Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxonomical system: Floating or rooted submerged aquatic vegetation

Ia. Fresh-water vegetation

1. Charetea fragilis Fukarek ex Krausch 1964

Charophyte pioneer communities growing on subaquatic barren soils of pools, lakes and shallow water courses. Basophilous to saline fresh-water mainly colonized by Chara communities (Charetalia hispidae) [mesotrophic calciphile long-term (Charion fragilis), pioneer ephemere (Charion vulgaris), brackish to saline (Charion canescentis)]; acidophilous to neutrophilous fresh-water richer in temperate Nitella communities (Nitelletalia flexilis) [acidophilous oceanic (Nitellion flexilis), neutrophilous semicontinental temperate (Nitellion syncarpo-tenuissimae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Chara baltica, Chara fragilis, Chara vulgaris var. contraria.

1a. Charetalia hispidae Sauer ex Krausch 1964
Characteristic species: Chara braunii, Chara globularis, Chara hispida var. major, Chara muscosa.

1.1. Charion fragilis Krausch 1964
Characteristic species: Chara aspera, Chara connivens, Chara hispida var. hispida.

1.2. Charion vulgaris (Krause ex Krause & Lang 1977) Krause 1981
Characteristic species: Chara imperfecta, Chara major, Chara vulgaris var. vulgaris, Tolypella glomerata.

1.3. Charion canescentis Krausch 1964
Characteristic species: Chara canescens, Chara desmacantha, Chara galioides, Chara tomentosa, Lamprothamnium papulosum, Tolypella hispanica, Tolypella salina.

1b. Nitelletalia flexilis Krause 1969
Characteristic species: Nitella batrachosperma, Nitella capillaris, Nitella opaca, Nitella translucens.

1.4. Nitellion flexilis Dambska 1966
Characteristic species: Nitella confervacea, Nitella flexilis, Nitella gracilis, Nitella hyalina.

1.5. Nitellion syncarpo-tenuissimae Krause 1969
Characteristic species: Nitella syncarpa, Nitella tenuissima, Tolypella prolifera.

2. Lemnetea Tüxen ex O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955

Bryo-cormophyte fresh-water floating communities (Lemnetalia) [small to medium acropleustophytes (Lemnion minoris), mesopleustophytes of lemnids and riccielids (Lemnion trisulcae) or hydrocharids (Lemno-Hydrocharition morsus-ranae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: See order (2a).

2a. Lemnetalia minoris Tüxen ex O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955
Characteristic species: Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor, Lemna minuta, Salvinia natans, Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolfia arrhiza.

2.1. Lemnion minoris Tüxen ex O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955
Characteristic species: Lemna gibba, Spirodela polyrhiza.

2.2. Lemnion trisulcae Den Hartog & Segal ex Tüxen & Schwabe in Tüxen 1974
Characteristic species: Lemna trisulca, Riccia fluitans, Ricciocarpos natans.

2.3. Lemno minoris-Hydrocharition morsus-ranae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Hydrocharis morsus-ranae.

3. Potametea Klika in Klika & V. Novák 1941

Aquatic fresh water macrophyte communities. Rooted hydrophytes (Potametalia) [fresh water elodeids (Potamion), brackish water elodeids (Zannichellion pedicellatae), batrachids of running water (Ranunculion fluitantis), batrachids of standing water (Ranunculion aquatilis) and nymphaeids (Nymphaeion albae)]; non rooted nutrient-rich hydrophytes (Utricularietalia) [floating utricularids (Utricularion) and ceratophyllids (Ceratophyllion demersi)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Callitriche brutia, Callitriche lusitanica, Callitriche platycarpa, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton densus, Potamogeton pectinatus, Stratiotes aloides (*).

3a. Potametalia Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Callitriche palustris, Elodea canadensis, Hippuris vulgaris, Hottonia palustris, Potamogeton coloratus, Potamogeton filiformis var. alpinus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton panormitanus, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Zannichellia palustris, Zannichellia peltata.

3.1. Potamion (Koch 1926) Libbert 1931
Characteristic species: Potamogeton alpinus, Potamogeton gramineus, Potamogeton praelongus, Potamogeton trichoides.

3.2. Nymphaeion albae Oberdorfer 1957
Characteristic species: Myriophyllum verticillatum, Nuphar lutea, Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea alba, Nymphoides peltata, Polygonum amphibium, Potamogeton natans, Trapa natans.

3.3. Ranunculion aquatilis Passarge 1964
Characteristic species: Callitriche cribosa, Callitriche regis-jubae, Callitriche stagnalis, Ranunculus aquatilis, Ranunculus baudotii, Ranunculus peltatus, Ranunculus saniculifolius, Ranunculus trichopyllus, Ranunculus tripartitus.

3.4. Ranunculion fluitantis Neuhäusl 1959
Characteristic species: Callitriche hamulata, Callitriche obtusangula, Potamogeton filiformis var. filiformis, Potamogeton nodosus, Ranunculus fluitans, Ranunculus penicillatus, Ranunculus pseudofluitans.

3.5. Zannichellion pedicellatae Schaminée, Lanjouw & Schipper 1990
Characteristic species: Najas gracillima, Najas marina, Najas minor, Zannichellia obtusifolia, Zannichellia pedunculata.

3b. Utricularietalia Den Hartog & Segal 1964
Characteristic species: See alliance (3.6).

3.6. Utricularion Den Hartog & Segal 1964
Characteristic species: Utricularia australis, Utricularia gibba, Utricularia vulgaris.

3.7. Ceratophyllion demersi Den Hartog & Segal ex Passarge 1996
Characteristic species: Ceratophyllum demersum, Ceratophyllum submersum.

Ib. Marine, coastal mud-flats and salt-water vegetation

4. Halodulo wrightii-Thalassietea testudinum Den Hartog ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999

Infralittoral benthic cormophyte and related straight macrothallophyte communities of tropical, subtropical and low tide temperate oceans (Thalassio-Syringodietalia filiformis: Syringodio-Thalassion). Pantropical and Mediterranean territories.
Characteristic species: Cymodocea nodosa, Halophila decipiens.

4a. Thalassio-Syringodietalia filiformis Borhidi, Muñiz & Del Risco in Borhidi 1996
Characteristic species: See class (4).

4.1. Syringodio-Thalassion testudinum Borhidi 1996
Characteristic species: See class (4).

5. Posidonietea Den Hartog 1976

Infralittoral up 35 m deep benthic cormophyte and related thallophyte potential communities mostly on sandy substrates of temperate seas organized by Posidonia oceanica (Posidonietalia: Posidonion). Mediterranean and spread in Cantabrian-Atlantic.
Characteristic species: Posidonia oceanica.

5a. Posidonietalia Den Hartog 1976
Characteristic species: See class (5).

5.1. Posidonion Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre 1952
Characteristic species: See class (5).

6. Ruppietea J. Tüxen 1960

Aquatic halophilous cormophyte and bryophyte communities growing on temporary or permanent littoral or continental salts-water pools and lagoons (Ruppietalia) [flexible filiform leaf elodeids with spring development (Ruppion maritimae), ephemeral riellids (Riellion helicophyllae), or short and slender rhizomatous juncoids (Eleocharition parvulae)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: See alliance (6.1).

6a. Ruppietalia maritimae J. Tüxen 1960
Characteristic species: See alliance (6.1).

6.1. Ruppion maritimae Br.-Bl. ex Westhoff in Bennema, Sissingh & Westhoff 1943
Characteristic species: Althenia orientalis subsp. betpakdalensis, Althenia orientalis subsp. orientalis, Ruppia cirrhosa, Ruppia drepanensis, Ruppia maritima.

6.2. Eleocharition parvulae Segal 1968 nom. mut. propos.
[Scirpion parvuli]
Characteristic species: Eleocharis parvula.

6.3Riellion helicophyllae Cirujano, Velayos & P. García ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Riella cossoniana, Riella helicophylla.

7. Zosteretea marinae Pignatti 1954

Eulittoral and infralittoral up 5 m deep benthic cormophyte communities of zosterids (marine elodeids with thick linear leaves) on muddy and sandy substrates of lagoons, estuaries and calm coast shelves of temperate seas (Zosteretalia: Zosterion). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Nanozostera noltii, Zostera marina.

7a. Zosteretalia Béguinot 1941
Characteristic species: See class (7).

7.1. Zosterion Christiansen 1934
Characteristic species: See class (7).