Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxonomical system: Supratimberline climactical zonal vegetation on cryophilous geliturbated soils

VIa. Circumarctic and Eurosiberian vegetation

44. Carici rupestris-Kobresietea myosuroidis Ohba 1974 nom. mut. propos.

[Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii]
Holarctic cryorotemperate, oroboreal and mesopolar supratimberline zonal chionophobous wind exposed graminoid Kobresia sp. and dwarf cushion-shaped chamaephyte grassland-like communities, on alpine rendzina calcareous rich geliturbated soils; in Pyrenean, Alpine, Appenine-Balkan and Carpathian high mountains, spread in Orocantabric Central Picos de Europa summits (Kobresietalia myosuroidis: Oxytropido-Kobresion myosuroidis). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus australis, Carex atrata, Carex capillaris, Carex rupestris, Draba carinthiaca, Erigeron uniflorus subsp. uniflorus, Gentiana nivalis, Gentianella tenella, Kobresia myosuroides, Oxytropis campestris, Polygonum viviparum, Silene acaulis subsp. acaulis.

44a. Kobresietalia myosuroidis Oberdorfer 1957 nom. mut. propos.
[Elynetalia myosuroidis]
Characteristic species: Dryas octopetala, Festuca quadriflora, Oxytropis lapponica.

44.1. Oxytropido-Kobresion myosuroidis Br.-Bl. (1948) 1949 nom. mut. propos.
[Oxytropido-Elynion myosuroidis]
Characteristic species: Antennaria carpatica, Carex curvula subsp. rosae, Cerastium alpinum subsp. alpinum, Cerastium alpinum subsp. lanatum, Erigeron uniflorus subsp. picoeuropaeanus (44.1.3), Euphrasia sicardii, Oxytropis amethystea, Oxytropis foucaudii, Oxytropis halleri, Oxytropis neglecta.

45. Kobresio myosuroidis-Seslerietea caeruleae Br.-Bl. 1948 nom. mut. propos.

[Festuco-Seslerietea, Elyno-Seslerietea]
Graminoid and dwarf chamaephyte basophile grassland communities, in orotemperate and upper supratemperate extrazonal with moderated or long snow cover or confine zonal in lower cryorotemperate wind or rocky exposed stations, growing on alpine dark rendzina or shallow calcareous rich lithosols in Pyrenean, Alpine and Appenine-Balkan biogeographic territories, and spread until Orocantabric and Carpathian high mountains (Seslerietalia caeruleae) [Pyrenean long snow cover with gleyic or histic properties (Primulion intricatae), Pyrenean wind exposed or moderate snow cover (Salicion pyrenaicae), Orocantabric (Armerion cantabricae). Alpine-Caucasian.
Characteristic species: Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus, Agrostis alpina, Anemone narcissiflora, Aster alpinus, Carex ferruginea subsp. tenax, Carex ornithopoda subsp. ornithopoda, Carex sempervirens subsp. sempervirens, Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides, Erigeron alpinus subsp. alpinus, Euphrasia salisburgensis, Gentiana verna subsp. verna, Helictotrichon sedenense subsp. sedenense, Lotus alpinus, Minuartia verna, Myosotis alpestris, Polygala alpestris, Polygala alpina, Sesleria caerulea subsp. caerulea, Soldanella alpina subsp. alpina, Stachys alopecuros.

45a. Seslerietalia caeruleae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Alchemilla alpigena, Androsace lactea, Androsace villosa, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. alpestris, Arenaria purpurascens, Astragalus penduliflorus, Bulbocodium vernum, Callianthemum coriandrifolium, Carduus carlinifolius, Erigeron glabratus var. occidentalis, Festuca xpicoeuropeana, Gentiana occidentalis, Geranium cinereum, Globularia nudicaulis, Horminum pyrenaicum, Leontopodium alpinum, Linum alpinum, Pedicularis foliosa, Petrocallis pyrenaica, Potentilla crantzii subsp. latestipula, Ranunculus gouanii, Ranunculus thora, Saponaria bellidifolia, Saxifraga caesia, Sedum atratum, Senecio doronicum subsp. doronicum, Thesium alpinum, Thymus polytrichus subsp. britannicus, Trifolium thalii.

45.1. Primulion intricatae Br.-Bl. ex Vigo 1972
Characteristic species: Adonis pyrenaica, Armeria pubinervis, Gentiana clusii subsp. pyrenaica, Globularia gracilis, Nigritella nigra subsp. iberica, Primula intricata subsp. intricata, Scabiosa columbaria subsp. cinerea.

45.2. Salicion pyrenaicae Vigo ex Rivas-Martínez all. nova
[Laserpitio-Ranunculion thorae]
Characteristic species: Androsace cylindrica subsp. hirtella, Aquilegia pyrenaica subsp. pyrenaica, Dethawia tenuifolia subsp. tenuifolia, Geum pyrenaicum, Leucanthemum gaudinii subsp. barrelieri, Pulsatilla alpina subsp. font-queri, Salix pyrenaica, Thymus nervosus.

45.3. Armerion cantabricae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Alchemilla sierrae, Androsace vitaliana subsp. flosjugorum, Aquilegia pyrenaica subsp. discolor, Armeria cantabrica, Dethawia tenuifolia subsp. cantabrica, Jasione cavanillesii, Pedicularis pyrenaica subsp. fallax, Pulsatilla alpina subsp. cantabrica, Silene ciliata subsp. arvatica, Soldanella alpina subsp. cantabrica.

46. Caricetea curvulae Br.-Bl. 1948 nom. conserv. propos.

[Juncetea trifidi]
Upper timberline and supratimberline zonal wind exposed geliturbated and extrazonal moderated long snow cover, graminoid and dwarf-chamaephyte grassland-like communities, oro-cryorotemperate and supra-oroboreal growing on alpine ranker or shallow cambisols without histic or gleyic properties, in European Boreal (Scandinavian, Ural and Altai mountains) and Alpine-Caucasian (Pyrenean, Alps, Balkans, Caucasus high mountains) biogeographic territories (Caricetalia curvulae) [zonal cryorotemperate Pyrenean (Festucion airoidis), orotemperate extrazonal and lower cryorotemperate chionophilous Pyrenean (Festucion eskiae)]. Eurosiberian.
Characteristic species: Agrostis rupestris subsp. rupestris, Alchemilla pyrenaica, Androsace halleri, Arenaria ciliata subsp. moehringioides, Artemisia eriantha, Avenula versicolor, Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. scheuchzeri, Carex curvula subsp. curvula, Crepis conyzifolia, Festuca paniculata subsp. paniculata, Gentiana alpina, Gentiana verna subsp. schleicheri, Hieracium hypeurum, Juncus trifidus, Leontodon pyrenaicus subsp. pyrenaicus, Leucanthemopsis alpina subsp. alpina, Minuartia recurva subsp. recurva, Minuartia sedoides, Pedicularis pyrenaica subsp. pyrenaica, Phyteuma hemisphaericum, Poa glauca, Primula integrifolia, Pulsatilla vernalis, Saussurea alpina, Silene acaulis subsp. exscapa, Solidago virgaurea subsp. minuta, Veronica fruticulosa.

46a. Caricetalia curvulae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Carex ericetorum var. approximata, Cerastium lanatum subsp. lanatum, Euphrasia minima, Festuca xsouliei, Hieracium piliferum, Pedicularis kerneri, Pedicularis tuberosa, Potentilla aurea, Potentilla frigida, Potentilla grandiflora, Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus.

46.1. Festucion airoidis Br.-Bl. 1948 nom. mut. propos.
[Festucion supinae]
Characteristic species: Agrostis rupestris subsp. pyrenaica, Androsace laggeri, Armeria alpina subsp. occasiana, Armeria muelleri, Erigeron aragonensis, Festuca airoides, Hieracium breviscapum, Oreochloa disticha subsp. blanka, Silene ciliata subsp. ciliata.

46.2. Festucion eskiae Br.-Bl. 1948
Characteristic species: Armeria alpina subsp. bubanii, Campanula recta, Campanula scheuchzeri subsp. ficarioides, Carex sempervirens subsp. pseudotristis, Dianthus seguieri subsp. vigoi, Erigeron alpinus subsp. pyrenaicus, Festuca arvernensis subsp. costei, Festuca eskia, Festuca niphobia, Festuca rubra subsp. juncea, Festuca yvesii, Galium pumilum subsp. marchandii, Jasione laevis subsp. laevis, Luzula nutans, Ranunculus pyrenaeus, Rhinanthus pumilus, Sideritis aranensis, Veronica bellidioides.

47. Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea Eggler ex Schubert 1960

Polar, supra to cryoroboreal, upper orotemperate and cryorotemperate, supratimberline zonal wind exposed geliturbated and moderated long snow cover dwarf-shrub heaths and dwarf-willows communities, on alpine dark rendzina and alpine ranker or shallow podzol in Circumartic, North American Boreal, Eurosiberian and Eastern Siberian biogeographic territories (Empetretalia hermaphroditi) (Alpine-Caucasian: Loiseleurio-Vaccinion). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Arctostaphylos alpinus, Dianthus barbatus, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Luzula lutea, Phyllodoce caerulea, Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

47a. Empetretalia hermaphroditi Schubert 1960
Characteristic species: See class (47).

47.1. Loiseleurio-Vaccinion Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: See class (47).

48. Salicetea herbaceae Br.-Bl. 1948

Polar, supra to cryoroboreal, oro-cryorotemperate and cryoromediterranean extrazonal long-lasting snow-beds pioneer dwarf chamaephyte and nanotherophyte grassland-like communities, on initial temporary wet gleyic soils in circumartic, boreal, and temperate or mediterranean high mountain territories (Salicetalia herbaceae) [Boreo and Alpine-Caucasian siliceous (Salicion herbaceae), Alpine-Pyrenean calcareous or calcium carbonate rich substrata (Arabidion caeruleae), submediterranean and cryoromediterranean high altitude Iberian Peninsula ranges (Sedion candollei)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Carex pyrenaica, Epilobium anagallidifolium, Omalotheca supina subsp. supina, Plantago atrata, Salix herbacea, Salix reticulata, Sedum alpestre, Sibbaldia procumbens, Veronica alpina subsp. alpina.

48a. Salicetalia herbaceae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Poa minor subsp. minor.

48.1. Salicion herbaceae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Alchemilla fissa, Alchemilla pentaphyllea, Alchemilla subsericea, Anthelia juratzkana, Arenaria biflora, Cardamine alpina, Carex foetida, Carex lachenalii, Cerastium cerastoides, Luzula alpinopilosa subsp. candollei.

48.2. Arabidion caeruleae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926
Characteristic species: Carex ornithopoda subsp. ornithopodioides, Carex parviflora, Omalotheca hoppeana, Potentilla brauniana, Ranunculus alpestris subsp. alpestris, Ranunculus alpestris subsp. leroyi, Salix retusa, Saxifraga androsacea, Veronica aphylla.

48.3. Sedion candollei Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 nom. mut. propos.
[Mucizonion sedoidis]
Characteristic species: Arenaria nevadensis, Lepidium stylatum, Omalotheca supina subsp. pusilla, Sedum candollei, Veronica alpina subsp. minuscularia.

VIb. West-Mediterranean orophilous silicicolous vegetation

49. Festucetea indigestae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez 1971

Supra to cryoromediterranean and submediterranean, zonal in supratimberline and secondary at lower altitudes, silicicolous geliturbate graminoid and dwarf-chamaephyte grassland-like communities, on ranker or cambisols without histic or gleyic properties, in Mediterranean West Iberian Peninsula and North African Rif mountains. High altitude Iberian ranges mostly zonal (Festucetalia indigestae) [oro and cryorotemperate siliceous Nevadensian (Nevadension purpureae: Nevadensienion purpureae = cryoromediterranean Sierra Nevada, Thymenion serpylloidis = oromediterranean Sierra Nevada and Filabres), oro and cryorotemperate Central and Oroiberian ranges (Minuartio-Festucion curvifoliae), oro and cryorotemperate Orocantabric, Orensan-Sanabriensean and Estrelensean high mountains (Teesdaliopsio-Luzulion caespitosae)]; supra to lower oromediterranean dry to humid central, west and south Iberian secondary dwarf-chamaephyte grassland-like on siliceous and geliturbate shallow soils (Jasiono sessiliflorae-Koelerietalia crassipedis) [siliceous metal rich and serpentine rocks mostly Trasosmontanean (Armerion eriophyllae), wide Mediterranean West Iberian and related Betic and Mediterranean Central Iberian high plateau and mountains (Hieracio castellani-Plantaginion radicatae). Western Mediterranean.
Characteristic species: Jurinea humilis, Koeleria caudata subsp. crassipes, Leucanthemopsis pallida subsp. alpina, Plantago radicata subsp. radicata.

49a. Festucetalia indigestae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez 1964
Characteristic species: Dianthus brachyanthus, Dianthus langeanus subsp. langeanus, Leucanthemopsis pallida subsp. flaveola, Luzula hispanica subsp. hispanica, Minuartia recurva subsp. juressi, Senecio boissieri, Silene ciliata subsp. elegans, Veronica fruticans subsp. cantabrica.

49.1. Nevadension purpureae Quézel 1953 nom. mut. propos.
[Ptilotrichion purpurei]
(Nevadensienion purpureae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata 1986 nom. mut. propos. (49.1a). Thymenion serpylloidis (Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez 1964) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata 1986 (49.1b))
Characteristic species: Androsace vitaliana subsp. nevadensis, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. nivalis (49.1a), Arenaria armerina subsp. armerina (49.1b), Arenaria armerina subsp. frigida (49.1b), Arenaria imbricata, Arenaria pungens subsp. pungens, Avenula levis, Dactylis juncinella, Draba hispanica subsp. laderoi, Erigeron frigidus, Erigeron major, Erodium foetidum subsp. cheilanthifolium (49.1b), Eryngium glaciale, Erysimum nevadense (49.1b), Festuca clementei (49.1a), Festuca indigesta subsp. indigesta, Festuca longiauriculata (49.1b), Festuca paniculata subsp. moleroi, Festuca pseudoeskia, Helictotrichon sedenense subsp. teretifolium (49.1a), Herniaria boissieri, Jasione amethystina, Leontodon boryi, Leucanthemopsis pectinata, Nevadensia purpurea (49.1a), Potentilla nevadensis subsp. nevadensis (49.1a), Sideritis glacialis subsp. glacialis, Silene boryi subsp. boryi, Thymus serpylloides (49.1b), Trisetum antonii-josephii, Trisetum glaciale.

49.2. Minuartio-Festucion curvifoliae Rivas-Martínez 1964 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
[Minuartio-Festucion indigestae]
Characteristic species: Agrostis truncatula subsp. truncatula var. alpina, Androsace vitaliana subsp. aurelii, Armeria bigerrensis subsp. bigerrensis, Armeria bigerrensis subsp. losae, Armeria bigerrensis subsp. microcephala, Armeria caespitosa subsp. caespitosa, Campanula urbionensis, Erysimum humile subsp. penyalarense, Festuca aragonensis, Festuca indigesta subsp. curvifolia, Festuca vettonica, Hieracium myriadenum, Hieracium vahlii, Jasione crispa subsp. centralis, Leucanthemopsis alpina subsp. cuneata, Luzula caespitosa subsp. iberica, Minuartia recurva subsp. bigerrensis, Ranunculus bupleuroides subsp. cherubicus, Thymus praecox subsp. penyalarensis.

49.3. Teesdaliopsio-Luzulion caespitosae Rivas-Martínez 1987
Characteristic species: Agrostis tileni, Androsace cantabrica, Androsace rioxana, Armeria duriaei, Armeria sampaioi, Jasione crispa subsp. brevisepala, Leontodon pyrenaicus subsp. cantabricus, Leontodon pyrenaicus subsp. herminicus, Luzula caespitosa subsp. caespitosa, Luzula caespitosa subsp. sanabriae, Luzula xgayana, Teesdaliopsis conferta.

49b. Jasiono sessiliflorae-Koelerietalia crassipedis Rivas-Martínez & Cantó 1987
Characteristic species: Armeria langei subsp. langei, Avenula lodunensis subsp. romero-zarcoi, Festuca summilusitana, Helianthemum apeninum subsp. masguindalii, Herniaria scabrida, Hieracium castellanum, Jasione sessiliflora subsp. sessiliflora, Ornithogalum concinnum, Sesamoides purpurascens.

49.4. Armerion eriophyllae P. Silva 1965
Characteristic species: Arenaria querioides subsp. fontiqueri, Armeria eriophylla, Armeria langei subsp. daveaui, Armeria merinoi, Avenula pratensis subsp. lusitanica, Dianthus caespitosifolius, Dianthus merinoi subsp. marizii, Festuca brigantinaJasione sessiliflora subsp. serpentinica.

49.5. Hieracio castellani-Plantaginion radicatae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó 1987
Characteristic species: Agrostis truncatula subsp. truncatula var. truncatula, Arenaria querioides subsp. querioides, Armeria arenaria subsp. vestita, Armeria caballeroi, Armeria ciliata, Armeria humilis, Armeria salmantica, Armeria trachyphylla, Armeria transmontana, Bufonia macropetala subsp. macropetala, Centaurea alba subsp. alba, Centaurea toletana var. toletana, Dianthus laricifolius subsp. laricifolius, Dianthus merinoi subsp. merinoi, Festuca gredensis, Festuca rivas-martinezii subsp. rivas-martinezii, Hippocrepis carpetana, Leucanthemopsis pallida subsp. pallida, Leucanthemopsis pulverulenta, Linaria aeruginea subsp. atrofusca, Ortegia hispanica, Plantago radicata subsp. acanthophylla, Reseda virgata, Silene legionensis, Thymus bracteatus subsp. borgiae, Thymus leptophyllus subsp. izcoi, Thymus xnovocastellanus.