, Poa trivialis subsp. trivialis, Prunella vulgaris, Ranunculus acris subsp. despectus, Rhinanthus minor, Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa, Sanguisorba officinalis, Schoenus nigricans, Senecio helenitis subsp. macrochaetus, Senecio jacobea, Tephroseris helenitis subsp. macrochaetus, Trifolium pratense.

59a. Molinietalia caeruleae Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Achillea ptarmica subsp. ptarmica, Alchemilla xanthochlora, Carex panicea, Carex tomentosa, Centaurea nigra subsp. rivularis, Cirsium oleraceum, Cirsium palustre, Colchicum autumnale, Dactylorhiza fistulosa, Dactylorhiza maculata, Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. majalis, Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. cespitosa, Equisetum palustre, Galium uliginosum, Gymnadenia conopsea, Juncus acutiflorus, Juncus articulatus, Juncus conglomeratus, Juncus effusus, Juncus fontanesii, Juncus subnodulosus, Lotus pedunculatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea subsp. caerulea, Platanthera chlorantha, Poa trivialis subsp. sylvicola, Ranunculus flammula, Senecio aquaticus, Serratula tinctoria var. tinctoria, Silaum silaus, Trifolium hybridum, Trifolium patens, Trifolium spadiceum, Trollius europaeus, Valeriana dioica.

59.1. Molinion caeruleae Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Cirsium tuberosum, Festuca trichophylla, Genista tinctoria, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Succisa pratensis.

59.2. Calthion palustris Tüxen 1937
Characteristic species: Bromus racemosus, Caltha palustris subsp. palustris, Cirsium heterophyllum, Cirsium rivulare, Crepis paludosa, Geum rivale, Myosotis scorpioides subsp. lamottiana, Polygonum bistorta, Scirpus sylvaticus.

59.3. Juncion acutiflori Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Tüxen 1952
Characteristic species: Carex binervis, Carum verticillatum, Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. hispanica, Galium rivulare, Hypericum undulatum, Peucedanum lancifolium, Scutellaria minor, Serapias cordigera, Silene laeta.

59b. Arrhenatheretalia Tüxen 1931
Characteristic species: Achillea millefolium, Avenula pubescens, Bromus commutatus, Carum carvi, Crepis biennis, Leucanthemum ircutianum subsp. ircutianum, Malva moschata, Narcissus poeticus, Rhinanthus angustifolius, Rhinanthus mediterraneus, Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon pratensis, Trifolium dubium, Trisetum flavescens.

59.4. Arrhenatherion Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Arrhenatherum elatius subsp. elatius, Campanula patula, Galium album, Geranium pratense, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, Knautia arvensis subsp. arvensis, Pedicularis schizocalyx, Pimpinella major.

59.5. Triseto-Polygonion bistortae Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Marschall 1947
Characteristic species: Astrantia major, Crepis mollis, Crepis pyrenaica, Heracleum pyrenaicum, Thalictrum flavum subsp. costae, Trifolium badium.

59.6. Cynosurion cristati Tüxen 1947
Characteristic species: Bellis perennis, Cynosurus cristatus, Leontodon autumnalis, Phleum pratense subsp. pratense, Trifolium repens, Veronica serpyllifolia subsp. serpyllifolia.

59c. Holoschoenetalia vulgaris Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948
Characteristic species: Alopecurus arundinaceus subsp. castellanus, Blackstonia perfoliata, Cirsium pyrenaicum, Cyperus eragrostis, Festuca arundinacea subsp. mediterranea, Hypericum caprifolium, Hypericum pubescens, Melilotus indicus, Oenanthe pimpinelloides, Phalaris aquatica, Pulicaria dysenterica var. ramosissima, Scirpoides holoschoenus subsp. holoschoenus.

59.7. Molinio-Holoschoenion vulgaris Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948
(Molinio-Holoschoenenion Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 (59.7a). Brizo-Holoschoenenion (Rivas Goday 1964) Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 (59.7b))
Characteristic species: Agrostis reuteri (59.7b), Carex mairii (59.7a), Centaurea jacea subsp. vinyalsii, Cirsium monspessulanum (59.7a), Cochlearia glastifolia (59.7a), Cochlearia megalosperma, Dorycnium rectum, Erica erigena, Euphorbia hirsuta, Festuca fenas, Galium debile (59.7b), Hypericum hircinum subsp. cambessedesii, Hypericum tomentosum (59.7a), Linum tenue, Lysimachia ephemerum (59.7a), Molinia caerulea subsp. arundinacea, Peucedanum hispanicum (59.7a), Ranunculus bulbosus subsp. aleae, Ranunculus granatensis, Ranunculus macrophyllus, Scirpoides holoschoenus subsp. australis (59.7b), Scrophularia balbisii subsp. valentina, Senecio doria, Serapias vomeracea (59.7b), Sonchus aquatilis, Succisella andreae-molinae (59.7a), Tetragonolobus maritimus var. hirsutus, Thalictrum flavum subsp. flavum, Thalictrum matritense (59.7a), Thalictrum speciosissimum.

59.8. Deschampsion mediae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre 1952
Characteristic species: Achillea ageratum, Centaurea jacea subsp. approximata, Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. subtriflora, Deschampsia media, Jasonia tuberosa, Leucanthemum aligulatum, Plantago serpentina, Prunella hyssopifolia, Sanguisorba lateriflora, Senecio carpetanus, Seseli elatum, Trifolium lappaceum.

59.9. Gaudinio verticicolae-Hordeion bulbosi Galán, Deil, Haug & Vicente 1997 corr. hoc loco
Characteristic species: Festuca arundinacea subsp. atlantigena, Gaudinia fragilis var. verticicola, Hordeum bulbosum, Phalaris coerulescens.

59d. Crypsio-Paspaletalia distichi Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre 1952 nom. inv. et nom. mut. propos.
[Paspalo-Heleochloetalia]
Characteristic species: See alliance (59.10).

59.10. Paspalo-Polypogonion viridis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre 1952 nom. mut. propos.
[Paspalo distichi-Agrostion verticillatae]
(Paspalo distichi-Polypogonenion viridis Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 nom. mut. propos. (59.10a). Spergulario-Paspalenion vaginati Bueno & F. Prieto in Bueno 1997 (59.10b))
Characteristic species: Lythrum junceum, Paspalum dilatatum, Paspalum distichum, Paspalum vaginatum, Polypogon viridis, Polypogon xascendens.

59e. Plantaginetalia majoris Tüxen & Preising in Tüxen 1950
[Agrostietalia stoloniferae]
Characteristic species: Agrostis stolonifera var. scabriglumis, Agrostis stolonifera var. stolonifera, Carex hirta, Epilobium tetragonum subsp. tournefortii, Hypochoeris radicata subsp. radicata, Juncus compressus, Lepidium latifolium, Lolium perenne, Lotus glaber, Plantago major subsp. major, Potentilla anserina, Potentilla reptans, Ranunculus repens, Rumex conglomeratus, Rumex crispus, Rumex obtusifolius, Sporobolus indicus, Verbena officinalis.

59.11. Potentillion anserinae Tüxen 1947
Characteristic species: Blysmus compressus, Carex hordeistichos, Chamaemelum nobile, Juncus tenuis, Plantago major subsp. intermedia.

59.12. Trifolio fragiferi-Cynodontion Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958
Characteristic species: Carex divisa subsp. divisa, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus laevigatus subsp. distachyos, Lactuca saligna, Taraxacum pyropappum, Trifolium fragiferum.

59.13. Agrostion stoloniferae Görs 1966
Characteristic species: Allium schoenoprasum subsp. schoenoprasum, Alopecurus geniculatus, Carex viridula subsp. viridula, Festuca arundinacea subsp. arundinacea, Lysimachia nummularia, Rorippa sylvestris, Teucrium scordium.

59.14. Poion supinae Rivas-Martínez & Géhu 1978
Characteristic species: Poa supina, Spergularia capillacea, Taraxacum dissectum, Veronica serpyllifolia subsp. humifusa.

59.15. Mentho-Juncion inflexi De Foucault 1984
Characteristic species: Carex cuprina, Cyperus longus subsp. badius, Epilobium tetragonum subsp. tetragonum, Juncus inflexus, Mentha longifolia, Mentha suaveolens, Mentha xdumetorum, Mentha xniliaca.

60. Nardetea strictae Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1963

Anthropogenic intensely grazed acidophilous grasslands and high mountains climactical swards of the upper timberline zones with long lasting snow in Eurosiberian and Western Mediterranean Oceanic meso to cryorotemperate and supra to cryoromediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid, growing on summer moist deep and strongly acid organic mineral or peaty mineral soils (Nardetalia strictae). Eurosiberian (Nardetalia: Nardenalia) [Alpine-Pyrenean and spread up to East Orocantabric upper supra to cryorotemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid long snowy climactical and anthropogenic by grazing (Nardion: Carici macrostyli-Nardenion = Pyrenean and Picoeuropean), Atlantic and Mid-European meso-supratemperate subhumid to hyperhumid developped by grazing (Violion caninae: Violenion caninae = wet soils, Juncenion squarrosi = histic horizon), Azorean meso-supratemperate hyper-ultrahyperhumid (Festucion jubatae)]; Western Mediterranean (Nardetalia: Campanulo herminii-Nardenalia) [Nevadensian oro-cryoromediterranean climactical long lasting snow hygrophilous swards (Plantaginion nivalis), Mediterranean West Iberian, Mediterranean Central Iberian and spread up to West Orocantabric supratemperate and oro-cryorotemperate mostly submediterranean subhumid to ultrahyperhumid anthropogenic by grazing and climactical in long lasting snow in upper timberline zones (Campanulo herminii-Nardion)]. Eurosiberian, Western Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Antennaria dioica, Carex umbrosa subsp. huetiana, Coeloglossum viride, Festuca paniculata subsp. fontqueri, Gagea soleirolii, Hypericum maculatum, Ophioglossum azoricum, Scilla verna.

60a. Nardetalia strictae Oberdorfer ex Preising 1949
Characteristic species: Ajuga pyramidalis, Arnica montana subsp. montana, Botrychium lunaria, Carex leporina, Carex pallescens, Carex pilulifera, Danthonia decumbens, Dianthus deltoides, Euphrasia hirtella, Euphrasia willkommii, Festuca nigrescens subsp. microphylla, Festuca rivularis, Gentiana pneumonanthe subsp. pneumonanthe, Hieracium lactucella, Hypochoeris maculata, Juncus cantabricus, Juncus squarrosus, Luzula multiflora subsp. multiflora, Meum athamanticum var. athamanticum, Nardus stricta, Pedicularis sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, Potentilla erecta, Potentilla pyrenaica, Primula intricata subsp. lofthousei, Selinum pyrenaeum, Stellaria graminea.

60aa. Nardenalia strictae
Characteristic species: Erythronium dens-canis, Euphrasia alpina subsp. alpina, Gentianella campestris.

60.1. Nardion strictae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
(Carici macrostyli-Nardenion strictae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984 (60.1a))
Characteristic species: Alopecurus alpinus, Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. nipponicum, Bellardiochloa variegata, Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. susplugasii (60.1a), Carex macrostylon (60.1a), Crocus albiflorus, Diphasium alpinum, Endressia pyrenaica (60.1a), Galium caespitosum (60.1a), Gentiana acaulis, Gentiana pyrenaica (60.1a), Geum montanum, Nigritella gabasiana (60.1a), Luzula multiflora subsp. pyrenaica (60.1a), Luzula sudetica, Nigritella nigra subsp. nigra, Phleum alpinum subsp. rhaeticum, Plantago alpina subsp. alpina, Polygala edmundii (60.1a), Pseudorchis albida, Ranunculus amplexicaulis (60.1a), Ranunculus angustifolius subsp. angustifolius (60.1a), Thymus alpestris, Trifolium alpinum, Trisetum baregense (60.1a).

60.2. Violion caninae Schwickerath 1944
(Violenion caninae Peppler-Lisbach & Petersen 2001 (60.2a). Juncenion squarrosi Oberdorfer 1957 (60.2b))
Characteristic species: Galium saxatile subsp. saxatile, Gentiana pneumonanthe var. aloyana (60.2a), Luzula multiflora subsp. congesta, Polygala serpyllifolia, Polygala vulgaris subsp. oxyptera, Viola canina.

60.5. Festucion jubatae Lüpnitz 1976
Characteristic species: Agrostis azorica, Avenella foliosa, Avenula lodunensis subsp. marginata, Festuca jubata, Holcus rigidus.

60ab. Campanulo herminii-Nardenalia Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata 1986
Characteristic species: Campanula herminii, Carex furva, Festuca iberica, Gentiana boryi, Sagina nevadensis, Sedum melanantherum, Trifolium repens subsp. nevadense.

60.3. Plantaginion nivalis Quézel 1953 nom. mut. propos.
[Plantaginion thalackeri]
Characteristic species: Agrostis nevadensis, Armeria splendens, Cirsium gregarium, Gentiana pneumonanthe subsp. depressa, Gentiana verna subsp. sierrae, Hieracium pilosella subsp. tricholepium, Leontodon carpetanus subsp. nevadensis, Leontodon xnivatensis, Lotus glacialis, Luzula hispanica subsp. nevadensis, Meum athamanticum var. nevadense, Phleum abbreviatum, Plantago nivalis, Plantago radicata subsp. granatensis, Potentilla nevadensis subsp. condensata, Ranunculus acetosellifolius, Ranunculus demissus var. hispanicus.

60.4. Campanulo herminii-Nardion strictae Rivas-Martínez 1964
Characteristic species: Allium schoenoprasum subsp. gredense, Allium schoenoprasum subsp. latiorifolium, Deschampsia hispanica subsp. gredensis, Dianthus langeanus subsp. gredensis, Dianthus legionensis, Erodium carvifolium, Festuca henriquesii, Festuca rothmaleri, Galium saxatile subsp. vivianum, Jasione laevis subsp. carpetana, Jasione laevis subsp. gredensis, Leontodon carpetanus subsp. carpetanus, Luzula campestris subsp. carpetana, Narcissus bulbocodium subsp. graellsii, Narcissus bulbocodium subsp. nivalis, Plantago alpina subsp. penyalarensis, Poa alpina subsp. legionensis, Potentilla recta subsp. asturica, Ranunculus abnormis, Ranunculus bulbosus subsp. cacuminalis.