Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxonomical system: Synanthropic, fringe and megaforbic vegetation

Va. Synanthropic vegetation

34. Artemisietea vulgaris Lohmeyer, Preising & Tüxen ex von Rochow 1951

Perennial and tall biennial forbs, grasses and thistle pioneer ruderal and nitrophilous sunny communities growing on rich soils and spread in mediterranean pluviseasonal and temperate Holarctic territories, and as neophyte in all related world areas and cold tropical belts. Temperate perennial ruderal forbs and pionneer nitrophilous grassland-like (Artemisienea vulgaris): ruderal forbs mostly in Temperate (Artemisietalia vulgaris) [meso to orotemperate Eurosiberian and Carpetan-Leonese temperate and rainy submediterranean mountains on deep vertisols (Arction lappae), orotemperate Alpine-Caucasian and Orocantabric on sheepfolds and old corraled or sleeping livestock areas, mostly dominated by Rumex pseudalpinus (Rumicion pseudalpini), pioneer nitrophilous thermo-supratemperate and submediterranean on anthrosols and other urban, rural and nitrified initial soils (Dauco-Melilotion)]; pioneer nitrophilous temperate and submediterranean Eurosiberian grassland-like dominated by Elytrigia (Elytrigietalia repentis) [thermo-supratemperate pioneer Atlantic-Central European and Alpine-Caucasian communities dominated by Elytrigia repens and Elytrigia intermedia mostly on rural and roadside stations (Convolvulo-Elytrigion repentis), pioneer coastal and scarcely inland Atlantic European nitrophilous salt-sprayed grasslands-like growing on sandy and loamy soils dominated by Elytrigia atherica (Elytrigion athericae)]. Mediterranean and Temperate Eurosiberian pioneer perennial ruderal mostly dominated by thistles (Onopordenea acanthii): meso-orotemperate and supra-oromediterranean pioneer thistle communities (Onopordetalia acanthii) [Atlantic-Central European and Alpine-Caucasian (Onopordion acanthii), Cantabrian-Atlantic and Orocantabric (Cirsion richteriano-chodati), supra-oromediterranean and supra-orotemperate Mediterranean Central and West Iberian and Nevadensian (Carduo carpetani-Cirsion odontolepidis)]; thermo to lower supramediterranean of the Mediterranean Region and related areas thistle and tall grasses communities (Carthametalia lanati) [thistle communities in deep dry soils (Onopordion castellani), deep temporary hydromorphic soils mostly dominated by Silybum marianum (Urtico-Silybion mariani), thermo-mesomediterranean growing on deep rich fimic soils and roadsides mostly dominated by Pithapterum miliaceum (Bromo-Piptatherion miliacei)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia vulgaris, Cirsium vulgare, Daucus carota, Echium vulgare subsp. vulgare, Lactuca serriola, Marrubium vulgare, Pastinaca sylvestris, Reseda lutea subsp. lutea, Salvia verbenaca subsp. verbenaca, Senecio erucifolius.

34A. Artemisienea vulgaris
Characteristic species: Linaria vulgaris, Picris hieracioides subsp. hieracioides, Salvia aethiopis, Tanacetum balsamita, Tanacetum parthenium.

34a. Artemisietalia vulgaris Lohmeyer in Tüxen 1947
Characteristic species: Artemisia verlotiorum, Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare, Leonurus cardiaca, Salvia aethiopis, Tanacetum vulgare.

34.1. Arction lappae Tüxen 1937
Characteristic species: Arctium lappa, Arctium minus, Arctium pubens, Armoracia rusticana, Cynoglossum dioscoridis, Geranium pyrenaicum subsp. pyrenaicum, Nepeta latifolia subsp. latifolia, Nepeta latifolia subsp. oscensis, Rumex aquitanicus.

34.2. Rumicion pseudalpini Rübel ex Scharfetter 1938 corr. Loidi & Biurrun 1996
[Rumicion alpini]
Characteristic species: Alchemilla glabra, Cerinthe glabra, Gagea fragifera, Rumex pseudalpinus.

34.4. Dauco-Melilotion Görs 1966
Characteristic species: Berteroa incana, Melilotus albus, Melilotus altissimus, Melilotus officinalis, Senecio inaequidens.

34b. Elytrigietalia repentis Oberdorfer, Müller & Görs in Oberdorfer, Görs, Korneck, Lohmeyer, Müller, Philippi & Seibert 1967 nom. mut. propos.
[Agropyretalia repentis]
Characteristic species: Aster squamatus, Convolvulus arvensis, Elytrigia repens, Equisetum arvense, Oenothera biennis, Oenothera glazioviana, Picris echioides, Poa angustifolia, Tussilago farfara.

34.3. Convolvulo arvensis-Elytrigion repentis Görs 1966 nom. mut. propos.
[Convolvulo arvensis-Agropyrion repentis]
Characteristic species: Anthemis tinctoria, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Falcaria vulgaris, Poa compressa.

34.5. Elytrigion athericae Géhu 1968 nom. mut. propos.
[Agropyrion pungentis]
Characteristic species: Agrostis stolonifera var. pseudopungens, Elytrigia atherica, Tripleurospermum maritimum var. salinum.

34B. Onopordenea acanthii Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi subclassis nova
Characteristic species: Carduus pycnocephalus, Carduus tenuiflorus, Carlina corymbosa subsp. hispanica, Centaurea calcitrapa, Centaurea solstitialis, Cichorium intybus, Chondrilla juncea, Eryngium campestre, Hyosciamus niger, Onopordum acanthium subsp. acanthium, Picnomon acarna, Reseda luteola, Verbascum boerhavii, Verbascum pulverulentum, Verbascum virgatum.

34c. Onopordetalia acanthii Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Klika & Hadač 1944
Characteristic species: Carduus nigrescens, Carduus nutans var. nutans, Cichorium endivia subsp. pumilum, Cirsium eriophorum subsp. eriophorum, Cynoglossum officinale, Lactuca virosa, Onopordum acaulon subsp. acaulon, Onopordum illyricum, Saponaria glutinosa subsp. glutinosa, Verbascum blattaria, Verbascum phlomoides, Verbascum thapsus subsp. montanum.

34.7. Onopordion acanthii Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Gajewski, Wraber & Walas 1936
Characteristic species: Carduus crispus subsp. occidentalis, Carduus vivariensis, Cirsium costae, Cirsium ferox, Echinops sphaerocephalus, Nepeta cataria, Verbascum densiflorum, Verbascum rotundifolium subsp. ripacurcicum.

34.8. Cirsion richteriano-chodati (Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984) Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991
Characteristic species: Carduus cantabricus, Carduus nutans var. phyllolepis, Centaurea lagascana, Cirsium eriophorum subsp. chodati, Cirsium richterianum subsp. giraudiasii, Cirsium richterianum subsp. richterianum.

34.9. Carduo carpetani-Cirsion odontolepidis Rivas-Martínez, Penas & T.E. Díaz 1986
Characteristic species: Carduus assoi subsp. assoi, Carduus carpetanus, Carduus gayanus, Carduus platypus, Cirsium odontolepis, Echium salmanticum, Verbascum litigiosum, Verbascum simplex, Verbascum thapsus subsp. langei.

34d. Carthametalia lanati Brullo in Brullo & Marcenò 1985
Characteristic species: Atractylis gummifera, Carduus bourgeanus, Carlina corymbosa subsp. corymbosa, Carthamus lanatus subsp. lanatus, Centaurea aspera subsp. aspera, Centaurea collina, Cirsium echinatum, Cynoglossum cheirifolium, Cynoglossum creticum, Echium asperrinum, Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum, Reseda barrelieri subsp. barrelieri, Reseda undata subsp. undata, Salvia argentea, Scolymus hispanicus, Verbascum sinuatum, Verbascum thapsus subsp. giganteum.

34.10. Onopordion castellani Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958 corr.
[Onopordion arabici]
Characteristic species: Carduus assoi subsp. hispanicus, Carthamus lanatus subsp. baeticus, Cynara alba, Cynara humilis, Daucus maximus, Echinops strigosus, Echium boissieri, Galactites duriaei, Notobasis syriaca, Onopordum acanthium subsp. gypsicola, Onopordum acaulon subsp. uniflorum, Onopordum corymbosum, Onopordum dissectum, Onopordum macrocanthum subsp. macrocanthum, Onopordum macrocanthum subsp. micropterum, Onopordum nervosum subsp. castellanum, Onopordum nervosum subsp. nervosum, Onopordum xbilbilitanum, Onopordum xbolivari, Onopordum xbrevicaule, Onopordum xerectum, Onopordum xglomeratum, Onopordum xmacronervosum, Onopordum xonubense, Onopordum xspinosissimum, Reseda lanceolata subsp. constricta, Reseda lutea subsp. vivantii, Reseda stricta subsp. stricta, Reseda suffruticosa, Reseda undata subsp. gayana, Scolymus grandiflorus, Scolymus maculatus, Serratula flavescens subsp. flavescens, Verbascum rotundifolium subsp. haenseleri.

34.11. Urtico piluliferae-Silybion mariani Sissingh ex Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958 nom. inv. propos.
[Silybo-Urticion]
Characteristic species: Cynara cardunculus, Oxalis articulata, Oxalis debilis subsp. corymbosa, Silybum eburneum, Silybum marianum, Silybum xgonzaloi, Urtica pilulifera.

34.12. Bromo-Piptatherion miliacei O. Bolòs 1970 nom. mut. propos.
[Bromo-Oryzopsion miliaceae]
Characteristic species: Centaurea aspera subsp. stenophylla, Dittrichia viscosa, Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum, Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. thomasii.

35. Epilobietea angustifolii Tüxen & Preising ex von Rochow 1951

Perennial tall herbs of altered and nitrified margins, clearings and burned shrubland and woodland communities, growing on meso to orotemperate and thermoboreal humid Eurosiberian and as relict in high mountains of Central and West Mediterranean Iberian (Atropetalia belladonae) [rich in calcium carbonate soils of deciduous forests (Atropion belladonae), acidic calcium carbonate lacking of deciduous and coniferous forests (Carici-Epilobion angustifolii), Carpetan and Oroiberian altered and burned Fagus sylvatica or Pinus sylvestris var. iberica siliceous poor soils forests (Linarion niveae)]. Holarctic.

35a. Atropetalia belladonae Vlieger 1937
Characteristic species: Asphodelus albus subsp. albus, Asphodelus macrocarpus subsp. arrondeaui, Carex muricata subsp. muricata, Epilobium angustifolium, Fragaria vesca, Myosotis decumbens subsp. teresiana, Myosotis sylvatica, Omalotheca sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, Verbascum thapsus subsp. thapsus.

35.1. Atropion belladonae Br.-Bl. ex Aichinger 1933
Characteristic species: Arctium nemorosum, Atropa belladonna, Bromus ramosus, Hypericum hirsutum, Stachys alpina, Verbascum nigrum.

35.2. Carici piluliferae-Epilobion angustifolii Tüxen ex von Rochow 1951
Characteristic species: Asphodelus lusitanicus var. ovoideus, Digitalis purpurea subsp. purpurea, Senecio sylvaticus.

35.3. Linarion niveae Rivas-Martínez 1964
Characteristic species: Linaria nivea, Omalotheca sylvatica subsp. carpetana.

36. Oryzetea sativae Miyawaki 1960

Weed communities of rice fields in Tropical, Mediterranean and Temperate macrobioclimates with hot summers (Cypero-Echinochloetalia oryzoidis: Oryzo-Echinochloion oryzoidis). Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Schoenoplectus supinus.

36a. Cypero difformis-Echinochloetalia oryzoidis O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955
Characteristic species: See alliance (36.1).

36.1. Oryzo sativae-Echinochloion oryzoidis O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955
Characteristic species: Ammannia aegyptiaca, Ammannia coccinea, Ammannia robusta, Bergia capensis, Crassula peduncularis, Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa crus-galli subsp. hispidula, Echinochloa oryzoides subsp. oryzicola, Echinochloa oryzoides subsp. oryzoides.

37. Pegano-Salsoletea Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958

Nitrophilous or halo-nitrophilous dwarf scrub communities, including the anthropogenic tropical alloctonous shrubby vegetation, thermo to lower oromediterranean desertic, xeric and pluviseasonal spread in Mediterranean Region, Saharian Oceanic and related territories. Thermo to supramediterranean semiarid, arid and lower dry nitrophilous or halo-nitrophilous chamaephyte and nanophanerophyte communities of Western Mediterranean Subregion (Salsolo-Peganetalia) [meso-supramediterranean semiarid and lower dry semicontinental in Mediterranean Central Iberian (Salsolo-Peganion), thermomediterranean semiarid and arid halo-nitrophilous or spray saline on deep soils occasionally with high water table on Murcian-Almeriensian and related territories (Salsolo-Suaedion verae), thermo-mesomediterranean semiarid and arid on well drained soils spread in Murcian-Almeriensian biogeographic province and neighbouring territories (Atriplici glaucae-Hammadion articulatae), thermomediterranean semiarid and dry halo-nitrophilous communities characterized by the local small Balearic and Columbretes Isles endemic scrub Medicago citrina and by Lavatera arborea on Mediterranean Region (Medicagini citrinae-Lavaterion arboreae), thermo-mesomediterranean dry and semiarid thorny shrubby communities on anthropic deep rich loamy or gypseous soils with no far water table characterized by the perimediterranean deciduous shrub Lycium europaeum (Ipomoeo-Lycion europaei)]; anthropogenic tropical neophyte shrubby communities growing on infra-thermomediterranean arid, semiarid and dry or wet soils in Western Mediterranean and Canarian Subregions (Nicotiano-Ricinetalia: Nicotiano glaucae-Ricinion communis); infra-thermomediterranean arid and hyperarid open dwarf chamaephyte on sandy or loamy initial soils of Canarian and Saharian Oceanic territories (Chenoleoidetalia tomentosae: Chenoleoidion tomentosae); infra-thermo and mesomediterranean arid semiarid and dry open and close chamaephyte nitrophilous communities of Canarian and Madeiran biogeographic provinces (Forsskaoleo angustifoliae-Rumicetalia lunariae) [infra-thermomediterranean arid Canarian loamy and rocky initial soils (Launaeo arborescentis-Schizogynion sericeae), infra-thermo and mesomediterranean semiarid and dry Canarian (Artemisio thusculae-Rumicion lunariae), infra-thermomediterranean Madeiran (Argyranthemo suculenti-Calendulion maderensis)]; thermo to lower oromediterranean dry to humid and submediterranean chamaephyte rich in subnitrophilous entomophilous species of Santolina and Helichrysum, seral of woodland series, abandoned field crops and roadside communities of Western Mediterranean mostly on semicontinental zones (Helichryso-Santolinetalia) [siliceous sandy or sandy-loamy poor soils (Artemisio glutinosae-Santolinion rosmarinifoliae), calcareous or clayey rich soils (Santolinion pectinato-canescentis). Mediterranean and Saharian-Arabian.
Characteristic species: Artemisia campestris subsp. glutinosa, Ballota hirsuta, Fagonia cretica, Launaea arborescens, Lycium intricatum, Peganum harmala, Ruta angustifolia, Santolina chamaecyparissus subsp. squarrosa.

37a. Salsolo vermiculatae-Peganetalia harmalae Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1954
Characteristic species: Artemisia arborescens, Artemisia herba-alba subsp. herba-alba, Artemisia herba-alba subsp. valentina, Atriplex halimus, Capparis spinosa subsp. canescens, Marrubium alysson, Mercurialis tomentosa, Plumbago europaea, Salsola vermiculata subsp. vermiculata, Senecio malacitanus subsp. malacitanus, Solanum linnaeanum, Withania somnifera, Zygophyllum fabago.

37.1. Salsolo vermiculatae-Peganion harmalae Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1954
Characteristic species: Bassia prostrata, Camphorosma monspeliaca, Frankenia thymifolia, Haplophyllum linifolium, Hohenackeria polyodon, Krascheninnikovia ceratoides, Orobanche cernua.

37.2. Salsolo oppositifoliae-Suaedion verae Rigual 1972 nom. mut. propos.
[Salsolo oppositifoliae-Suaedion fruticosae]
Characteristic species: Salsola oppositifolia, Suaeda vermiculata, Suaeda xgenesiana.

37.3. Atriplici glaucae-Hammadion articulatae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez ex Rigual 1972 nom. mut. et inv. propos.
[Haloxylo tamariscifolii-Atriplicion glaucae]
Characteristic species: Artemisia barrelieri, Artemisia lucentica, Atriplex glauca subsp. glauca, Commicarpus africanus, Hammada articulata, Phonus arborescens, Salsola genistoides, Withania frutescens.

37.4. Medicagini citrinae-Lavaterion arboreae O. Bolòs, Folch & Vigo in O. Bolòs & Vigo 1984
Characteristic species: Lavatera arborea, Medicago arborea subsp. citrina.

37.5. Ipomoeo purpureae-Lycion europaei O. Bolòs 1988 nom. inv. propos.
[Lycio europaei-Ipomoeion purpureae]
Characteristic species: Ipomoea indica, Ipomoea purpurea, Lycium barbarum, Lycium europaeum.

37b. Chenoleoidetalia tomentosae Sunding 1972 nom. mut. propos.
[Chenoletalia tomentosae]
Characteristic species: See alliance (37.6).

37.6. Chenoleoidion tomentosae Sunding 1972 nom. mut. propos.
[Chenoleion tomentosae]
Characteristic species: Atriplex glauca subsp. ifniensis, Chenoleoides tomentosa, Convolvulus caput-medusae, Frankenia capitata, Salsola brevifolia, Salsola portilloi, Salsola tetrandra, Salsola vermiculata subsp. frankenioides, Suaeda ifniensis, Suaeda mollis.

37c. Helichryso stoechadis-Santolinetalia squarrosae Peinado & Martínez-Parras 1984
Characteristic species: Helichrysum italicum subsp. serotinum, Helichrysum stoechas var. stoechas, Marrubium supinum, Plantago sempervirens, Ruta montana, Santolina chamaecyparissus subsp. chamaecyparissus, Sideritis hirsuta subsp. hirsuta, Teucrium gnaphalodes subsp. gnaphalodes, Thymus mastichina, Thymus xeliasii.

37.7. Artemisio glutinosae-Santolinion rosmarinifoliae Costa 1975
Characteristic species: Euphorbia matritensis, Santolina impressa, Santolina oblongifolia subsp. obtusifolia, Santolina rosmarinifolia subsp. ceratophylla, Santolina rosmarinifolia subsp. rosmarinifolia, Santolina rosmarinifolia subsp. semidentata, Sideritis hirsuta subsp. danielii.

37.8. Santolinion pectinato-canescentis Peinado & Martínez-Parras 1984
Characteristic species: Santolina canescens, Santolina pectinata.

37d. Forsskaoleo angustifoliae-Rumicetalia lunariae Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Argyranthemum frutescens subsp. frutescens, Ceballosia fruticosa, Forsskaolea angustifolia, Lavandula canariensis, Lavandula pinnata, Lobularia canariensis subsp. marginata, Lotus glaucus, Rumex lunaria.

37.9. Launaeo arborescentis-Schizogynion sericeae Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Artemisia ramosa, Herniaria canariensis, Lotus sessilifolius var. pentaphyllus, Schizogyne glaberrima, Schizogyne sericea.

37.10. Artemisio thusculae-Rumicion lunariae Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Ageratina adenophora, Argyranthemum broussonetti, Artemisia thuscula, Bosea yerbamora, Cheirolophus canariensis, Descurainia millefolia, Gonospermum fruticosum, Lavatera acerifolia, Nicotiana paniculata, Plantago arborescens, Salvia canariensis, Withania aristata.

37.11. Argyranthemo suculenti-Calendulion maderensis Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Calendula maderensis, Chrysanthemum pinnatifidum subsp. succulentum.

37e. Nicotiano glaucae-Ricinetalia communis Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: See alliance (37.12).

37.12. Nicotiano glaucae-Ricinion communis Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Nicotiana glauca, Ricinus communis.

38. Polygono-Poetea annuae Rivas-Martínez 1975

Annual pioneer ephemeral and exceptionally small creeping perennial nitrophilous anthropozoogenic heavy trodden communities of urban and rural paths, particularly in warm-cool, cool and cold climates with a rainy season all over the World. Holarctic and extratropical territories (Polygono arenastri-Poetalia annuae) [Temperate on sandy or silty soils (Matricario-Polygonion arenastri), temperate and mediterranean clayey and very rich calcareous soils (Sclerochloo durae-Coronopodion squamati), mediterranean non heavy clayey soils (Polycarpion tetraphylli), creeping perennial wet temperate and mediterranean damp and semi-shaded soils (Saginion procumbentis), tropical and subtropical source with late summer development as neophyte on warm and cool Holarctic territories (Chamaesycion prostratae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: See order (38a).

38a. Polygono arenastri-Poetalia annuae Tüxen in Géhu, Richard & Tüxen 1972 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991
[Polygono avicularis-Poetalia annuae]
Characteristic species: Bryum argenteum, Coronopus didymus, Cotula australis, Plantago coronopus var. coronopus, Poa annua, Poa infirma, Polygonum arenastrum, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum microspermum, Sagina apetala, Spergularia rubra var. rubra.

38.1. Saginion procumbentis Tüxen & Ohba in Géhu, Richard & Tüxen 1972
Characteristic species: Sagina procumbens, Sagina xnormaniana, Spergularia rubra var. alpina.

38.2. Matricario-Polygonion arenastri Rivas-Martínez 1975 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991
[Matricario-Polygonion avicularis]
Characteristic species: Eragrostis minor, Eragrostis pilosa, Lepidium ruderale, Matricaria discoidea.

38.3. Sclerochloo durae-Coronopodion squamati Rivas-Martínez 1975
Characteristic species: Coronopus squamatus, Sclerochloa dura.

38.4. Polycarpion tetraphylli Rivas-Martínez 1975
Characteristic species: Bryum versicolor, Crassula tillaea, Crepis pusilla, Filago congesta, Filago desertorum, Filago petro-ianii, Matricaria aurea, Polycarpon tetraphyllum, Soliva stolonifera, Spergularia purpurea.

38.5. Chamaesycion prostratae Rivas-Martínez 1976 nom. mut. propos.
[Euphorbion prostratae]
Characteristic species: Alternanthera caracasana, Alternanthera pungens, Chamaesyce canescens subsp. canescens, Chamaesyce canescens subsp. massiliensis, Chamaesyce humifusa, Chamaesyce humistrata, Chamaesyce maculata, Chamaesyce prostrata, Chamaesyce serpens, Eleusine tristachya subsp. barcinonensis.

39. Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex von Rochow 1951

Annual ephemeral weed, ruderal, nitrophilous and semi-nitrophilous communities spread all over the World except warm tropical territories. Cultivated field weed communities (Stellarienea mediae), cereal (wheat, barley, oat, rye) weeds on rich or poor soils (Centaureetalia cyani) [loamy or clayey rich soils. Temperate and supramediterranean (Caucalidion platycarpi), thermo-mesomediterranean (Roemerion hybridae), thermo-mesomediterranean vertisols (Ridolfion segetum)]; cereal weeds on sandy or sandy-loamy poor soils (Aperetalia spicae-venti: Scleranthion annui: Scleranthenion = Eastern Pyrenean and Siccoric, Arnoseridenion minimae = North, Central and Western Iberian on poor sandy soils, Spergulo-Arabidopsienion = Central, South and Western Iberian on mesotrophic sandy-loamy soils], summer crop weed communities out of eurasiatic cereals and rice (Solano nigri-Polygonetalia convolvuli) [Temperate or irrigated mediterranean (Polygono-Chenopodion polyspermi: Eu-Polygono-Chenopodienion polyspermi = rich soils, Digitario-Setarienion viridis = poor sandy soils), Mediterranean weed crops and summer fallow fields (Diplotaxion erucoidis), thermomediterranean winter blooming (Fumarion wirtgenii-agrariae)]. Ruderal, nitrophilous and seminitrophilous communities (Chenopodio-Stellarienea): ruderal high nitrophilous pioneer rich in annual anthropophyte species cosmopolite but mostly in dry and semiarid thermo to supramediterranean territories (Chenopodietalia muralis) [urban and rural high nitrophilous (Chenopodion muralis: Chenopodienion muralis = thermo to supramediterranean and submediterranean late summer blooming, Malvenion neglectae = thermo-supratemperate and meso-oromediterranean dry to subhumid late spring and early summer blooming, Malvenion parviflorae = thermo-mesomediterranean semiarid to subhumid blooming after autumn and winter rains), annual succulent prostratae often salty nitrophilous communities, rich in Aizoaceae, particularly in African archaeophytes, growing on rocky or loamy barren soils mostly in littoral but also arid to dry mediterranean inland territories (Mesembryanthemion crystallini)]; subnitrophilous mediterranean annual ephemeral grassland-like spring blooming communities (Thero-Brometalia) [thermo-mesomediterranean Western Mediterranean euoceanic mostly subhumid-humid on rich or mesotrophic soils (Echio-Galactition), meso-supramediterranean Mediterranean West Iberian mostly semicontinental on sandy siliceous poor soils (Alysso-Brassicion barrelieri), thermomediterranean and thermotemperate submediterranean Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Cantabrian-Atlantic, Betic, Murcian-Almeriensian and Tingitanian on coastal sandy soils (Linario-Vulpion alopecuroris), thermomediterranean pluviseasonal Southern Iberian and Maghrebian on vertic soils (Cerintho-Fedion cornucopiae), thermomediterranean xeric and desertic Murcian-Almeriensian and Moulouyian (Resedo-Moricandion), thermo to supramediterranean Western Mediterranean semicontinental early summer blooming dominated by short annual grasses on rich and poor soils (Taeniathero-Aegilopion geniculatae)]; nitrophilous Mediterranean and Temperate annual ephemeral grassland-like, path, roadside and rural often trampled communities (Sisymbrietalia officinalis) [Mediterranean (Hordeion leporini), Temperate and Submediterranean (Sisymbrion officinalis)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Ajuga chamaepitys, Althaea hirsuta, Amaranthus retroflexus, Anthemis cotula, Atriplex patula, Bromus arvensis, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, Bromus tectorum, Calendula arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsella rubella, Cardaria draba, Cerastium glomeratum, Ceratocephala falcata, Chenopodium album, Crepis pulchra, Erodium malacoides subsp. malacoides, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa, Filago pyramidata, Gagea villosa, Holosteum umbellatum subsp. umbellatum, Matricaria perforata, Matricaria recutita, Mercurialis annua, Oxalis corniculata, Senecio vulgaris, Sinapis arvensis, Solanum nigrum, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Stellaria media, Stellaria pallida, Valerianella locusta, Veronica arvensis, Viola arvensis subsp. arvensis.

39A. Stellarienea mediae
Characteristic species: Acinos rotundifolius, Anagallis arvensis, Anagallis foemina, Androsace maxima, Arabidopsis thaliana, Camelina microcarpa, Coleostephus myconis, Crepis sancta, Fallopia convolvulus, Fumaria muralis, Galeopsis tetrahit, Glaucium corniculatum, Lamium amplexicaule, Lamium purpureum, Lathyrus aphaca, Papaver hybridum, Papaver somniferum subsp. setigerum, Raphanus raphanistrum, Stachys annua.

39a. Centaureetalia cyani Tüxen ex von Rochow 1951
Characteristic species: Adonis flammea, Agrostemma githago, Asperula arvensis, Bifora radians, Buglossoides arvensis subsp. arvensis, Bunium pachypodum, Bupleurum rotundifolium, Caucalis platycarpos, Centaurea cyanus, Conringia orientalis, Consolida mauritanica, Consolida orientalis, Consolida pubescens, Galium tricornutum, Hypecoum imberbe, Kickxia spuria subsp. spuria, Kickxia spuria subsp. integrifolia, Legousia hybrida, Neslia apiculata, Nigella damascena, Nigella gallica, Papaver dubium, Papaver rhoeas, Phleum paniculatum, Ranunculus arvensis, Rapistrum rugosum subsp. rugosum, Scandix pecten-veneris, Sherardia arvensis, Silene muscipula, Silene rubella, Turgenia latifolia, Vaccaria hispanica, Valerianella coronata, Vicia hirsuta, Vicia tetrasperma.

39.1. Caucalidion platycarpi Tüxen ex von Rochow 1951 nom. mut. propos.
[Caucalidion lappulae]
Characteristic species: Adonis aestivalis subsp. aestivalis, Alopecurus myosuroides, Avena fatua, Bunium bulbocastanum, Iberis amara, Iberis pinnata, Kickxia elatine, Valerianella rimosa.

39.2. Roemerion hybridae Br.-Bl. ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Adonis aestivalis subsp. squarrosa, Adonis microcarpa, Anchusa italica, Avena ludoviciana, Bifora testiculata, Biscutella auriculata, Cerastium dichotomum, Delphinium pentagynum, Hypecoum pendulum, Hypecoum procumbens, Lathyrus ochrus, Linaria hirta, Linaria triphylla, Nigella atlantica, Papaver pinnatifidum, Roemeria hybrida, Silene conoidea, Silene segetalis, Sisymbrium crassifolium, Valerianella echinata, Valerianella martinii, Valerianella pumila.

39.3. Ridolfion segetum Nègre ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Adonis annua, Bupleurum lancifolium, Fumaria faurei, Nigella papillosa, Phalaris paradoxa, Ridolfia segetum, Silene stricta.

39b. Aperetalia spicae-venti J. Tüxen & Tüxen in Malato-Beliz, J. Tüxen & Tüxen 1960
Characteristic species: See alliance (39.4).

39.4. Scleranthion annui (Kruseman & Vlieger 1939) Sissingh in Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946
(Scleranthenion annui Kruseman & Vlieger 1939 (39.4a). Arnoseridenion minimae (Malato-Beliz, J. Tüxen & Tüxen 1960) Oberdorfer 1983 (39.4b). Spergulo pentandrae-Arabidopsienion thalianae Rivas Goday 1964 (39.4c))
Characteristic species: Anthemis arvensis, Apera spica-venti, Aphanes arvensis, Arnoseris minima, Bromus secalinus, Carduus xdurieuanus, Chamaemelum fuscatum (39.4c), Chamaemelum mixtum, Linaria amethystea subsp. amethystea (39.4a), Linaria ricardoi (39.4b), Logfia arvensis, Odontites vernus, Papaver argemone, Scleranthus annuus, Spergula pentandra, Spergula arvensis, Spergularia segetalis, Veronica triphyllos.

39c. Solano nigri-Polygonetalia convolvuli (Sissingh in Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946) O. Bolòs 1962
Characteristic species: Amaranthus albus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ammi visnaga, Chenopodium hybridum, Chrysanthemum segetum, Diplotaxis erucoides, Fumaria bastardii, Fumaria densiflora, Hibiscus trionum, Misopates orontium, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum persicaria, Reseda phyteuma subsp. phyteuma, Setaria verticillata, Setaria viridis, Veronica persica, Veronica polita, Xanthium strumarium.

39.5. Polygono-Chenopodion polyspermi Koch 1926
(Eu-Polygono-Chenopodienion polyspermi Oberdorfer 1957 (39.5a). Digitario ischaemi-Setarienion viridis (Sissingh in Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946) Oberdorfer 1957 (39.5b))
Characteristic species: Aethusa cynapium, Anchusa arvensis, Chenopodium polyspermum, Digitaria ischaemum, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colona (39.5b), Echinochloa crus-galli subsp. crus-galli (39.5b), Eragrostis cilianensis, Euphorbia helioscopia, Euphorbia peplus, Fumaria officinalis subsp. officinalis, Fumaria vaillantii, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Galinsoga quadriradiata, Lamium hybridum, Leersia oryzoides (39.5b), Oxalis latifolia, Setaria pumila, Sonchus arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Veronica agrestis, Veronica hederifolia.

39.6. Diplotaxion erucoidis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Gajewski, Wraber & Walas 1936
Characteristic species: Achillea santolinoides, Anthemis altissima, Aristolochia clematitis, Bidens subalternans, Chrozophora obliqua, Chrozophora tinctoria, Cyperus rotundus, Diplotaxis muralis, Dittrichia graveolens, Eragrostis barrelieri, Euphorbia segetalis, Fumaria calcarata, Heliotropium europaeum, Kickxia lanigera, Leucanthemun paludosum subsp. ebusitanum, Leucanthemun paludosum subsp. paludosum, Linaria orbensis, Mollugo cerviana, Moricandia arvensis, Platycapnos spicata subsp. echeandiae, Platycapnos spicata subsp. spicata, Solanum luteum, Solanum villosum, Tanacetum annuum, Tanacetum microphyllum, Teucrium spinosum.

39.7. Fumarion wirtgenii-agrariae Brullo in Brullo & Marcenò 1985
Characteristic species: Alyssum libycum, Fumaria agraria, Fumaria barnolae, Fumaria gaillardotii, Fumaria mirabilis, Fumaria officinalis subsp. wirtgenii, Fumaria parviflora, Linaria chalepensis, Oxalis pes-caprae.

39B. Chenopodio-Stellarienea Rivas Goday 1956
Characteristic species: Crepis foetida, Diplotaxis siifolia, Erodium moschatum, Patellifolia patellaris, Rhagadiolus stellatus subsp. stellatus, Senecio lividus.

39d. Chenopodietalia muralis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Gajewski, Wraber & Walas 1936
Characteristic species: Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus graecizans subsp. graecizans, Amaranthus graecizans subsp. silvestris, Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Artemisia annua, Atriplex prostrata, Atriplex rosea subsp. rosea, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodium multifidum, Conyza canadensis, Ecballium elaterium, Reichardia tingitana, Sisymbrium irio, Sisymbrium orientale, Tragus racemosus, Urtica urens.

39.8. Chenopodion muralis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Gajewski, Wraber & Walas 1936
(Chenopodienion muralis Rivas-Martínez 1978 (39.8a). Malvenion neglectae Gutte 1966 (39.8b). Malvenion parviflorae Rivas-Martínez 1978 (39.8c))
Characteristic species: Amaranthus muricatus, Amaranthus viridis, Bassia hyssopifolia, Chenopodium murale, Chenopodium opulifolium, Chenopodium urbicum, Chenopodium vulvaria, Cnicus benedictus, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza sumatrensis, Epilobium brachycarpum, Lavatera cretica (39.8c), Lavatera mauritanica subsp. davaei (39.8c), Malva neglecta (39.8b), Malva nicaeensis, Malva parviflora (39.8c), Portulaca oleracea, Salsola kali subsp. ruthenica, Sisymbrium erysimoides (39.8c), Sisymbrium runcinatum (39.8c), Xanthium spinosum.

39.9. Mesembryanthemion crystallini Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Aizoon canariense, Aizoon hispanicum, Atriplex semibaccata, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, Patellifolia procumbens.

39e. Thero-Brometalia (Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez ex Esteve 1973) O. Bolòs 1975
Characteristic species: Althaea longiflora, Astragalus hamosus, Avena barbata subsp. barbata, Avena barbata subsp. lusitanica, Avena sterilis, Bellardia trixago, Bromus diandrus, Bromus fasciculatus, Bromus intermedius, Bromus lanceolatus, Bromus madritensis, Bromus rigidus, Bromus rubens, Bromus squarrosus, Carlina lanata, Catapodium rigidum subsp. rigidum, Centaurea melitensis, Centaurea pullata, Gastridium phleoides subsp. phleoides, Hedypnois rhagadioloides, Leontodon salzmannii, Lolium rigidum, Lotus edulis, Lotus ornithopodioides, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Malva althaeoides, Malva hispanica, Medicago orbicularis, Medicago rigidula, Melilotus spicatus, Melilotus sulcatus, Nonea pulla, Nonea vesicaria, Phalaris brachystachys, Phalaris canariensis, Plantago afra, Reichardia picroides, Schismus barbatus, Scorzonera laciniata, Senecio gallicus, Silene gallica, Silene tridentata, Sisymbrium hispanicum, Thesium humile, Trifolium angustifolium, Trifolium cherleri, Trifolium hirtum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trigonella monspeliaca, Trigonella polyceratia, Trisetum paniceum, Urospermum picroides, Ventenata dubia, Vulpia ciliata.

39.10. Echio plantaginei-Galactition tomentosae O. Bolòs & Molinier 1969
Characteristic species: Echium plantagineum, Galactites tomentosa, Gastridium ventricosum, Medicago ciliaris, Medicago murex, Melilotus elegans, Melilotus italicus, Reichardia intermedia subsp. gracilis, Reichardia intermedia subsp. intermedia, Silene fuscata, Silene scabriflora subsp. tuberculata, Vulpia geniculata, Vulpiella tenuis.

39.11. Linario polygalifoliae-Vulpion alopecuroris Br.-Bl., Rozeira & P. Silva in Br.-Bl., G. Braun-Blanquet, Rozeira & P. Silva 1972
Characteristic species: Bromus thominei, Carduus meonanthus, Cerinthe gymnandra, Coincya johnstonii, Coincya oxyrrhina, Lagurus ovatus, Linaria viscosa, Ononis pinnata, Reichardia gaditana, Silene longicaulis, Vulpia alopecuros.

39.12. Resedo lanceolatae-Moricandion F. Casas & M.E. Sánchez 1972
Characteristic species: Astragalus longidentatus, Avena barbata subsp. hirtula, Brassica cossoniana, Carrichtera annua, Euphorbia inconspicua, Euphorbia lagascae, Guiraoa arvensis, Launaea nudicaulis, Lycocarpus fugax, Matthiola lunata, Matthiola parviflora, Reseda lanceolata subsp. lanceolata, Reseda stricta subsp. funkii, Reseda undata subsp. leucantha, Sinapis flexuosa, Volutaria lippii.

39.13. Taeniathero-Aegilopion geniculatae Rivas-Martínez & Izco 1977
Characteristic species: Aegilops geniculata, Aegilops neglecta, Aegilops triuncialis, Aegilops ventricosa, Erysimum repandum, Gastridium phleoides subsp. lainzii, Malva aegyptia, Scorpiurus subvillosus, Scorpiurus sulcatus, Taeniatherum caput-medusae.

39.14. Alysso granatensis-Brassicion barrelieri Rivas-Martínez & Izco 1977
Characteristic species: Alyssum granatense, Andryala arenaria, Brassica barrelieri, Coincya hispida subsp. hispida, Coincya hispida subsp. transtagana, Echium tuberculatum, Sisymbrium contortum.

39.15. Cerintho majoris-Fedion cornucopiae Rivas-Martínez & Izco ex Peinado, Martínez-Parras & Bartolomé 1986
Characteristic species: Arenaria hispanica, Catananche lutea, Cerinthe major, Convolvulus meonanthus, Convolvulus tricolor, Cullen americanum, Fedia cornucopiae, Fedia scorpioides, Glossopappus macrotus, Hedysarum coronarium, Hedysarum glomeratum, Lavatera trimestris, Leontodon maroccanus, Malope malacoides, Malope trifida, Salvia viridis, Tetragonolobus purpureus, Triguera osbeckii.

39f. Sisymbrietalia officinalis J. Tüxen in Lohmeyer & al. 1962 em. Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991
Characteristic species: Arthotheca calendula, Crepis taraxacifolia, Crepis vesicaria subsp. vesicaria, Geranium molle, Lappula squarrosa, Lepidium graminifolium, Malva sylvestris, Medicago polymorpha, Rumex pulcher subsp. pulcher, Sisymbrium officinale.

39.16. Hordeion leporini Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Gajewski, Wraber & Walas 1936 corr. O. Bolòs 1962
[Hordeion murini]
Characteristic species: Anacyclus clavatus, Anacyclus radiatus, Anacyclus valentinus, Asphodelus fistulosus, Bromus scoparius, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Crepis bursifolia, Daucus muricatus, Diplotaxis virgata, Erodium chium, Erodium ciconium, Erodium malacoides subsp. aragonense, Eruca vesicaria subsp. vesicaria, Hirschfeldia incana, Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum, Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum, Plantago lagopus, Reseda alba subsp. alba, Reseda phyteuma subsp. aragonensis, Rostraria cristata, Rumex pulcher subsp. woodsii.

39.17. Sisymbrion officinalis Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising in Tüxen 1950
Characteristic species: Crepis nicaeensis, Crepis setosa, Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum.

Vb. Fringe and megaforbic vegetation

40. Galio-Urticetea Passarge ex Kopecký 1969

Perennial hemicryptophyte and climbing tall herbs of nitrified wood fringes and other semi-shaded anthropogenic biotope communities, growing on mesic, wet, riverine or lacustrine organic nutrient rich soils on Holarctic temperate, rainy mediterranean and boreal (thermoboreal) bioclimates. Wood fringes and semi-shaded anthropogenic habitats (Galio-Alliarietalia petiolatae) [external mesic wood fringes on humid temperate with rainy summers (Aegopodion podagrariae), internal and external mesic wood fringes on subhumid and humid temperate and mediterranean with dry or warm summers (Galio-Alliarion petiolatae: Alliarienion petiolatae = meso-supratemperate and supramediterranean warm summers South Eurosiberian and Mediterranean, Smyrnienion olusatri = thermo-lower mesomediterranean and thermo-mesotemperate submediterranean Mediterranean Cantabrian-Atlantic, Appeninan-Balkan), internal wood fringes on wet summer soils (Impatienti-Stachyon sylvaticae), internal and external wood fringes and semi-shaded anthropogenic habitats on wet soils in Mediterranean and Submediterranean (Balloto-Conion maculati)]; semi-shaded nitrophilous riparian and lacustrine megaforb or scandent hygrophilous communities (Calystegietalia sepium) [riverine Mediterranean rich in climbing and tall perennial herbs (Calystegion sepium), mediterranean and temperate stream-bank and wet sources (Bromo-Eupatorion cannabini), riverine megaforbs Atlantic, Subatlantic, Central Pyrenean and Mediterranean West Iberian (Filipendulion ulmariae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Cuscuta europaea, Erigeron annuus, Galium aparine, Lamium album, Lamium maculatum, Petasites pyrenaicus, Solidago gigantea, Stellaria neglecta, Urtica dioica.

40a. Galio aparines-Alliarietalia petiolatae Görs & Müller 1969
Characteristic species: Alliaria petiolata, Anthriscus sylvestris, Arabis glabra, Carpesium cernuum, Conium maculatum, Cruciata laevipes, Geum urbanum, Glechoma hederacea, Lapsana communis, Viola alba subsp. alba.

40.1. Aegopodion podagrariae Tüxen 1967
Characteristic species: Aegopodium podagraria, Chaerophyllum aureum, Euphorbia villosa var. longifolia, Euphorbia villosa var. villosa, Geranium phaeum, Petasites hybridus.

40.2. Galio-Alliarion petiolatae Oberdorfer & Lohmeyer in Oberdorfer, Görs, Korneck, Lohmeyer, Müller, Philippi & Seibert 1967
(Alliarienion petiolatae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 (40.2a). Smyrnienion olusatri Rivas Goday ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999 (40.2b))
Characteristic species: Allium triquetrum (40.2b), Chaerophyllum temulentum, Delphinium pictum (40.2b), Geranium robertianum, Geranium rubescens, Kundmannia sicula (40.2b), Myrrhoides nodosa, Pentaglottis sempervirens, Pimpinella bicknellii (40.2b), Scrophularia grandiflora (40.2b), Scrophularia peregrina (40.2b), Scrophularia reuteri, Silene dioica, Sison amomum, Sisymbrium macroloma, Smyrnium olusatrum (40.2b), Smyrnium perfoliatum, Torilis japonica, Urtica membranacea (40.2b).

40.3. Impatienti noli-tangere-Stachyon sylvaticae Görs ex Mucina in Mucina, Grabherr & Ellmauer 1993
Characteristic species: Dipsacus pilosus, Impatiens balfourii, Impatiens glandulifera, Impatiens noli-tangere.

40.4. Balloto-Conion maculati Brullo in Brullo & Marcenó 1985
[Conio maculati-Sambucion ebuli]
Characteristic species: Ballota nigra subsp. foetida, Dipsacus fullonum, Magydaris panacifolia, Opopanax chironium, Rubia tinctorum, Sambucus ebulus.

40b. Calystegietalia sepium Tüxen ex Mucina 1993 nom. mut. propos.
[Convolvuletalia sepium]
Characteristic species: Anthoxanthum amarum, Aster pilosus, Cucubalus baccifer, Epilobium hirsutum, Epilobium parviflorum, Inula helvetica, Pulicaria dysenterica var. dysenterica, Scrophularia auriculata subsp. auriculata.

40.5. Calystegion sepium Tüxen ex Oberdorfer 1957 nom. mut. propos.
[Convolvulion sepium]
Characteristic species: Calystegia sepium, Calystegia sylvatica, Conyza primulifolia, Cynanchum acutum, Ipomoea sagittata, Myosoton aquaticum.

40.6. Filipendulion ulmariae Segal 1966
Characteristic species: Angelica sylvestris, Filipendula ulmaria, Geranium acutilobum, Lysimachia vulgaris, Senecio laderoi, Stachys palustris, Valeriana officinalis.

40.7. Bromo ramosi-Eupatorion cannabini O. Bolòs & Masalles in O. Bolòs 1983
Characteristic species: Eupatorium cannabinum.

41. Cardamino hirsutae-Geranietea purpurei (Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi classis nova, stat. nov.

Annual spring and summer ephemeral internal and external wood and shrub fringes sligthly nitrified semi-shaded communities, growing on rich organic nutrient soils in mediterranean and submediterranean and temperate oceanic in Holarctic South Europe and Maghrebian (Cardamino-Geranietalia purpurei) [meso-supramediterranean and infra to mesotemperate in Western Mediterranean, Canarian and Cantabrian-Atlantic (Geranio-Anthriscion caucalidis), thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean hot biotopes in Western Mediterranean (Parietarion lusitanico-mauritanicae), infra-thermomediterranean in Canarian (Geranio purpurei-Torilidion neglectae)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Anthriscus caucalis, Cardamine hirsuta, Centranthus calcitrapae, Draba muralis, Fumaria capreolata, Galium spurium, Geranium dissectum, Geranium purpureum, Geranium rotundifolium, Ranunculus parviflorus, Torilis arvensis subsp. neglecta, Torilis heterophylla, Torilis leptophylla, Torilis nodosa, Veronica cymbalaria.

41a. Cardamino hirsutae-Geranietalia purpurei Brullo in Brullo & Marcenó 1985 nom. inv. propos.
[Geranio purpurei-Cardaminetalia hirsutae]
Characteristic species: Rhagadiolus stellatus subsp. edulis.

41.1. Geranio purpurei-Torilidion neglectae Lohmeyer & Trautmann 1970 corr. Lohmeyer 1975
Characteristic species: Bryonia verrucosa, Carduus clavulatus, Drusa glandulosa, Erucastrum canariense, Myosotis discolor subsp. canariensis, Parietaria debilis, Urtica stachyoides.

41.2. Geranio pusilli-Anthriscion caucalidis Rivas-Martínez 1978
Characteristic species: Asperugo procumbens, Galium aparinella, Galium murale, Galium verticillatum, Geranium columbinum, Geranium lucidum, Geranium pusillum, Legousia scabra, Myosotis ramosissima subsp. gracillima, Myosotis ramosissima subsp. ramosissima, Scandix microcarpa.

41.3. Parietarion lusitanico-mauritanicae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó all. nova
Characteristic species: Ceratocapnos heterocarpa, Fumaria bicolor, Fumaria macrosepala, Galium minutulum, Mercurialis elliptica, Parietaria lusitanica, Parietaria mauritanica, Stachys circinata, Succowia balearica, Theligonum cynocrambe.

42. Mulgedio-Aconitetea Hadač & Klika in Klika 1948

Perennial tall herb "megaforb" tall ferns and tall grass semi-shaded communities, growing on deep winter snowy edges, gullies, depressions and stream beds, in primary or secondary forests and thickets river-banks glacial boulders etc., on mesic and moist soils rich in organic materials in thermo-mesoboreal and upper supra-orotemperate humid and hyperhumid in Eurosiberian and related regions. Eutrophic and mesotrophic organic materials mostly megaforbs (Adenostyletalia) [Eurosiberian and locally in high mountains of Mediterranean Central and West Iberian (Adenostylion alliariae: Adenostylenion pyrenaicae), Sierra Nevada relict (Cirsion flavispinae)]; dystrophic organic materials, in dryer and sunnier stations, often rich in tall grasses (Calamagrostietalia villosae: Calamagrostion arundinaceae). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Aconitum anthora, Aconitum napellus subsp. vulgare, Aconitum vulparia subsp. neapolitanum, Athyrium distentifolium, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Chaerophyllum villarsii, Epilobium alpestre, Hieracium juranum, Hieracium prenanthoides, Lastraea limbosperma, Meconopsis cambrica, Ranunculus aconitifolius, Ranunculus platanifolius, Rumex arifolius, Streptopus amplexifolius, Valeriana montana, Veratrum album.

42a. Adenostyletalia Br.-Bl. 1930
Characteristic species: Agrostis agrostiflora, Allium victorialis, Campanula latifolia, Myrrhis odorata, Ribes petraeum.

42.1. Adenostylion alliariae Br.-Bl. 1926
(Adenostylenion pyrenaicae (Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984) Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1998 (42.1a))
Characteristic species: Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica (42.1a), Aconitum napellus subsp. splendens (42.1a), Aconitum variegatum subsp. pyrenaicum (42.1a), Aconitum vulparia subsp. ranunculifolium, Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica (42.1a), Adenostyles alliariae subsp. alliariae, Adenostyles alliariae subsp. pyrenaica (42.1a), Alchemilla ilerdensis (42.1a), Alchemilla ischnocarpa (42.1a), Angelica razulii (42.1a), Cicerbita alpina, Cicerbita plumieri, Cirsium rufescens (42.1a), Delphinium montanum, Doronicum austriacum, Doronicum grandiflorum subsp. grandiflorum, Epilobium duriaei (42.1a), Heracleum sphondylium subsp. elegans, Hugueninia tanacetifolia subsp. suffruticosa (42.1a), Knautia godetii (42.1a), Luzula desvauxii, Peucedanum ostruthium, Phyteuma spicatum subsp. pyrenaicum (42.1a), Saxifraga rotundifolia, Stemmacantha centauroides (42.1a), Tozzia alpina, Valeriana pyrenaica.

42.2. Cirsion flavispinae Quézel 1953
Characteristic species: Aconitum burnatii, Aquilegia nevadensis, Senecio helodes.

42b. Calamagrostietalia villosae Pawłowski in Pawłowski, Sokołowski & Wallisch 1928
Characteristic species: See alliance (42.3).

42.3. Calamagrostion arundinaceae (Luquet 1926) Jeník 1961
Characteristic species: Calamagrostis arundinacea, Gentiana lutea subsp. aurantiaca, Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea, Gentiana lutea subsp. montserratii, Lilium pyrenaicum, Molopospermum peloponesiacum, Polygonum alpinum.

43. Trifolio-Geranietea Müller 1962

Semi-shaded perennial herb communities of scarce moisture external fringe woodlands on thermo to supratemperate and thermo to supramediterranean pluviseasonal of Eurosiberian and Mediterranean biogeographic regions. Calcareous or meso-eutrophic rich soils in Central European, Alpine-Caucasian, Orocantabric and Temperate submediterranean Mediterranean Central Iberian territories (Origanetalia vulgaris) [margins of mesophilous deciduous forests (Trifolion medii), margins of mesoxerophilous forests mostly on calcareous soils (Geranion sanguinei), southern Atlantic European and Carpetan-Leonese siliceous territories (Linarion triornithophorae), Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian, Mediterranean West Iberian and Betic (Origanion virentis: Origanenion virentis = silicicolous, Stachyo-Cheirolophenion = decalcified), Canarian Subregion edges of Pruno-Lauretea novocanariensis sigmeta (Ranunculo cortusifolii-Geranion canariensis)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium oleraceum, Anthemis triumfetti subsp. triumfetti, Aquilegia vulgaris subsp. hispanica, Arabis turrita, Astragalus glycyphyllos, Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta, Campanula rapunculus, Carex muricata subsp. lamprocarpa, Centaurea lingulata, Clinopodium vulgare, Cruciata glabra, Dactylorhiza insularis, Epipactis muelleri, Galium pumilum subsp. pinetorum, Inula conyza, Iris graminea, Laserpitium nestleri, Lathyrus cirrhosus, Lathyrus latifolius, Lathyrus sylvestris, Leucanthemum gracilicaule, Leucanthemum montanum subsp. vogtii, Melampyrum cristatum, Origanum vulgare, Pimpinella gracilis, Potentilla micrantha, Seseli libanotis, Silene latifolia, Silene nemoralis, Silene nutans, Stachys recta, Tanacetum corymbosum Thalictrum minus subsp. majus, Trifolium medium, Trifolium ochroleucon, Verbascum lychnitis, Vicia cracca, Vicia orobus, Vicia sepium, Vicia tenuifolia,

43a. Origanetalia vulgaris Müller 1962
[Melampyro-Holcetalia (syntax. syn.)]
Characteristic species: Carex spicata, Melampyrum nemorosum subsp. catalaunicum, Rhinanthus burnatii, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria var. intermedium.

43.1. Trifolion medii Müller 1962
Characteristic species: Agrimonia procera, Calamintha nepeta subsp. sylvatica, Carex divulsa subsp. divulsa, Centaurea nemoralis, Euphorbia brittingeri, Geranium sylvaticum, Lathyrus pannonicus subsp. longestipulatus, Lithospermum officinale, Orobanche montserratii, Trifolium rubens, Veronica chamaedrys.

43.2. Geranion sanguinei Tüxen in Müller 1962
Characteristic species: Arabis hirsuta, Bupleurum falcatum, Campanula persicifolia, Campanula rapunculoides, Carex divulsa subsp. leersii, Conopodium arvense, Galium glaucum, Galium pumilum subsp. papillosum, Geranium sanguineum, Inula salicina, Laserpitium latifolium, Laserpitium siler, Peucedanum cervaria, Pulsatilla alpina subsp. montsicciana, Stachys heraclea, Thalictrum minus subsp. pubescens, Verbascum chaixii, Veronica teucrium.

43.4. Linarion triornithophorae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Anthemis triumfetti subsp. aligulata, Centaurea nigra subsp. carpetana, Conopodium subcarneum, Erysimum merxmuelleri, Geum hispidum subsp. albarracinense, Leucanthemum sylvaticum, Linaria triornithophora, Omphalodes brassicifolia, Omphalodes nitida, Serratula legionensis, Silene coutinhoi.

43.5. Origanion virentis Rivas-Martínez & O. Bolòs in Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
(Origanenion virentis Capelo 1996 (43.5a). Stachyo lusitanicae-Cheirolophenion sempervirentis Capelo 1996 (43.5b))
Characteristic species: Arabis stenocarpa, Cheirolophus sempervirens (43.5b), Clinopodium arundanum, Conopodium marianicum, Origanum virens, Picris spinifera (43.5b), Silene mellifera subsp. mellifera, Stachys germanica subsp. lusitanica (43.5b).

43.6. Ranunculo cortusifolii-Geranion canariensis Rivas-Martínez, Wildpret, Del Arco, O. Rodríguez, Pérez de Paz, García Gallo, Acebes, T.E. Díaz & Fernández-González 1993
Characteristic species: Dactylorhiza foliosa, Geranium canariense, Geranium palmatum, Myosotis latifolia, Pericallis appendiculata, Pericallis aurita, Pericallis cruenta, Pericallis echinata, Pericallis tussilaginis, Pimpinella dendrotragium, Ranunculus cortusifolius subsp. cortusifolius, Ranunculus cortusifolius subsp. major, Rumex maderensis, Scropularia smithii.