Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxon descriptions: Teucrio expansi - Vinco difformis

Teucrio expansi-Gypsophiletum hispanicae ass. nova hoc loco (64.9.16)

[Com. Teucrio expansi-Gypsophiletum hispanicae Rivas Goday & Borja in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 128, tb. 22. 1961 (art. 3c)]
(Gypsophilenion hispanicae, Lepidion subulati, Gypsophiletalia, Rosmarinetea officinalis)

Typus associatio: Holotypus in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 128, tb. 22, rel. 3 1961 [Teruel: Bottom of Camarena mountains, Miocenic gypsum, 100 m2]. Characteristic species (Gypsophiletalia): 2 Gypsophila hispanica, 2 Teucrium expansum (terr.), 2 Lepidium subulatum, 1 Herniaria fruticosa, 1 Ononis tridentata, + Jurinea pinnata, + Launaea fragilis. Characteristic species (Rosmarinetea): 1 Bupleurum fruticescens, + Salvia lavandulifolia, + Sideritis spinulosa, + Teucrium capitatum, + Teucrium gnaphalodes, + Thymus zygis. Companion species: + Avenula bromoides, + Brachypodium retusum, + Convolvulus lineatus, + Helianthemum salicifolium, + Koeleria vallesiana, + Plantago albicans, + Stipa lagascae, + Wangenheimia lima.

Characteristic species (territorials): Gypsophila hispanica, Jurinea pinnata, Teucrium expansum.

Diagnosis: Thyme formations with the aragonese gypsicolous endemic Gypsophila hispanica typical of gypseous soils from the Miocene in the meso-supramediterranean dry and semiarid belts of the Maestracensean Sector, subserial of the sabine microforests of the Juniperetum phoeniceo-thuriferae. The existence of the betic-manchean subelement Jurinea pinnata is a characteristic and differential trait of the association, as well as the gypsum-calcicolous iberic-aragonese chamaephytes: Teucrium expansum and Sideritis spinulosa.

[Rivas-Martínez & Fernández-González]

Teucrio leonis-Erinaceetum anthyllidis ass. nova hoc loco (64.4.3)

[Salvio pseudovellereae-Teucrietum leonis P. Sánchez & Alcaraz in Anales Biol. Univ. Murcia 18: 129, tb. 6. 1992 (art. 5, 10)]
(Lavandulo-Echinospartion boissieri, Rosmarinetalia officinalis, Rosmarinetea officinalis)

Typus associatio: Anales Biol. Univ. Murcia 18, tb. 6, rel. 5. 1992. Albacete: Calar de Socovos, Socovos, 1300 m, 150 m2. Characteristic species: 1 Teucrium leonis, 2 Thymus vulgaris, + Salvia vellerea, 1 Armeria bourgaei subsp. willkommiana, + Centaurea granatensis, 1 Knautia subscaposa, 1 Teucrium webbianum, 2 Helianthemum cinereum subsp. rotundifolium, 2 Erinacea anthyllis, 2 Lavandula latifolia, 1 Biscutella valentina, + Paronychia suffruticosa, 1 Centaurea boissierii subsp. boissierii, 1 Cistus clusii, 1 Dianthus subacaulis subsp brachyanthus, 3 Rosmarinus officinalis, + Chaenorhinum macropodum subsp. degenei, + Paronychia aretioides, 1 Thymelaea pubescens, 1 Sideritis incana subsp. incana, 1 Argyrolobium zanonii, 1 Helianthemum apeninum, + Teucrium similatum, + Bupleurum fruticescens, + Fumana scoparia, + Galium boissieranum, + Hippocrepis bourgaei, + Jurinea humilis, + Phlomis xcomposita, 1 Phlomis crinita, 1 Satureja obovata subsp. obovata, 1 Thymus funkii subsp. burilloi. Companion species: 1 Aphyllanthes monspeliensis, 1 Medicago suffruticosa subsp. leiocarpa, 1 Avenula bromoides, + Daphne gnidium, + Orobanche latisquama, + Sedum sediforme subsp. sediforme.

Characteristic species (territorials): Erinacea anthyllis, Teucrium leonis, Thymus vulgaris subsp. vulgaris.

Diagnosis: Supramediterranean subhumid calcicolous shrubland characteristic of the Subbetic-Murcian Subsector (Subbetic Sector, Betic Province), rich in pulvinulate plants. The influence of the close Manchean Sector is very strong, as shows the abundance of Thymus vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, but due to the high number of Betic plants, this association is included into the Lavandulo-Echinospartion boissieri alliance.

[P. Sánchez & Alcaraz]

Thymo gracilis-Cistetum ladaniferi ass. nova hoc loco (62.3.11)

[Teucrio compacti-Cistetum ladaniferi Peinado, Alcaraz & Martínez-Parras in Flora et Vegetatio Mundi 10: 252. 1992 (art. 3f), quoad typus: in Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz in Lazaroa 8: 265, tb. 5, rel. 1-4 (holotypus: rel. 2) (sub Lavandulo-Genistetum equisetiformis genistetosum equisetiformis Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 25: 127, tb. 27. 1968)]
(Ulici argentei-Cistion ladaniferi, Lavanduletalia stoechadis, Cisto-Lavanduletea)

Typus associatio: Flora et Vegetatio Mundi 10: 253, tb. 48, rel. 1. 1992. Murcia: Cabezo de la Jara, Puerto Lumbreras. 940 m, SW, 100 m2. Characteristic species: 4 Cistus ladanifer, 1 Teucrium compactum, 1 Lavandula stoechas, 1 Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis, 2 Paronychia suffruticosa, + Eryngium campestre, + Carlina corymbosa, 2 Dorycnium pentaphyllum, 2 Brachypodium retusum¸+ Dactylis hispanica, + Sedum sediforme, + Carex halleriana, + Rosmarinus officinalis.

Characteristic species (territorials): Cistus ladanifer, Festuca scariosa, Teucrium compactum, Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis.

Diagnosis: Cistus-brushwood with southeast distribution, developed on siliceous soils in the dry mesomediterranean belt (Almeriensian, Nevadensian and Alpujarrean-Gadorensean Sectors).

[Asensi & Díez Garretas]

Tofieldio calyculatae-Caricetum pulicaris ass. nova hoc loco (14.4.6)

[Carici pulicaris-Eriophoretum latifolii sensu Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi in Itinera Geobot. 5: 414, tb. 81. 1991 non Carici-Eriophoretum latifolii O. Bolòs & Vives in O. Bolòs 1956]
(Caricion davallianae, Caricetalia davallianae, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae)

Typus associatio: Table 94, rel. 5 [Huesca: Benasque, Ball d'Estos, Batisielles. 42º 39'N-0º 10'E. 1900 m, NW, 4 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Carex pulicaris, Tofieldia calyculata, Carex flava subsp. alpina, Primula farinosa.

Diagnosis: Orotemperate humid-hyperhumid Pyrenean small sedges community, growing on peaty flushed even water overflowing boggy soils, characterized by Carex pulicaris, Carex flava subsp. alpina, Primula farinosa, Tofieldia calyculata, etc.

Table 94

14.4.6 Tofieldio calyculatae-Caricetum pulicaris
(Caricion davallianae, Caricetalia davallianae, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae)

Altitude (1=10m) 170 172 175 156 190 193 164 162 178 173
Number of species 7 8 9 9 10 10 12 12 14 10
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10
Characteristic species:
Carex pulicaris 3 3 4 3 5 4 3 4 3 V
Carex alpina 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 V
Tofieldia calyculata 1 1 . 1 2 + 1 2 1 V
Primula farinosa + 1 + . . . 2 + 2 IV
Eriophorum latifolium 1 . . 1 . + + 2 1 IV
Parnassia palustris . 1 + . + + 2 + . IV
Pinguicula grandiflora . + . . 2 2 1 1 1 IV
Eleocharis quinqueflora 2 . 2 . . + 1 . . III
Juncus alpinus . 1 1 1 . 2 . . . III
Carex nigra 2 . 2 . . . . . 1 II
Pedicularis mixta . . . . 1 . . 1 2 II
Orchis palustris . . . . + . . . 1 II
Leontodon duboisii . . . . . 1 . . 1 II
Companion species:
Carex panicea . + 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 V
Caltha palustris . . . + 1 . . + . II

Other species. Characteristic species: Triglochin palustre 1 in 3. Carex demissa 1 in 5. Swertia perennis 2 in 8. Carex lepidocarpa 1 in 9. Companion species: Molinia caerulea 1 in 4 and 7. Succisa pratensis + in 4, 1 in 9. Bartsia alpina + in 7, 1 in 8. Potentilla erecta 1 in 7. Polygonum viviparum 1 in 9.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Benasque, Aigüespases. E, 10 m2. 2. Huesca: Benasque, Plan del Hospital. E, 4 m2. 3. Huesca: Benasque, Pleta de Aigüespases. SE, 8 m2. 4. Huesca: Benasque, Baños de Benasque. NW, 6 m2. 5. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, Ball d'Estos, Batisielles. 42º39'N-0º10'W. NE, 4 m2. 6. Huesca: Benasque, Ibonet de Batisielles. E, 10 m2. 7. Lérida: Vielha, Val de Molieres. E, 8 m2. 8. Lérida: Vielha, Val de Molieres. NE, 6 m2. 9. Huesca: Benasque, Plan del Hospital. W, 4 m2. 10. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa & P. Soriano]

Trifolio resupinati-Holoschoenetum Rivas Goday 1964 (59.7.27)

[Melico magnolii-Holoschoenetum Rivas Goday, Veg. Fl. Guadiana: 263, tbs. 23, 24. 1964 (syntax. syn.)]
(Brizo-Holoschoenenion, Molinio-Holoschoenion vulgaris, Holoschoenetalia vulgaris, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea)

Lectotypus hoc loco: Fl. Veg. Guadiana: 263, tb. 2, rel. 1. 1964.

Remarks: This oligo-mesotrophic base poor soil association dominated by Holoschoenus vulgaris (Scirpoides holoschoenus) is elected (hoc loco) as lectotypus of the suballiance Brizo-Holoschoenenion (Rivas Goday 1964) Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés in Lazaroa 2: 100. 1980.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Triseto velutini-Brachypodion boissieri all. nova hoc loco (56.6)

(Lygeo-Stipetalia, Lygeo-Stipetea)

Typus alliancia: Brachypodio boissieri-Trisetetum velutini Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz in Lazaroa 7: 5, tb. 1, holotypus: rel. 3. 1987.

Characteristic species: Brachypodium boissieri, Helictotrichon sarracenorum, Stipa dasyvaginata, Trisetum velutinum.

Diagnosis: Thermo- to supramediterranean dry to subhumid Malacitan-Almijarensean and Bermejensean short perennial grassland community dominated by Brachypodium boissieri, growing on magnesite or dolomite rich shallow soils originated by alteration of dolostone, doloclast or rich serpentine rocks.

Brachypodio boissieri-Trisetetum velutini Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz in Lazaroa 7: 5, tb. 1. 1987 (56.6.1)

Distribution: Thermo-mesomediterranean dry and subhumid with Malacitan, Western Almijarensean and Bermejensean distribution.

Helictotricho sarracenorum-Brachypodietum boissieri Pérez-Raya & Molero in Mem. Soc. Brot. 28: 137. 1988 (56.6.2)

Distribution: Meso-supramediterranean dry and subhumid Granatensean community, growing mostly on rich dolomite sandy rocks.

[Rivas-Martínez, Molero & Pérez-Raya]

Ulici eriocladi-Ericetum andevalensis (A.V. Pérez, Nieto & Cabezudo 1993) Cabezudo & A.V. Pérez 1999 (61.2.21)

[Junco rugosi-Ericetum andevalensis ulicetosum eriocladi A.V. Pérez, Nieto & Cabezudo in Acta Bot. Malacitana 18: 247. 1993 (basion.) (holotypus: in Cabezudo, Nieto & A.V. Pèrez in Acta Bot. Malacitana 14: 295, tb. 1, rel. 5. 1989)]
(Ericenion umbellatae, Ericion umbellatae, Ulicetalia minoris, Calluno-Ulicetea)

Typus associatio: Holotypus: in Cabezudo, Nieto & A.V. Pérez, Acta Bot. Malacitana 14: 295, tb. 1, rel. 5. 1989 (sub Junco rugosi-Ericetum andevalensis).

Characteristic species: Erica andevalensis.

Diagnosis: Ulici eriocladi-Ericetum andevalensis is found in the Marianic-Monchiquensean Sector of Mediterranean West Iberian Province. It usually occupies the areas between the Tinto and Odiel rivers, inside the thermomediterranean subhumid bioclimatic belt, in the Teucrio baetici-Querco suberis sigmetum (tb. 95).

Erica andevalensis is a local endemic species capable of colonizing a complex sulfidic mining area (copper, gold and silver) of the Andévalo Region in the Iberian Pyritic Belt (Huelva). Although this plant can grow as a monospecific population, normally it is found in heathlands together with other plants such as Erica australis, Cistus ladanifer and Cistus populifolius.

Different authors have studied Erica andevalensis from different points of view (López-Archilla & al. 1994, Aparicio A. 1995, Asensi & al. 1999). López-Archilla & al. (1994) commented Erica andevalensis ecological concepts and reported that this species is restricted to mineralized sites and along the Tinto River, a very acidic habitat (mean pH 2.3) with high concentration of ferric iron. Asensi & al. (1999) reported tolerance values of Erica andevalensis to several heavy metals such as copper, zinc and iron, considering these species to be a good geobotanical indicator for copper mineralization although not a hiperacumulator of this cation.

Our data show that Ulici-Ericetum andevalensis grows on fluvial terraces, mineral damps with ferric precipitates of intense red color. The pH of the soils in which this community grows ranges from 2.8 (Tinto River source) to 4 (Nerva cemetery). The conductivity range is between 0.06 and 3.01. From the texture point of view the soils range from sandy clayey to clayey. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for metal content after acid digestion by Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. The content for the main components in soils expressed in percentage: 38-96% for Fe2O3, 18-30% for Al2O3, 1-4% for SiO2, 1-8% for MgO, 1-2% for CaO and 1-3% for TiO2; and for the trace elements in gr/Kg: Zn: 70-200, Pb: 20-2400, Cu: 40-1400 and Co: 4-28. The following minerals can be considered common in these soils: goethita, hematite, albite, quartz , gypsum, moscovite and jarosite. The heavy metal content in gr/kg for different Erica andevalensis samples was: Al: 1983; Mg: 400-2855; Fe: 888-2020; Mn: 500-725; Zn: 18-43 ; Pb: 24-46; Cu: 30-94; Co: 4-9 and Ti: 20-62.

Table 95

61.2.21 Ulici eriocladi-Ericetum andevalensis
(Ericion umbellatae, Ulicetalia, Calluno-Ulicetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 35 35 37 37 30 35 17 37 30 17 37 32
Number of species 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 9 9 6
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Characteristic species:
Erica andevalensis 3 3 2 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 V
Erica australis 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 1 + V
Cistus populifolius . . . . . . + 1 + . + II
Erica umbellata . 1 1 . . . . . . . . II
Halimium ocymoides . . . . . . . 1 + . . II
Erica lusitanica . . . . . . . . . . 1 I
Calluna vulgaris . . . . . . . . + . . I
Companion species:
Cistus ladanifer + . . 1 + 1 + 1 + . . III
Cistus salviifolius . . . + . + + 1 . . + III
Nerium oleander . . . + . . . . . + 1 II
Agrostis stolonifera . . . . . . 2 . 2 1 . II
Pinus acutisquama . . + . + + . . . . . II
Daphne gnidium . . . . . . . . . + + II

Other species. Chamaerops humilis + in 5. Rubus ulmifolius 1, Phagnalon rupestre + in 10. Cistus monspeliensis + in 8. Juncus rugosus 1, Ceratonia siliqua + in 10. Scirpoides holoschoenus + , Ulex eriocladus + in 11.

Localities: 1. Huelva: Nerva. Cemetery. 29SQB1575. W, 80%, 100 m2. 2. Huelva: Nerva. Tinto river. 29SQB1675. N, 80%, 100 m2. 3. Huelva: Peña de Hierro. 29SQB1577. 6 NE, 60%, 100 m2, 12 NW, 80%, 50 m2. 4. Huelva: Source of Tinto river. 29SQB1577. NE, 100%, 100 m2. 5. Huelva: Las Zarandas. 29SQB1572. S, 100%, 100 m2. 6. Huelva: Embalse de Tumbanala. 29S1579. S, 100%, 50 m2. 7. Huelva: Alosno, Ribera de la Dehesa, Odiel. 29SPB65. 8. Huelva: Peña de Hierro. 29SQB1577. 6 NE, 60%, 100 m2, 12 NW, 80%, 50 m2. 9. Huelva: Tharsis, Ribera de la Dehesa. 29SPB66. SW, 100%, 100 m2. 10. Huelva: Tinto river, Minas de las Marismillas. 29S1574. NE, 100%, 100 m2. 11. Huelva: Source of Tinto river. 29SQB1577. 7 NE, 100%, 100 m2. 12. Synthesized table.

[Fuente, Amils & Rivas-Martínez]

Vaccinio microphylli-Callunetum vulgaris ass. nova hoc loco (77.3.5)

(Juniperion nanae, Vaccinio microphylli-Juniperetalia nanae, Vaccinio-Piceetea)

Typus associatio: Table 96, rel. 16 [Cantabria: Hermandad del Campóo de Suso, Sierra de la Peña Labra. 30TUN95. 1880 m, 100 m²].

Characteristic species (territorials): Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. microphyllum, (= Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides), Erica tetralix.

Diagnosis: Dense short thicket with mainly chamaephytes and grassy hemicryptophytes developed in deep soils with great humiferous horizon on slate, sandstone or quartzites. This chionophilous community has its optimum in the orotemperate Orocantabric belt and is usually in contact with Nardus pastures of the alliance Campanulo herminii-Nardion. This association was provisionally proposed as Erico tetralicis-Vaccinietum uliginosi by Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 16: 572. 1959, from the Laguna de Arvas at 1700 m. In the sunniest and less snowy biotopes these heathlands are substituted by the creeping dwarf juniper association Junipero nanae-Vaccinietum microphylli.

Table 96

77.3.5 Vaccinio microphylli-Callunetum vulgaris
(Juniperion nanae, Vaccinio microphylli-Juniperetalia nanae, Vaccinio-Piceetea)

Altitude ( 1 = 10 m.) 201 191 184 196 182 190 212 192 191 189 175 186 178 179 193 188 187 176 188
Number of species 17 16 18 13 15 22 19 10 11 12 13 10 18 21 17 19 12 23 16
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16* 17 18 19
Characterist species:
Calluna vulgaris (terr.) 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 1 4 2 4 V
Vaccinium microphyllum 3 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 4 2 5 1 V
Vaccinium myrtillus (terr.) 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 + 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 V
Erica tetralix (terr.) . . 1 + 2 + 3 2 1 + 1 1 + + + 1 2 2 V
Luzula nutans (terr.) 1 . + . . . + 1 + + 1 1 1 + + 1 1 1 IV
Festuca eskia (terr.) + . . . + . . . . + . . + . 1 1 . . II
Phyteuma hemisphaericum (terr.) 1 + . . . 1 + . . . . . . . . 1 . . II
Juncus trifidus (terr.) . 1 . 1 . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . I
Homogyne cantabrica . . . . . . . . . . . + 2 2 . . . . I
Companion species:
Avenella flexuosa 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 V
Jasione carpetana + 1 1 1 . + + . 1 + . . + + + + . . IV
Nardus stricta . . 1 . 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 . 1 2 + . . . IV
Hypericum burseri + . 1 1 + 1 . . . . + . 1 + . 1 . 1 III
Meum athamanticum + . + + + + . . . . . . 1 . + + 1 1 III
Leontodon cantabricus + + . . . + . . . . + . . + + . + + III
Galium saxatile + . + . . . . . . + + . + 1 . . . 1 II
Festuca rubra . . 1 1 1 1 1 . . . . . 1 2 . . . . II
Luzula caespitosa . . + 1 . + . . + . . . . . . . . + II
Silene ciliata . + + . . 1 . . . . . . . . . + . . II
Melampyrum pratense . + . . . . . . . . . . + . . . + + II
Carex pilulifera . . + . . . . . . . . . . + + + . . II
Avenula lodunensis . . . . + . . . . . . . + + . . . + II

Other species. Characteristic species: Huperzia selago 1 in 5, + in 12. Companion species: Anthoxanthum odoratum + in 1 and 18, 1 in 7. Lotus corniculatus 1 in 1, + in 10 and 18. Saxifraga spathularis 1 in 1 and 11, + in 13. Gentiana lutea + in 1, 11 and 18. Teesdaliopsis conferta + in 1 and 18, 1 in 7. Thymelaea dendrobryum + in 9, 12 and 14. Phalacrocarpon oppositifolium + in 10 and 18, 1 in 15. Veratrum album + in 5, 17 and 18. Alchemilla saxatilis + in 1 and 7. Festuca indigesta 1 in 2 and 6. Carex asturica + in 2 and 15. Agrostis durieui + in 3 and 6. Potentilla erecta + in 5 and 11. Solidago virgaurea + in 6 and 14. Rumex angiocarpus + in 6 and 16. Plantago alpina + in 7 and 8. Agrostis capillaris + in 7, 1 in 14. Hieracium pilosella + in 7 and 14. Juncus squarrosus + in 8 and 9. Trifolium alpinum 1 in 16, + in 18. Scilla verna + in 16 and 18. Antennaria dioica 1, Campanula herminii +, Pedicularis sylvatica + in 2. Euphorbia polygalifolia. +, Luzula multiflora + in 3. Rumex suffruticosus + in 4. Cytisus oromediterraneus +, Minuartia juresii +, Sedum brevifolium + in 6. Cruciata glabra +, Luzula hispanica +, Selinum pyrenaeum + in 7. Polygala serpyllifolia +, Thesium pyrenaicum + in 14. Androsace cantabrica +, Conopodium pyrenaeum +, Mucizonia sedoides +, Polygonum bistorta +, Thymus britannicus + in 16. Allium victorialis +, Doronicum carpetanum + in 17. Erica aragonensis +, Luzula henriquesii +, Sorbus aucuparia + in 18.

Localities: 1. León: Villablino/Asturias: Somiedo, Las Camposas. 29TQH16 y 29TQH17. 100 m². 2. León: Candín, Ancares pass. 29TPH74. 200 m². 3. Cantabria: Camaleño, Alto de Riofrío. 30TUN66. 100 m². 4. León: Boca de Huérgano/Cantabria: Camaleño, Puertos de Riofrío, Peña Prieta-Cubil del Can. 30TUN56. 200 m². 5. Palencia: Cervera de Pisuerga, Pozo del Curavacas. 30TUN66. 100 m². 6. Cantabria: Hermandad del Campóo de Suso, Alto Campóo, Braña Vieja-Tres Mares peak. 30TUN86. 100 m². 7. Palencia: Brañosera, El Golobar-Valdecebollas. 30TUN85. 100 m². 8. León: Páramo del Sil, El Miro. 29TQH05. 100 m². 9. León: Valdelugueros, Peña Agujas. 30TUN06. 100 m². 10. Asturias: Cangas de Narcea/León: Cueto de Arbás. 29TQH06 y 29TQH16. 100 m2. 11. Asturias: Lena, Cueto Negro. 30TTN76. 100 m². 12. Asturias: Aller/León: Valdelugueros, Circo de Cebolledo. 30TUN06. 100 m². 13. León: Maraña: Señales pass-Lago del Pinar peak. 30TUN16. 100 m². 14. Asturias: Caso, Torres peak. 30TUN07. 100 m². 15. León: Candín, Ancares pass. 29TPH74. 100 m². 16. Holotypus ass. Cantabria: Hermandad del Campóo de Suso, Peña Labra. 30TUN95. 100 m². 17. León: Villablino/Asturias: Somiedo: Las Camposas. 29TQH16 y 29TQH17. 100 m². 18. León: Candín, Cuiña peak. 29TPH74. 100 m². 19. Synthesized table.

[Bueno & F. Prieto]

Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum ibericae ass. nova hoc loco (74.4.6)

(Avenello-Pinion ibericae, Junipero sabinae-Pinetalia sylvestris, Junipero sabinae-Pinetea sylvestris)

Typus associatio: Table 97, rel. 1 [Soria: Sierra de Urbión, Laguna Negra. 30TWM15. 1950 m, SE, 15%, 200 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Avenella iberica, Calluna vulgaris, Juniperus nana, Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, Vaccinium myrtillus.

Diagnosis: Orotemperate humid-hyperhumid Sorian Oroiberian and Ubinnean (upper zone of Pinar de Lillo) natural potential vegetation Pinus sylvestris var. iberica micro-mesoforests, growing on shallow acid tangel cambisols of acidic bedrocks, with a deep winter snow cover, between 1700-2100m in Sorian Oroiberian mountains and 1500-1800m in Orocantabric (Pinar de Lillo). The mantle and seral shrubby vegetation belongs to Vaccinio myrtilli-Juniperetum nanae; and in Sorian Oroiberian at lower altitudes in the vegetation belt of Galio rotundifolii-Fagetum, the natural and seminatural Pinus iberica forests on shallow soils belongs to meso-macroforest Galio rotundifolii-Pinetum ibericae.

Table 97

74.4.6 Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum ibericae
(Avenello-Pinion ibericae, Junipero sabinae-Pinetalia sylvestris, Junipero-Pinetea sylvestris)

Altitude (1=10m) 195 184 190
Number of species 14 20 17
Ordinal number 1* 2 3
Characteristic species:
Pinus sylvestris var. iberica 5 5 2
Avenella iberica 2 3 2
Festuca braun-blanquetii 3 2 2
Vaccinum myrtillus 2 2 2
Calluna vulgaris (terr.) 1 3 2
Juniperus nana 1 + 2
Juniperus hemisphaerica + . 1
Companion species:
Galium saxatile 1 3 2
Arenaria montana 1 2 2
Rumex angiocarpus 1 1 2
Erica arborea + 2 2
Nardus stricta + 2 2
Carex asturica + + 2

Other species. Companion species: Festuca curvifolia 1 in 1. Jasione carpetana 2, Arrhenatherum bulbosum 1, Veronica officinalis 1, Digitalis purpurea +, Gagea nevadensis +, Hieracium auricula +, Rubus idaeus +, Sorbus aucuparia + in 2.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Soria, Urbión Mountain, Laguna Negra. 30TWM15. SE, 15%, 14 m, 200 m2. 2. Burgos, Neila Mountain, Parque de las Lagunas, Laguna Larga. 30TVM95. NE, 25%, 12-20 m, 400 m2. 3. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina]

Viburno lantanae-Ulmetum minoris ass. nova hoc loco (71.2.18)

[Viburno lantanae-Ulmetum minoris Biurrun & García-Mijangos in Biurrun in Guineana 5: 36, tb. 8. 1999 (art. 3b)]
(Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris, Populion albae, Populetalia albae, Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae)

Typus associatio: Table 98, rel. 3 [Navarre: Lumbier, near San Vicente, Irati river. 30TXN3825. 430 m, 150 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Acer campestre, Bryonia dioica, Euonymus europaeus, Fraxinus angustifolia, Ulmus minor, Viburnum lantana.

Diagnosis: Edaphohygrophilous elm and ash forests from the lower supramediterranean und upper mesomediterranean subhumid belt of the Castilian Cantabrian Sector, also found in some subhumid areas of the Navarran-Alavan District (Pamplona bassin). They occupy the external band in the riparian geoseries of the Castilian Cantabrian Sector, behind the Salicetum neotrichae salicetosum lambertianae Biurrun 1999 and the Humulo lupuli-Alnetum glutinosae alder forests. In streams, where water flow is low, they grow on the bank: Salix atrocinerea variant (rel. 10-13). They also contact the climactic vegetation, generally Quercus faginea forests (Spiraeo obovatae-Quercetum fagineae); elm and ash forests of the Navarran-Alavan District contact Quercus pubescens forests (Roso arvensis-Quercetum humilis).

Differential species against geovicarious elm forests in the Iberian Peninsula: Buxus sempervirens, Lonicera xylosteum, Viburnum lantana, Rhamnus cathartica, Ulmus glabra and Anthriscus sylvestris. Differential species against Aro cylindracei-Ulmetum minoris (Leonese and Castilian Duriensean Sectors): Acer campestre, Tamus communis. In the opposite way, occidental species (Salix salviifolia) and species behaving as montane in the territory (Arum maculatum, Helleborus occidentalis) lack in the new association. Differential species against Aro italici-Ulmetum minoris (Celtiberian-Alcarrean Sector): Acer campestre, Prunus spinosa, Clematis vitalba, Euonymus europaeus, Salix neotricha, Humulus lupulus, Bryonia dioica. In the opposite way, Myrrhoides nodosa and Smyrnium perfoliatum play as differential species of the association from Celtiberian-Alcarrean Sector. Differential species against Hedero-Ulmetum minoris (Bardenan-Monegrensean and Valencian-Tarraconensean Sectors): Humulus lupulus, Bryonia dioica. In the opposite way: Celtis australis. Differential species against Lithospermo purpurocaerulei-Ulmetum minoris (Vallesan-Empordanese Sector): Euonymus europaeus. In the opposite way: Sanicula europaea and Melica uniflora, behaving as montane species in the territory, and Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum, Rosa sempervirens, Quercus ilex, Carex sylvatica subsp. paui, Celtis australis, Smilax aspera.

Table 98

71.2.18 Viburno lantanae-Ulmetum minoris
(Fraxino-Ulmenion minoris, Populion albae, Populetalia albae, Salici-Populetea nigrae)

Altitude (1=10m) 41 43 43 43 44 46 38 42 46 52 58 57 60 47
Number of species 51 42 48 33 44 45 28 26 42 34 45 52 48 41
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Characteristic species:
Fraxinus angustifolia 3 5 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 3 5 3 3 V
Brachypodium sylvaticum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 V
Ulmus minor 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 1 4 3 1 · · V
Rubus caesius · 2 + 1 + + · · + · 1 · 1 IV
Populus nigra 3 + 1 · · + 3 · · · + · · III
Humulus lupulus + 1 + · · · · 1 · · + + · III
Vitis sylvestris + · + · + + · 1 + · · · · III
Bryonia dioica · + 1 1 1 + · · · · · · + III
Elymus caninus · + · · · 1 · · · · 1 1 2 III
Arum italicum · · + + 1 + · · 1 · + · · III
Fraxinus oxycarpa + + · · · · · · · 3 1 · · II
Salix atrocinerea · · · · · · · · · + + 2 4 II
Querco-Fagetea and Rhamno-Prunetea species:
Hedera helix 1 1 4 + + 2 4 2 3 2 + 1 1 V
Crataegus monogyna 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 · V
Clematis vitalba 1 1 + 1 2 + 1 1 1 + · 1 + V
Cornus sanguinea 1 1 1 + 1 · 2 + 1 1 3 2 1 V
Ligustrum vulgare 2 1 1 · 1 + 1 1 1 2 + 1 1 V
Buxus sempervirens 2 + + + 1 + 1 + + · · 1 + V
Rubus ulmifolius 1 + + · 1 1 2 2 1 1 · · 1 V
Prunus spinosa · + 1 · + + 1 · 1 + 1 + + V
Viburnum lantana + + 1 · 1 · · · + + + + + IV
Rosa canina + · 1 1 · · 1 1 + + + · · IV
Euphorbia amygdaloides 1 1 + + · · 1 · · · · 1 + IV
Tamus communis · + 2 + 2 + · · 1 · · 1 · IV
Sambucus nigra · · + 1 · · · + + + · + + IV
Mycelis muralis + + + + + + · · · · · · · III
Helleborus foetidus 1 + + · 1 + · · + · · · · III
Lonicera xylosteum · · 1 · + + · · + + · + · III
Corylus avellana · · + + · · · · + · + 1 2 III
Euonymus europaeus · · + · · + · · + · 2 1 1 III
Companion species:
Alliaria petiolata · · + 2 + + + · 1 1 1 1 1 V
Heracleum sphondylium + + + + + + · · + + · · · IV
Galium aparine · + + + + · · · · + · + 1 IV
Urtica dioica · · + 1 · + · · · + + + 1 IV
Geranium robertianum · · + · + + · · 1 1 1 · 1 IV
Geum urbanum · · + · · 1 · · 1 1 1 1 1 IV

Other species. Characteristic species: Rumex sanguineus + in 4, 6 and 9. Iris foetidissima + in 11 and 13, 1 in 12. Alnus glutinosa + in 6, 1 in 8. Salix neotricha + in 8, 1 in 12. Salix lambertiana + in 8 and 13. Solanum dulcamara + in 9 and 13. Salix angustifolia + in 1. Populus alba + in 6. Cucubalus baccifer + in 7. Festuca gigantea + in 9. Fraxinus excelsior 1 in 11. Primula elatior + in 13. Querco-Fagetea and Rhamno-Prunetea species: Viola reichenbachiana + in 1, 4 and 10, 1 in 2 and 12. Rhamnus cathartica 1 in 3 and 9, + in 5, 11 and 13. Viola gr. alba + in 1 and 3, 1 in 5 and 9. Tilia platyphyllos + in 2, 4 in 12, 2 in 13. Rosa agrestis + in 3, 5 and 7. Rosa corymbifera + in 3, 6 and 9. Lonicera periclymenum + in 3, 7 and 9. Rosa micrantha + in 5, 6 and 9. Prunus avium 1 in 5, 2 in 6, + in 10. Quercus faginea 2 in 6, + in 12 and 13. Poa nemoralis 1 in 10, 11 and 13. Veronica chamaedrys 1 in 10, + in 12 and 13. Ajuga reptans + in 11, 12 and 13. Lonicera etrusca + in 1 and 5. Rosa nitidula + in 1 and 5. Hippocrepis emerus + in 1 and 6. Epipactis helleborine 1 in 2, + in 12. Orobanche hederae + in 3 and 6. Ulmus glabra + in 4, 3 in 8. Rubus sp. + in 11, 1 in 12. Acer pseudoplatanus + in 12, 2 in 13. Acer monspessulanum + in 12 and 13. Primula columnae + in 12 and 13. Pyrus communis + in 1. Rosa sp. +, Viola sp. + in 2. Cephalanthera damasonium +, Quercus faginea pl. + in 5. Viola hirta + in 6. Berberis seroi +, Viburnum opulus + in 7. Clematis recta +, Prunus mahaleb + in 8. Rosa arvensis + in 9. Polystichum setiferum 1, Dryopteris filix-mas + in 10. Melica uniflora + in 12. Companion species: Rubia peregrina 1 in 1, + in 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Dactylis glomerata + in 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 11. Melissa officinalis 1 in 2 and 9, + in 3, 4 and 6. Poa trivialis s.l. 1 in 2, 12 and 13, + in 3 and 6. Prunus domestica 2 in 4, 5 and 10, + in 6 and 9. Lapsana communis + in 9, 10 and 12, 1 in 11 and 13. Ranunculus despectus + in 1, 2, 11 and 13. Anthriscus sylvestris + in 2, 6 and 13, 1 in 11. Ranunculus repens + in 2, 10, 12 and 13. Arctium minus + in 3, 4, 6 and 11. Cruciata laevipes + in 4, 5, 11 and 12. Ruscus aculeatus 1 in 1, + in 2 and 5. Carex flacca + in 1, 5 and 11. Prunella vulgaris + in 1, 11 and 13. Thalictrum minus + in 2, 5 and 12. Chaerophyllum temulentum + in 3 and 5, 1 in 4. Heracleum montanum 1 in 11, 12 and 13. Filipendula ulmaria + in 11 and 12, 1 in 13. Satureja vulgaris + in 1 and 2. Brachypodium phoenicoides 2 in 1, + in 7. Osyris alba 1 in 1 and 7. Helictotrichon cantabricum + in 1, 1 in 8. Equisetum ramosissimum + in 1 and 8. Poa pratensis + in 1 and 12. Torilis arvensis + in 2 and 7. Angelica sylvestris + in 3 and 4. Juglans regia + in 4 and 6. Satureja ascendens + in 9 and 12. Rumex conglomeratus + in 11 and 13. Arrhenatherum elatius +, Astragalus glycyphyllos +, Briza media +, Campanula trachelium +, Crepis taraxacifolia +, Festuca rubra +, Foeniculum vulgare +, Galium lucidum +, Genista tinctoria +, Hieracium pilosella s.l. +, Rhamnus alaternus + in 1. Sambucus ebulus + in 2. Orobanche sp. + in 3. Populus pyramidalis + in 4. Carex cuprina +, Sorbus domestica + in 5. Asparagus acutifolius +, Juglans regia pl. +, Rhamnus alaternus pl.+, Viburnum tinus + in 7. Lathyrus latifolius +, Pistacia terebinthus + in 8. Chaerophyllum aureum +, Populus xcanadensis + in 9. Sisymbrium chrysanthum 1, Hypericum hirsutum + in 10. Festuca sp. 1, Aconitum neapolitanum +, Holcus lanatus +, Thalictrum pubescens + in 11. Pteridium aquilinum 1, Filipendula vulgaris +, Knautia arvernensis +, Lamium maculatum +, Rumex obtusifolius +, Stachys officinalis + in 12. Lysimachia vulgaris +, Mentha longifolia + in 13.

Localities: 1. Navarre: Liédena, Foz de Lumbier, Irati river in its way out of the gorge. 30TXN3920. 150 m2. 2. Navarre: Lumbier, Foz de Lumbier, Irati river in the entry to the gorge. 30TXN3822. 100 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Navarre: Lumbier, Irati river near San Vicente, 30TXN3825. 150 m2. 4. Navarre: Urraul Bajo, Irati river between Ripodas and Artieda, near the damm. 30TXN3729. 150 m2. 5. Navarre: Longuida, Irati river between Artajo and Aos. 30TXN3432. 100 m2. 6. Navarre: Longuida, Aos, Irati river. 30TXN3234. 150 m2. 7. Navarre: Gallipienzo, Aragón river, Soto del Molino. 30TXN3210. 100 m2. 8. Navarre: Lumbier, Foz de Lumbier, Irati river. 30TXN3921. 80 m2. 9. Longuida, Aos, terrace of Irati river. 30TXN3135. 150 m2. 10. Alava: Apodaka, Zaya stream, limestones. 30TWN2252. 150 m2. 11. Alava: Osma, Tumecillo stream. 30TVN9447. 150 m2. 12. Burgos: Pedrosa de Tobalina, Losa stream. 30TVN7245. 200 m2. 13. Burgos: Losa valley, Losa stream in the entry to the gorge, between Quintanilla la Ojada and Quintana Entrepeñas. 30TVN7450. 150 m2. 14. Synthesized table.

[Biurrun & García-Mijangos]

Viburno tini-Quercetum roboris (Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira 1956) ass. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (76.7.19)

[Rusco-Quercetum roboris viburnetosum tini Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira in Agron. Lusit. 18(3): 182, tb. 1. 1956 (basion.) (art. 27d, 46H)]
(Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae, Quercion pyrenaicae, Quercetalia roboris, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus associatio: Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira in Agron. Lusit. 18(3): 182, tb. 1, rel. 7. 1956 (Pinto da Silva) Holotypus, Portugal: Avô, reste de forêt, sur la rive de l"Alva. 29TNE96. 250 m, N, 400 (500) m2. Characteristic species (territorials): 3 Quercus robur, 2 Genista falcata, 1 Dryopteris borreri, 1 Teucrium scorodonia, 1 Viburnum tinus, + Acer monspessulanum, + Alnus glutinosa, + Aquilegia dichroa, + Blechnum spicant, + Castanea sativa, + Corylus avellana, + Lonicera periclymenum, + Luzula henriquesii, + Omphalodes nitida, + Phillyrea media, + Polystichum setiferum, + Prunus avium ,+ Prunus lusitanica ,+ Pyrus communis, + Quercus pyrenaica, + Rubia peregrina. Companion species: 4 Musci sp. pl., 1 Asplenium onopteris, 1 Crataegus monogyna, 1 Hedera canariensis, 1 Pteridium aquilinum, 1 Ruscus aculeatus, + Agrostis castellana, + Ajuga reptans, + Carex depressa, + Cirsium grumosum, + Daphne gnidium, + Digitalis purpurea, + Erica lusitanica, + Frangula alnus, + Luzula forsteri, + Pinus pinaster, + Polypodium serratum, + Rosa canina, + Rumex papillaris, + Salix alba, + Salix atrocinerea, + Sarothamnus grandiflorus, + Ulex minor, + Vitis vinifera.

Characteristic species (territorials): Quercus robur, Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Asparagus aphyllus, Olea sylvestris, Phillyrea angustifolia, Phillyrea latifolia, Prunus lusitanica, Rhamnus alaternus, Rosa sempervirens, Rubia longifolia, Smilax mauritanica, Viburnum tinus.

Diagnosis: Thermotemperate submediterranean humid hyperoceanic, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur subsp. robur) and Brotero pedunculate oak (Quercus robur subsp. broteroana), climactical meso-macroforest, growing on deep mesic humic cambisols or chromic luvisols lacking a calcic horizon, spread in Galician-Portuguese mostly Minnensian. Well characterized by Quercus robur subsp. robur and particularly by the western meridional chartaceus-leaved Quercus robur subsp. broteroana, as well as by a lot of Quercetea ilicis species mostly thermic: Arbutus unedo, Asparagus aphyllus, Luzula forsteri subsp. baetica, Smilax aspera var. altissima, Rubia peregrina subsp. longifolia, Viburnum tinus, etc.

Table 99

76.7.19 Viburno tini-Quercetum roboris
(Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae, Quercion pyrenaicae, Quercetalia roboris, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 41 44 49 47 49 30 27 38 41
Number of species 34 32 39 25 33 22 42 39 33
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Characteristic species:
Quercus robur 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 V
Hedera hibernica 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 V
Ruscus aculeatus + 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 V
Viburnum tinus (terr.) + 1 2 + 2 1 2 . V
Teucrium scorodonia 2 + 1 + . + 1 1 V
Rubia longifolia (terr.) 1 + 1 + . 1 + 1 V
Lonicera periclymenum 1 . 2 1 + + 1 + V
Arbutus unedo (terr.) . + 1 2 + 1 1 + V
Tamus communis + 1 + + . + + . IV
Smilax altissima (terr.) + + . + . + 1 1 IV
Ilex aquifolium . 2 2 2 1 1 + . IV
Viola riviniana . + 1 + + . + 1 IV
Luzula baetica (terr.) + 1 1 + . . + . III
Vinca difformis 2 1 2 . . + . 1 III
Holcus mollis . 1 + . + + . 1 III
Asparagus aphyllus (terr.) . + + . . + + . III
Phillyrea latifolia (terr.) . . . + 3 + 1 . III
Companion species:
Polypodium australe 1 + 1 + + . + + V
Pteridium aquilinum 1 + 1 . 1 1 1 2 V
Rubus ulmifolius 1 1 1 . 1 + 1 1 V
Arenaria montana + + 1 . . + + 1 IV
Digitalis purpurea + + . + + . + + IV
Crategus monogyna 1 . + . . 1 1 1 III
Dactylis lusitanica + . . . + + + 1 III
Arum italicum 1 + . . . + . + III
Asplenium onopteris . . . 1 + 1 1 + III
Laurus nobilis . 1 . + 1 . . 2 III

Other species. Characteristic species: Castanea sativa 1 in 1 and 5, 2 in 3. Geum sylvaticum + in 1 and 3, 1 in 2. Rosa sempervirens (terr.) 1 in 1 and 7, + in 8. Polygonatum odoratum 1 in 2 and 4, 2 in 3. Arisarum vulgare (terr.) + in 2, 3 and 8. Brachypodium sylvaticum 1 in 3, 5 and 8. Physospermum cornubiense + in 4, 7 and 8. Prunus lusitanica (terr.) 1 in 5, 6 and 7. Olea sylvestris (terr.) 1 in 5 and 7, + in 6. Rhamnus alaternus (terr.) + in 5 and 7, 1 in 6. Quercus robur (E2) 1 in 5 and 8, + in 7. Phillyrea angustifolia (terr.) + in 5 and 8, 2 in 7. Acer pseudoplatanus 3 in 1, 1 in 2. Euphorbia amygdaloides + in 1 and 8. Helleborus foetidus + in 2 and 3. Epipactis tremolsii + in 3 and 8. Primula vulgaris + in 3 and 8. Blechnum spicant 1 in 6 and 7. Quercus xcoutinhoi 1 in 1. Quercus xhenriquesii 1, Hypericum androsaemum +, Mercurialis perennis + in 3. Hyacinthoides hispanica + in 4. Osmunda regalis 1 in 5. Polystichum setiferum 1, Coryllus avelana + in 7. Athyrium filix-femina 1 in 8. Companion species: Cytisus striatus + in 1, 3, 5 and 7. Aristolochia paucinervis + in 1, 5 and 8, 1 in 3. Sedum fosteranum + in 2, 6 and 8, 1 in 3. Agrostis castellana + in 3 and 7, 1 in 6 and 8. Erica scoparia + in 5 and 8, 1 in 6 and 7. Ulex minor + in 5, 6 and 7, 1 in 8. Pittosporum undulatum 2 in 1 and 3, 1 in 2. Bryonia dioica + in 1, 2 and 3. Calamintha baetica 1 in 1, + in 3 and 8. Calluna vulgaris + in 2 and 6, 1 in 3. Daphne gnidium 1 in 6, 7 and 8. Heracleum sphondylium 1 in 1, + in 2. Silene latifolia + in 1 and 3. Ulmus minor + in 1 and 5. Carex halleriana + in 2 and 3. Carex depressa + in 4 and 7. Pyrus communis + in 4 and 7. Scilla monophyllos + in 4 and 7. Linaria triornitophora+ in 5 and 6. Carex distachya + in 5 and 8. Erica arborea 1 in 6, + in 7. Tradescantia fluminensis 2, Urtica membranacea + in 1. Quercus xairensis 1, Ulex latebracteatus + in 3. Asphodelus albus +, Deschampsia flexuosa +, Simethis mattiazzi + in 4. Erica cinerea + in 5. Erica umbellata + in 6. Myrtus communis 2, Lithodora prostrata + in 7. Clinopodium arundanum + in 8.

Localities: 1. Lu, Estremadura: Between Pena and S. Pedro. 29SMC69. N, 400 m2. 2. Lu, Estremadura: Between Pena and Cruz Alta. 29SMC69. NE, 300 m2. 3. Lu, Estremadura: Between Pena and Cruz Alta. 29SMC69. S, 300 m2. 4. Lu, Beira Litoral: Serra do Buçaco. 29SNE56. (Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira, 1956). NW, 500 m2. 5. Lu, Beira Litoral: Fraga da Pena (Serra do Açor). 29TPE05. NE, 300 m2. 6. Lu, Beira Litoral: Avô. 29TNE96. NW, 200 m2. 7. Lu, Beira Litoral: Avô. 29TNE96. NW, 3000 m2. 8. Lu, Beira Alta: Castro Daire, Paiva river. 29TNF83. NW, 400 m2. 9. Synthesized table.

[J.C. Costa, Capelo, Honrado, Aguiar & Lousã]

Vinco difformis-Ceratonietum siliquae (Martín, Díez Garretas & Asensi 1992) ass. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (75.3.14)

[Clematido cirrhosae-Ceratonietum siliquae phlomidetosum purpureae Martín, Díez Garretas & Asensi in Studia Bot. 10: 54, tb. 1. 1992 (basion.) (art. 27d, 46H)]
(Querco rotundifoliae-Oleion sylvestris, Quercetalia ilicis, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Martín, Díez Garretas & Asensi in Studia Bot. 10: 54, tb. 1, rel. 1. 1992. Holotypus [Cádiz, Sierra de Ubrique, 620 m, SW, 100 m2]. Characteristic species: 3 Ceratonia siliqua, 3 Pistacia lentiscus, 2 Chamaerops humilis, 2 Olea sylvestris, 2 Pistacia terebinthus, 2 Vinca difformis (terr.), 2 Rhamnus oleoides, 1 Arisarum simorrhinum, 1 Clematis cirrhosa, 1 Rubia peregrina subsp. longifolia, + Jasminum fruticans, + Phlomis purpurea. Companion species: 1 Crataegus monogyna, + Polypodium cambricum, + Urginea maritima.

Characteristic species (territorials): Arbutus unedo, Ceratonia siliqua, Phlomis purpurea subsp. purpurea, Rhamnus oleoides subsp. oleoides, Ulex scaber, Vinca difformis.

Diagnosis: Thermomediterranean subhumid to hyperhumid euoceanic Ceratonia siliqua and Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris permanent climactical microforest community, growing on chromic or calcic luvisols, often introduced on calcitic dolomite or limestone in steep slopes, mountain walls, ridges, chaos of big boulders, etc., in Rondean and Jerezan Hispalensean territories. Characterized by thermomediterranean species like: Aristolochia baetica, Asparagus albus, Chamaerops humilis, Clematis cirrhosa, Osyris lanceolata, etc. It could be easily differenciated from the Maghrebian Riffean geovicariant association Clematido cirrhosae-Ceratonietum siliquae Barbero, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez 1981 by: Arbutus unedo, Phlomis purpurea subsp. purpurea, Rhamnus oleoides subsp. oleoides, Ulex scaber, Vinca difformis, etc.

[Rivas-Martínez]