Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxon descriptions: Ranunculion omiophyllo - Salicion pyrenaicae

Ranunculion omiophyllo-hederacei all. nova hoc loco (11.5)

(Montio-Cardaminetalia, Montio-Cardaminetea)

Typus alliancia: Montio amporitanae-Ranunculetum hederacei ass. nova hoc loco (11.5.1).

Characteristic species: Ranunculus hederaceus, Ranunculus omiophyllus.

Diagnosis: Communities dominated by the rooted stoloniferous helophytic ranunculids Ranunculus hederaceus or Ranunculus omiophyllus, often accompanied by Callitriche spp. and several dwarf helophytes, growing rooted but with floating leaves on shallow (5-15 cm maximum depth), standing or slow running small ponds connected to springs or rivulets of cold, fresh, oligo- or mesotrophic water. The level of inundation may be permanent or fluctuating and summer dessication may become complete. They are distributed in the Western Mediterranean and Atlantic-Central European Subregions, in the meso-supratemperate and meso-supra(oro)mediterranean belts. Although the ecology of these communities is somewhat intermediate between the alliances of Montio-Cardaminetalia and Ranunculion aquatilis (Callitricho-Batrachion), the floristic elements belonging to the first order are usually predominant in their composition.

Montio amporitanae-Ranunculetum hederacei ass. nova hoc loco (11.5.1)

Typus associatio: Table 78, rel. 9 [Avila: Puerto Castilla, Tornavacas Pass. 30TTK7362. 1300 m, 1 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Montia amporitana, Myosotis stolonifera, Ranunculus hederaceus.

Diagnosis: Association dominated by Ranunculus hederaceus, growing on shallow, small ponds connected to springs or rivulets of cold, fresh, oligo- or mesotrophic water. They are known from the Mediterranean West Iberian Province, in the meso-supra(oro)mediterranean belts.

Table 78

11.5.1 Montio amporitanae-Ranunculetum hederacei
(Ranunculion omiophyllo-hederacei, Montio-Cardaminetalia, Montio-Cardaminetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 130 160 161 116 89 160 103 117 130 117 159 131
Number of species 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 5
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 10 11 12
Characteristic species:
Ranunculus hederaceus 3 4 5 4 5 5 2 5 3 3 3 V
Montia amporitana 1 2 . 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 V
Myosotis stolonifera + . + . . . + . 1 1 1 IV
Stellaria alsine 1 . . + . . 1 . + . + III
Veronica langei . . + . . . . 1 . . 1 II
Epilobium obscurum . . . . . . . + . 1 . II
Companion species:
Glyceria declinata . 1 . + 2 . 2 . 1 1 1 IV
Callitriche stagnalis . + . . . 1 + . 1 1 . III
Lemna minor . . . . 1 . . . . 1 . II

Other species. Companion species: Callitriche brutia 1 in 3. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum + in 4. Peplis portula 1 in 5. Antinoria natans +, Ranunculus flammula + in 6. Apium nodiflorum 1, Agrostis stolonifera + in 8. Carum verticillatum 1, Cardamine pratensis + in 11.

Localities: 1. Ávila: La Lastra del Cano. 30TTK9470. 2. Madrid: Santa María de la Alameda, Tobar creek. 30TVK0095. 0,3 m2, 5 cm deep, pH 6,5, T: 18ºC, 11.VI. 1988. 3. Ávila: Santiago del Collado, Puerto de la Peña Negra, Peña Negra creek. 30TUK0477. 0,3 m2, 10 cm deep, pH 7, T: 12ºC. 4. Madrid: Becerril de la Sierra, Alto del Hilo, Angostura creek. 30TVL1608. 0,3 m2, 7 cm deep, pH 7,2, T: 15ºC. 5. Madrid: El Escorial, la Granjilla, spring. 30TVK0592. 0,3 m2, 5 cm deep, pH 7, T: 15ºC. 6. Madrid: Santa María de la Alameda, Tobar crrek. 30TVK0095. 0,3 m2, 5 cm deep, pH 6,5, T: 18ºC. 7. Ávila: Navatejares. 30TTK8568. 8. Salamanca: Navacarros. 30TTK7075. 9. Holotypus ass. Ávila: Puerto Castilla, Tornavacas Pass. 30TTK7362. 1 m2. 10. Ávila: Becedas. 30TTK7675. 11. Ávila: Santiago del Collado, Puerto de la Peña Negra, spring. 30TUK0477. 0,3 m2, 5 cm deep, pH 7, T: 15ºC. 12. Synthesized table.

Myosotido stoloniferae-Ranunculetum omiophylli ass. nova hoc loco (11.5.2)

Typus associatio: Table 79, rel. 1 [Salamanca: Cereceda de la Sierra, Yeltes river, Cerezo creek. 29TQE461949. 1200 m, water 5-10 cm, 2 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Myosotis stolonifera, Ranunculus omiophyllus.

Diagnosis: Association dominated by Ranunculus omiophyllus, growing on shallow, small ponds connected to springs or rivulets of cold, fresh, more permanent and oligotrophic water than the preceding association, and also more oceanic requirements. They have also a more western and northern Iberian distribution.

Table 79

11.5.2 Myosotido stoloniferae-Ranunculetum omiophylli
(Ranunculion omiophyllo-hederacei, Montio-Cardaminetalia, Montio-Cardaminetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 120 96 112 96 106
Number of species 5 5 7 8 6
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5
Characteristic species:
Ranunculus omiophyllus 4 3 4 3 4
Myosotis stolonifera + 1 2 3 4
Montia amporitana 1 . 1 + 3
Stellaria alsine . . . + 1
Companion species:
Glyceria declinata 1 1 1 1 4
Callitriche stagnalis + . . 2 2
Potamogeton polygonifolius . 3 . 1 2

Other species. Companion species: Apium nodiflorum 3 in 2. Agrostis stolonifera 1, Holcus reuteri 1, Juncus bufonius 1 in 3. Hypericum elodes + in 4.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Salamanca: Cereceda de la Sierra, Yeltes river, Cerezo creek. 29TQE461949. Water 5-10 cm, 2 m2. 2. Cáceres: Piornal, Garganta del Obispo. 30TTK5844. 1 m2. 3. Salamanca: Cereceda de la Sierra, Cerezo creek, Yeltes river. 29TQE461949. Stagnat water, 20 cm, 0,5 m2. 4. Salamanca: Candelario. 30TTK6772. 1 m2. 5. Synthesized table.

Ranunculetum omiophylli Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Pizarro 1995 (11.5.3)

Distribution: Meso-supratemperate oceanic humid-hyperhumid Cantabrian-Atlantic and British Isles.

[Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González, Pizarro, Sánchez-Mata & Sardinero]

Ranunculo adunci-Geranietum sylvatici ass. nova hoc loco (43.5.6)

[Ranunculo adunci-Geranietum sylvatici Ríos & Alcaraz in Ríos 1996 nom. inval. (art. 1)]
(Origanion virentis, Origanetalia vulgaris, Trifolio-Geranietea)

Typus associatio: Table 80, rel. 3 [Jaén: Siles, Las Acebeas. 30S WH3740. 1500 m, 10 m2].

Characteristic species: Ranunculus aduncus, Geranium sylvaticum, Laserpitium nestleri and Origanum virens.

Diagnosis: Herb-rich community growing on the fringe of hazel and holly forests (Geo-Coryletum avellanae) and blooming in late spring. It is well characterized by Ranunculus aduncus, Geranium sylvaticum and Laserpitium nestleri. The association is endemic of the Subbetic Sector of the Betic Province, in the supramediterranean humid bioclimatic belt. The destruction of the Geo-Coryletum avellanae forests cause the substitution of this associations by a poorer one dominated by Brachypodium sylvaticum (Elymo-Brachypodietum sylvatici).

Table 80

43.5.6 Ranunculo adunci-Geranietum sylvatici
(Origanion virentis, Origanetalia vulgaris, Trifolio-Geranietea)

Altitude (1=10m) 132 132 150 120 132 132 132 133
Number of species 17 17 15 11 12 14 16 15
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4 5 6 7 8
Characteristic species:
Ranunculus aduncus + + 1 2 2 2 2 V
Geranium sylvaticum 2 3 3 3 3 + 4 V
Laserpitium nestleri + 1 + . . . . III
Agrimonia eupatoria + . . . . . + II
Pimpinella gracilis . . . + . . + II
Origanum virens . . . . . . + I
Clinopodium arundanum . . . . . . + I
Querco-Fagetea species:
Primula vulgaris 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 V
Brachypodium sylvaticum 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 V
Viola riviniana 1 + + + . 1 1 V
Helleborus foetidus + + + + . . . IV
Hepatica nobilis . . 3 1 . 1 . III
Geum sylvaticum . . 1 . . 2 + II
Companion species:
Rubus ulmifolius 1 + + + . . . IV
Fragaria vesca 1 1 . . + . . III
Plantago media . . . + . 1 + III
Geum rivale . . . . 1 1 + III

Other species. Querco-Fagetea species: Viburnum lantana + in 1 and 2. Luzula forsteri + in 5. Daphne latifolia + in 7. Companion species: Ligustrum vulgare 1 in 1 and 2. Lonicera hispanica + in 1 and 2. Pteridium aquilinum + in 2 and 5. Holcus lanatus + in 2, 1 in 7. Taraxacum ochrocarpum + in 5, 1 in 6. Carex flacca + in 5 and 6. Neotinea maculata + in 5 and 6. Adiantum capillus-veneris 1, Acer granatense +, Celtis australis +, Hedera helix + in 1. Arrhenatherum album 2, Clematis vitalba +, Juglans regia + in 2. Corylus avellana +, Lathyrus pratensis +, Paeonia broteroi +, Paeonia microcarpa +, Rubia tinctorum + in 3. Prunella vulgaris + in 4. Scirpoides holoschoenus + in 5. Ranunculus ficaria +, Thalictrum speciosissimum + in 6. Equisetum telmateia 1, Tussilago farfara + in 7.

Localities: 1. Jaén: Santiago de la Espada, Zumeta river. 30S WH3815. NE, 5 m2. 2. Jaén: Santiago de la Espada, Zumeta river. 30S WH 3815. E, 5 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Jaén: Siles, Las Acebeas. 30S WH 3740. E, 10 m2. 4. Albacete: Riópar, Truchas lake. 30S WH 4957. E, 10 m2. 5. Jaén: Cazorla, Source of Guadalquivir. 30S WG 0289. SE, 20 m2. 6. Jaén: Cazorla, Source of Guadalquivir. 30S WG 0289. SE, 50 m2. 7. Jaén: Segura de la Sierra. Source of Madera river. 30 S WH 3837. NO, 20 m2 8. Synthesized table.

[Ríos & Alcaraz]

Resedetum suffruticosae ass. nova hoco loco (34.10.13)

(Onopordion castellani, Carthametalia lanati, Onopordenea acanthii, Artemisietea vulgaris)

Typus associatio: Table 81, rel. 5 [Madrid: Villaconejos. 30TVK53. 20 m2].

Characteristic species: Reseda suffruticosa.

Diagnosis: Manchean-Sagrean and very local Guadician-Bacensean mesomediterranean dry gypseous subnitrophilous community well developed on gypseous-marly soils in disturbed areas by human impacts, such as spoil banks, field crop environs, orchards, off-road places, etc. This peculiar community is well characterized by the tall biannual herb Reseda suffruticosa that usually grows associated with several thistle plants.

Table 81

34.10.13 Resedetum suffruticosae
(Onopordion castellani, Carthametalia lanati, Onopordenea acanthii, Artemisietea vulgaris)

Altitude (1=10m) 69 58 69 61 63 64
Number of species 10 10 20 20 20 16
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6
Characteristic species:
Reseda suffruticosa 3 2 3 3 3 V
Carthamus lanatus + 1 . 1 1 IV
Onopordum castellanum 1 . 1 1 2 IV
Carduus pycnocephalus . + + . + III
Carduus bourgaeanus . 1 . + 1 III
Lactuca serriola 1 . + . . II
Chondrilla juncea . . . + . I
Companion species:
Reseda stricta + 1 + + + V
Eruca vesicaria 1 1 1 . 2 IV
Iondraba auriculata 1 . + 1 + IV
Papaver rhoeas 1 . 1 . + III
Sisymbrium orientale + . . 1 1 III
Roemeria hybrida . 1 . . + II
Avena sterilis . . 1 . 1 II

Other species. Companion species: Lepidium subulatum + in 2. Bromus rubens 1, Hordeum leporinum + in 4. Diplotaxis virgata 1 in 5.

Localities: 1. Madrid: Villarejo de Salvanés. 30TVK71. 10 m2. 2. Madrid: Aranjuez. 30TVK40. 10 m2. 3. Madrid: Villarejo de Salvanés. 30TVK71. 20 m2. 4. Madrid: Morata de Tajuña. 30TVK65. 20 m2. 5. Holotypus ass. Madrid: Villaconejos. 30TVK53. 20 m2. 6. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez & Sánchez-Mata]

Retamion monospermae all. nova hoc loco (65.8)

(Cytisetalia scopario-striati, Cytisetea scopario-striati)

Typus alliancia: Pycnocomono rutaefolii-Retametum monospermae J.L. Pérez in Lazaroa 4: 144, tb. 1. 1983 (art. 5). Holotypus hoc loco, l.c., tb. 1 rel. 7. Huelva: Isla Cristina. Char. ass. and all.: Retama monosperma.

Characteristic species: Adenocarpus aureus subsp. gibbsianus, Cytisus grandiflorus subsp. cabezudoi, Retama monosperma.

Diagnosis: Seral shrubby brooms microphanerophyte communities dominated by Retama monosperma, growing on littoral deep sandy soils and paleodunes regosols in thermomediterranean dry and subhumid in Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian and related Tingitan Maghrebian stations (Centaureo sphaerocephalae-Retametum monospermae Tregubov 1963).

[Rivas-Martínez & Cantó]

Rhamno catharticae-Ribesetum alpini ass. nova hoc loco (66.1.4)

[Rhamno catharticae-Ribesetum alpini L. Herrero, M.E. García & Penas in L. Herrero 1989 nom. inval. (art. 1)]
(Berberidenion vulgaris, Berberidion vulgaris, Prunetalia spinosae, Rhamno-Prunetea)

Typus associatio: Table 82, rel. 1 [Palencia: El Carbonal. 30TUN7854. 1110 m, SE, 50 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Rhamnus cathartica, Ribes alpinum, Ribes uva-crispa, Viburnum lantana.

Diagnosis: Spiny community constituting the border of the South Orocantabric mesophytic forests (Euphorbio hybernae-Fraxinetum excelsioris) on deep soils and with a floristic combination characterized by the dominance of Ribes alpinum, Ribes uva-crispa and Rhamnus cathartica, accompanied by other shrubs of high mediterranean character, such as Rosa corymbifera, Rosa micrantha or Rosa deseglisei among others. Because of the agricultural and cattle use of the territory, these communities are very reduced to natural hedges at the border of meadows and horticultural properties.

Table 82

66.1.4 Rhamno catharticae-Ribesetum alpini
(Berberidion vulgaris, Prunetalia spinosae, Rhamno-Prunetea)

Altitude (1=10 m) 111 109 115 117 105 111
Number of species 13 16 14 16 15 15
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5 6
Characteristic species:
Ribes alpinum 2 1 1 1 1 V
Rhamnus cathartica 2 1 1 2 1 V
Ribes uva-crispa 2 2 2 3 2 V
Crataegus monogyna 3 2 2 2 2 V
Prunus spinosa 2 1 3 2 2 V
Rosa corymbifera 1 2 1 1 1 V
Rosa canina 2 1 2 1 2 V
Rubus ulmifolius 3 3 2 2 . IV
Viburnum lantana 3 3 2 2 . IV
Lonicera periclymenum 2 . 1 1 1 IV
Companion species:
Chaerophyllum hirsutum . + 1 + . III

Other species: Characteristic species: Bryonia dioica 1 in 2 and 5. Rosa deseglisei 1 in 2 and 5. Rosa deseglisei and Sambucus nigra 1 in 2, + in 5. Rosa micrantha 1 in 4 and 5. Clematis vitalba 2, Lathyrus latifolius + in 3. Euonymus europaeus 1 in 4. Companion species: Brachypodium sylvaticum 2 in 1, 1 in 4. Equisetum fluviatile 1, Galium verum 1 in 1. Achillea millefolium 1, Stachys sylvatica 1, Astragalus glyciphyllos + in 2. Heracleum sphondylium 1 in 3. Cucubalus baccifer 1, Silene vulgaris + in 5. Fraxinus excelsior +, Salix purpurea + in 4.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Palencia: El Carbonal. 30TUN7854. SE, 50 m2. 2. Palencia: Las Llanas. 30TUN7855. 60 m2. 3. Palencia: Santibañez de Resoba. 30TUN5862. SE, 5%, 80m2. 4. Palencia: Ventanilla. 30TUN7246. 1170 m, 100 m2. 5. León: Portilla de la Reina. 30TUN5067. 1050 m, 80 m2. 6. Sythesized table.

[L. Herrero, M.E. García, T.E. Díaz, Penas & F. Salegui]

Rhamno lycioidis-Pinetum halepensis (J. Torres, A. García, Salazar, Cano & F. Valle 1999) nom. nov. hoc loco (75.14.3)

[Junipero phoeniceae-Pinetum halepensis J. Torres, A. García, Salazar, Cano & F. Valle in Ecol. Medit. 25(2): 140, tb. 1. 1999 (arts. 31, 39), non Pino halepensis-Juniperetum phoeniceae A.V. Pérez & Cabezudo in A.V. Pérez, P. Navas, D. Navas, Y. Gil & Cabezudo in Acta Bot. Malacitana 23: 154, tb. 1. 1998 (art.37(?)) (syntax. syn.) of Rhamno myrtifolii-Juniperetum phoeniceae Molero & Pérez-Raya in Lazaroa 7: 306, tb. 1. 1987, com. Ephedra fragilis-Pinus halepensis sensu J. Torres & al. in Ecol. Medit. 25(2): 143, tb. 2. 1999]
(Pino acutisquamae-Juniperion phoeniceae, Pistacio-Rhamnetalia, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: J. Torres, García-Fuentes, Salazar & Cano in Eco. Medit. 25 (2): 141, tb. 1, rel. 13. 1999 [Granada: Sierra de Castril. 1270 m, S, 25%, 5 m, 100 m2]. Characteristic species: 3 Pinus halepensis, 1 Juniperus oxycedrus, 1 Juniperus phoenicea, + Rhamnus lycioides. Companion species: 2 Rosmarinus officinalis, 1 Echinospartum boissieri, 1 Fumana paradoxa, 1 Helianthemum croceum, 1 Leucanthemopsis spathulifolia, 1 Stipa tenacissima, 1 Thymus orospedanus, + Scorzonera albicans, + Silene legionensis.

Characteristic species (territorials): Juniperus phoenicea, Pinus halepensis, Rhamnus lycioides.

Diagnosis: Mesomediterranean and lower supramediterranean dry and subhumid semicontinental Guadician-Bacensean and related Subbetic territories, shrubs with an open canopy of Pinus halepensis permanent community, growing on initial or eroded calco-dolomitic or clayey soils rich on magnesite or vertic properties, characterized by natural grown of the indigenous Pinus halepensis and other xeric Pistacio-Rhamnetalia species like: Ephedra fragilis (thermic stations), Juniperus phoenicea, Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, Rhamnus lycioides, Rhamnus myrtifolius, etc., as well as differentiated by a lot of endemic or dolomiticolous species like: Echinospartum boissieri, Thymus orospedanus, Genista cinerea subsp. speciosa, Fumana paradoxa, Scorzonera albicans, etc.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Rhamno oleoidis-Quercetum rotundifoliae ass. nova hoc loco (75.3.7)

[Smilaco mauritanicae-Quercetum rotundifoliae sensu Rivas-Martínez 1987 non Barbéro, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez in Phytocoenologia 9(3): 321. 1981 ex Rivas-Martínez, Mem. Mapa Series Veg. España: 153. 1987]
(Querco rotundifoliae-Oleion sylvestris, Quercetalia ilicis, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Málaga: Gaucín, La Almuna. 36º31'N-5º23'W. 450 m, SW, 15%, 18 m, 100 cm, 400 m2. Calcareous marly deep soil. Characteristic species: 4 Quercus rotundifolia, 3 Aristolochia baetica, 3 Rubia peregrina subsp. longifolia, 2 Pistacia lentiscus, 2 Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, 2 Rhamnus alaternus, 2 Crataegus brevispina, 1 Calicotome villosa, 1 Ceratonia siliqua, 1 Daphne gnidium, 1 Asparagus acutifolius, 1 Rhamnus oleoides, 1 Smilax aspera var. altissima, 1 Phlomis purpurea, 1 Asparagus aphyllus, + Chamaerops humilis, + Rosa sempervirens, + Clematis flammula. Companion species: 2 Pipthaterum milliaceus, 1 Ulex scaber, 1 Cistus albidus, 1 Geranium parpureum, + Thymbra capitata, + Retama sphaerocarpa, + Rubus ulmifolius, + Vinca difformis, + Ptilostemon hispanicus.

Characteristic species (territorials): Aristolochia baetica, Chamaerops humilis, Calicotome villosa, Crataegus brevispina, Phlomis purpurea, Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, Quercus rotundifolia, Rhamnus oleoides.

Diagnosis: Thermomediterranean dry to humid Quercus rotundifolia and Olea sylvestris mesoforests, growing on calcareous rich soils often on marl, dolomitic limestone or dolostone in Betic and Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian territories. Their mantle and preforest vegetation belong to Asparago albi-Rhamnetum oleoidis. The geovicarian association in Maghrebian Mauritania is Smilaco-Quercetum rotundifoliae Barbero, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez in Phytocoenologia 9(3): 321, tb. 4. 1981. In the Iberian Peninsula association: Cistus villosus, Crataegus azarella, Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia atlantica, Viburnum tinus, etc., are absent meanwhile in North African association: Crataegus brevispina, Phlomis purpurea subsp. purpurea, Rhamnus oleoides subsp. oleoides, Ulex scaber, etc., don"t grow.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Rosmarinetea officinalis classis nova hoc loco (64)

[Ononido-Rosmarinetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Emberger & Molinier, Instr. Carte Group. Vég.: 23. 1947 (art. 2b, 8), Ononido-Rosmarinetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre, Group. Vég. France Médit.: 170. 1952 (art. 35), Rosmarinetea officinalis Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas in Itinera Geobot. 5: 512. 1991 (art. 17), Serratulo nudicaulis-Jurineenea humilis Peinado, Alcaraz & Martínez-Parras in Flora et Vegetatio Mundi 10: 199. 1992 (art. 3f, 8)]

Typus classis: Rosmarinetalia officinalis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Marseille 27(1): 143. 1934.

Characteristic species: Anthyllis cytisoides, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. gandogeri, Aphyllanthes monspeliensis, Argyrolobium zanonii, Asperula cynanchica subsp. brachysiphon, Astragalus chlorocyaneus, Astragalus granatensis, Astragalus macrorrhizus, Atractylis humilis, Bupleurum fruticescens, Cheirolophus intybaceus, Cistus albidus, Convolvulus lanuginosus subsp. lanuginosus, Coris monspeliensis, Coronilla minima subsp. lotoides, Digitalis obscura subsp. obscura, Dorycnium pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum, Fumana ericoides subsp. ericoides, Fumana hispidula, Fumana thymifolia, Globularia alypum, Helianthemum syriacum, Helianthemum violaceum, Hippocrepis squamata, Ononis tridentata subsp. angustifolia, Picris hispanica, Rosmarinus officinalis, Sideritis incana var. incana, Staehelina dubia, Thesium humifusum subsp. divaricatum, Thymelaea hirsuta, Thymus vulgaris subsp. vulgaris.

Diagnosis: Basophilous communities of open shrubs (rosemary, furze, thyme formations, xeroacantheta, etc.), widely distributed in the Western Mediterranean Subregion, where chamaephytes and short nanophanerophytes are usually preponderant. They grow on eroded, decapitate or scarcely developed carbonate soils, often stony in the surface. They are present from the thermomediterranean to the lower oromediterranean belt, from arid to subhumid, and can penetrate a little into the meso and supratemperate belts dry to humid of the adjacent Eurosiberian territories. Except for some rocky or summit stations, where they can be permanent communities, these open shrubs represent advanced serial stages in relation with the forests or shrub communities, heads of climatophilous or edaphoxerophilous series.

[Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas]

Roso pendulinae-Fagetum sylvaticae ass. nova hoc loco (76.1.6)

(Scillo lilio-hyacinthi-Fagenion, Fagion sylvaticae, Fagetalia sylvaticae, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus associatio: Table 83, rel. 7 [Huesca: Benasque, Turonet d'Alba. 42º40'N-0º35'30"E. 1720 m, W, 25%, 400 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus uncinata, Prenanthes purpurea, Pulmonaria affinis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Rosa pendulina, Vaccinium myrtillus.

Diagnosis: Pyrenean lower orotemperate humid and hyperhumid beech forests with frequent Abies alba and Pinus uncinata trees dispersed in the canopy, growing mostly on euoceanic Central Pyrenean biogeographic sector, on deep rich soils with long snow cover and acid H and A horizons with moder humus. As differential species to Fagion and Luzulo-Fagion forests could be mentioned: Lonicera alpigena, Lonicera nigra, Pinus uncinata, Ranunculus platanifolius, Rosa pendulina, Rhododendron ferrugineum and Rubus saxatilis.

Table 83

76.1.6 Roso pendulinae-Fagetum sylvaticae
(Scillo-Fagenion, Fagion sylvaticae, Fagetalia sylvaticae, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (1=10 m) 160 172 160 161 165 173 172 168 173 174 159 161 167
Number of species 28 29 29 29 29 35 35 35 36 37 37 37 34
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7* 8 9 10 11 12 13
Characteristic species:
Fagus sylvatica 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 V
Pulmonaria affinis + + + + + + 1 + 1 1 1 1 V
Viola reichenbachiana 1 2 + 1 2 2 1 1 . 2 1 2 V
Abies alba + + 1 + 1 . + 1 2 + + 1 V
Prenanthes purpurea 1 . 1 + 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 V
Hepatica nobilis 1 2 2 1 2 . 1 . . 1 2 1 V
Asperula odorata 1 . 1 . 1 1 2 2 1 2 + + V
Phyteuma pyrenaicum + 2 . . . 2 + 1 1 1 2 + IV
Lathyrus occidentalis 1 1 1 . 2 . . 1 . 1 3 1 IV
Scilla lilio-hyacinthus + 2 1 . . 2 + 1 . 1 . . IV
Luzula nivea . + . 3 2 2 . + . . 2 2 IV
Polygonatum verticillatum 2 1 . . 1 . . .   1 1 + III
Ranunculus tuberosus + . . . . 1 + + 1 . 1 . III
Melica uniflora . . 2 . . 1 1 1 1 1 . . III
Dryopteris filix-mas + . 2 . . + . . . 1 1 . III
Geranium sylvaticum . 1 + 1 . . + . . . . + III
Stellaria holostea . . 1 . 1 1 2 . . . + . III
Festuca heterophylla . . . 1 . 2 2 . 1 1 . . III
Acer platanoides . . . + + + . . . . + + III
Poa nemoralis . . . 1 . . . 1 + 1 . 1 III
Anemone nemorosa . . . . 2 + . . + 1 3 . III
Differential species:
Rosa pendulina + 1 2 1 2 + 3 2 2 3 2 1 V
Pinus uncinata + 1 + 1 1 + 2 . 1 + 2 1 V
Ranunculus platanifolius 1 . 1 . . 1 1 2 2 1 . 1 IV
Rhododendron ferrugineum . . + + + . + 1 + 1 . 1 III
Companion species:
Sorbus aucuparia 2 + + 1 + + 1 1 1 + 1 + V
Deschampsia flexuosa 1 2 2 3 1 2 + 1 2 1 + 1 V
Vaccinium myrtillus 1 . + 2 3 + + 1 2 2 1 3 V
Solidago virgaurea + . + . + . + . 1 + . 1 III
Adenostyles pyrenaica + . 1 . . . + 1 + 2 . . III
Cicerbita plumieri . . 1 . . + 1 1 2 . . + III

Other species: Characteristic species: Corylus avellana 2 in 1, + in 5, 11 and 12. Crepis lampsanoides 2 in 6, + in 7, 1 in 9 and 10. Polystichum aculeatum + in 1, 1 in 3, 2 in 7. Betula pendula 1 in 1, + in 7, 2 in 11. Daphne mezereum 1 in 2, + in 5, 2 in 7. Ribes alpinum + in 4, 1 in 7 and 12. Helleborus occidentalis + in 4, 11 and 12. Abies alba (S3) + in 1, 1 in 11. Paris quadrifolia + in 1, 1 in 11. Mycelis muralis + in 2 and 6. Melica nutans + in 5, 2 in 11. Lilium martagon + in 5, 1 in 11. Carex digitata + in 6, 2 in 8. Sambucus racemosa 1 in 8 and 9. Stellaria nemorum + in 8 and 9. Oxalis acetosella + in 8, 1 in 10. Aquilegia vulgaris 1, Epipactis helleborine + in 2. Cardamine heptaphylla 2, Epipactis atrorubens + in 3. Veronica officinalis + in 5. Lathyrus linifolius 2, Hieracium lachenalii 1, Stachys sylvatica 1 in 6. Epilobium montanum +, Lamium galeobdolon +, Scrophularia alpestris + in 8. Salix caprea + in 9. Saxifraga umbrosa 3, Hieracium murorum +, Neottia nidus-avis + in 11. Differential species: Lonicera alpigena + in 5, 1 in 8,10 and 11. Rubus saxatilis 1 in 5 and 12, + in 11. Lonicera nigra 1 in 8 and 10, + in 9. Companion species: Thalictrum aquilegiifolium 2 in 2, + in 3 and 6, 1 in 8 and 10. Polystichum lonchitis + in 1, 2 and 3, 1 in 7. Sorbus mougeotii + in 2 and 12, 2 in 5, 1 in 11. Fragaria vesca 1 in 4 and 12, + in 8 and 9. Athyrium filix-femina + in 6, 2 in 8, 9 and 10. Calamagrostis arundinacea + in 8, 9, 10 and 12. Valeriana montana 3 in 2, 1 in 3 and 7. Lathyrus latifolius 2 in 4, 1 in 7 and 12. Dryopteris expansa 1 in 8 and 9, + in 10. Hylocomium splendens 2 in 4, 1 in 12. Melampyrum pratense 2 in 4, 1 in 12. Pyrola minor 2 in 4, 1 in 12. Aquilegia pyrenaica 1 in 6, + in 7. Myrrhis odorata + in 8, 1 in 9. Astrantia major + in 8 and 9. Chaerophyllum hirsutum +, Pimpinella major + in 1. Convallaria majalis 1, Laserpitium latifolium 1, Luzula nutans 1, Polystichum aculeatum x Polystichum lonchitis 1, Pulsatilla font-queri 1, Coincya montana + in 2. Epilobium lanceolatum 1, Sedum rupestre 1, Veronica chamaedrys + in 4. Digitalis purpurea +, Festuca paniculata +, Meconopsis cambrica +, Scrophularia pyrenaica + in 6. Dryopteris oreades 1, Polystichum lonchitis x Polystichum aculeatum +, Veronica teucrium + in 7. Epilobium angustifolium +, Peucedanum ostruthium +, Veronica urticifolia + in 9. Pinus xrhaetica nothovar. bolosii +, Ribes rubrum + in 11.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Benasque, Ball d'Estós, Fuen de Coronas. N, 100 m2. 2. Huesca: Benasque, Fuens d'Alba. W, 35%, 500 m2. 3. Huesca: Benasque, Fuens d'Alba. 400 m2. 25%. 4. Huesca: Benasque, Ball d'Estós. 200 m. 35%. 5. Huesca: Benasque, Batisielles. N, 25%, 400 m2. 6. Lérida: Vielha, Vall del Hospital de Vielha. S, 20%, 200 m2. 7. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, Turonet d'Alba. 42º40'N-0º35'30"E. W, 25%, 400 m2. 8-10. Lérida: Vielha, Val de Molieres. N, 500 m2. 11. Huesca: Benasque, Fuente Coronas. NE, 35%, 500 m2. 12. Huesca: Benasque, Ball d'Estós. 20%, 400 m2. 13. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa & P. Soriano]

Rubetum caesio-canescentis ass. nova hoc loco (66.2.11 = 66.2.4)

[Rubetum caesio-canescentis Ríos & Alcaraz in Ríos 1996 nom. inval. (art. 1)]
(Rosenion carioti-pouzinii, Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii, Prunetalia spinosae, Rhamno-Prunetea)

Typus associatio: Table 84, rel. 5 [Jaén: Orcera, Madera river. 30S WH3537. 1400 m, 50 m2].

Characteristic species: Rubus canescens, Rubus caesius, Rubus xdivergens, Rubus ulmifolius x Rubus canescens.

Diagnosis: Secondary low shrub-mantle of Rubus canescens, Rubus ulmifolius, Rubus caesius and some hybrids among those species: Rubus xdivergens (=Rubus canescens x Rubus caesius), Rubus xassurgens (=Rubus ulmifolius x Rubus caesius) and Rubus ulmifolius x Rubus canescens. The apomictic populations included in the sect. Corylifolii, (predominance of Rubus caesius characters) and in the Rubus ser. Discolores (predominance of Rubus ulmifolius characters) are also frequent. Rubus canescens and related taxa are the main floristic differential from the richer in nutrients Rubo-Rosetum corymbiferae also present in the area. Crataegus laciniata and Berberis hispanica can be used as territorial characteristic species. This new association grows in siliceous and humid arenosols in the Subbetic Sector of the Betic Province, in the supramediterranean humid bioclimatic belt (Salici purpureo-albae sigmetum and Berberido hispanicae-Querco pyrenaicae sigmetum).

Table 84

66.2.11 Rubetum caesio-canescentis
(Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii, Prunetalia spinosae, Rhamno-Prunetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 130 135 125 138 140 122 132
Number of species 18 24 31 14 20 14 20
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6 7
Characteristic species:
Rubus canescens 3 2 3 4 3 4 V
Rosa nitidula 2 + + + + . V
Rubus ulmifolius 2 1 2 . + 3 V
Rubus sect. Corylifolii 3 4 + . 3 . IV
Crataegus monogyna . + + + + . IV
Prunus insititia 2 1 . . 1 . III
R. ulmifolius x R. canescens + + . . + . III
Rosa canina . . + + 1 . III
Crataegus laciniata . . + + + . III
Viburnum lantana + + . . . . II
Rosa corymbifera . . . . + + II
Querco-Fagetea species:              
Geum sylvaticum + 1 1 1 . 1 V
Quercus faginea . + + + 1 . IV
Viola riviniana + + + . . . III
Companion species:
Pteridium aquilinum + 2 + + + + V
Quercus rotundifolia + + . . . + III
Filipendula vulgaris . 1 . 1 . 1 III
Clinopodium arundanum . . + + . + III

Other species. Characteristic species: Berberis hispanica 1 in 1. Lonicera hispanica 1 in 2. Rubus ser. Discolores 1 in 3. Rubus xassurgens + in 3. Rubus xdivergens 1, Rubus caesius + in 5. Clematis vitalba +, Rosa micrantha +, Sorbus domestica + in 6. Querco-Fagetea species: Helleborus foetidus + in 1 and 2. Luzula forsteri 1 in 2, + in 3. Quercus pyrenaica 1 in 2, + in 3. Brachypodium sylvaticum 3 in 3, 1 in 4. Sorbus torminalis 1 in 5. Companion species: Potentilla erecta + in 1 and 2. Knautia subscaposa 1 in 1, + in 3. Agrostis castellana 1 in 3, + in 4. Carlina corymbosa + in 3 and 5. Ranunculus granatensis 2, Euphorbia nicaeensis +, Taraxacum ochrocarpum + in 1. Geum sylvaticum 3, Sedum forsteranum 1, Cytisus reverchonii +, Dactylis hispanica +, Narcissus triandrus + in 2. Avenula mirandana 1, Primula vulgaris 1, Thymus mastichina 1, Trifolium pratense 1, Andryala integrifolia +, Cistus laurifolius +, Holcus lanatus +, Polygonatum odoratum +, Prunella laciniata +, Rubia peregrina +, Thapsia villosa + in 3. Eryngium campestre +, Silene vulgaris + in 4. Achillea ageratum 1, Hypericum perforatum +, Pyrus bourgaeana +, Scirpoides holoschoenus + in 5. Catananche caerulea 1, Carex flacca +, Sanguisorba minor + in 6.

Localities: 1. Jaén: Orcera, Campground Madera river. 30S WH3436, 50 m2. 2. Jaén: Segura de la Sierra, Source of Madera river. 30S WH 3837, 60 m2. 3. Jaén: Siles, La Fresnedilla. 30S WH 3744. 30 m2. 4. Jaén: Siles, Los Arroyos. 30S WH 3540. 50 m2. 5. Holotypus ass. Jaén: Orcera, Madera river. 30S WH 3537. 50 m2. 6. Jaén: Siles, Umbría del Yelmo. 30S WH 3034. 70 m2. 7. Synthesized table.

[Ríos & Alcaraz]

Salicenion cantabricae suball. nova hoc loco (71.5b)

Typus suballiancia: Holotypus: Salicetum cantabricae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas, La vegetación de la alta montaña cantábrica: los Picos de Europa: 171, tb. 50. 1984.

Characteristic species: Salix cantabrica, Salix xexpectata, Salix xpormensis, Salix xrijosa.

Diagnosis: Supra- and lower orotemperate Orocantabric riparian shrubby willow communities growing on the lowest zone of river and stream beds flooded most of the year round. Well characterized by the endemic Salix cantabrica and its hybrids with the other associated Salix species. It could be considered as geovicariant of Alpine-Pyrenean Salicion eleagni (Salicenion eleagni) also river shrubby willow communities.

[Rivas-Martínez & T.E. Díaz]

Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae (Rivas-Martínez & Cantó ex Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991) classis nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (71)

[Salici purpureae-Populenea nigrae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó ex Rivas-Martínez , Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi in Itinera Geobot. 5: 260. 1991 (art.27a), Salici-Populenea nigrae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó ex Rivas-Martínez, Mem. Series Veg. España: 162. 1987 (art. 5), Populetea albae Br.-Bl., Commun. Stat. Inst. Geobot. Médit. Montpellier: 159. 1962 (art. 2b), Salicetea purpureae Moor in Mitt. Schweiz. Anst. Forstl. Versuchswesen 34: 221. 1958 (art. 29b), Alno-Populetea Fukarek & Fabijanic in Tüxen (ed.), Pflanzensoziologische Systematik: 112. 1958 (art. 2b)]

Typus classis: Populetalia albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou in Vegetatio 1: 11. 1948.

Characteristic species: Alnus glutinosa, Cucubalus baccifer, Elymus caninus, Populus nigra, Salix fragilis, Saponaria officinalis, Solanum dulcamara.

Diagnosis: Riparian edaphohygrophilous forests and willow communities of Eurosiberian and Mediterranean Regions.

Populetalia albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou in Vegetatio 1: 11. 1948 (71a)

Typus ordo: Populion albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou in Vegetatio 1: 11. 1948.

Characteristic species: Carex pendula, Humulus lupulus, Osmunda regalis, Populus alba, Ranunculus ficaria, Rubus caesius, Salix atrocinerea, Symphytum tuberosum.

Diagnosis: Riparian edaphohygrophilous forests of Mediterranean and Eurosiberian distribution.

Populion albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou in Vegetatio 1: 11. 1948 (71.2)

Typus alliancia: Populetum albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou in Vegetatio 1: 93, tb. 9. 1948.

Characteristic species: Dorycnium rectum, Fraxinus angustifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Iris foetidissima, Vinca difformis, Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris.

Diagnosis: Mediterranean riparian deciduous forests. Populenion albae Rivas-Martínez 1975 (71.2a): flooded only in the rainy periods, situated on the low zone of the river beds, adjacent to the pioneer wooded or shrubby willow communities of the lowest zone usually flooded of the river or stream beds: Salicetalia purpureae; Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris Rivas-Martínez 1975 (71.2b): riparian forests of the wet but not flooded upper river bottom zone.

Carici pendulae-Salicetum catalaunicae A. & O. Bolòs, Veg. Com. Barc.: 139, tb. 1950 (71.2.1)

Distribution: Vallesan-Empordanese, Salix atrocinerea (incl. subsp. catalaunica) with Ulmus minor and Alnus glutinosa scattered trees often flooded riparian forests.

Crataego brevispinae-Populetum albae Galán in A.V. Pérez, Galán, Deil & Cabezudo in Acta Bot. Malacitana 21: 259, tb. 6. 1996 (71.2.2)

Distribution: Thermomediterranean Aljibic and Hispalensean Populus alba riparian forest with a long dry season, growing on stream beds fluvisols rich in vertic soil materials.

Humulo lupuli-Alnetum glutinosae Biurrun, García-Mijangos & Loidi in Bot. Helvetica 104: 31. 1994 (71.2.3)

Distribution: Castilian Cantabrian alder riparian forest association.

Nerio oleandri-Populetum albae A. García & Cano in A. García, J. Torres, Gomes, Leite, Salazar, Melendo, J. Nieto & Cano in Itinera Geobot. 11: 300, tb. 1. 1998 (71.2.4)

Distribution: Thermo-lower mesomediterranean often flooded riparian deciduous forests spread on Guadalquivir river and Betic drainage-bassin rivers.

Populetum albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou in Vegetatio 1: 2. 1948 (71.2.5)

Distribution: Mesomediterranean euoceanic flooded riparian forests from Empordá (North Catalonia) to Provença.

Rubio tinctorum-Populetum albae Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs in Anales Estac. Exp. Aula Dei 5: 207, tb. 43. 1958 (71.2.6)

Distribution: Mesomediterranean semicontinental often flooded riparian forests growing on Mediterranean Central Iberian Province.

Salici atrocinereae-Populetum albae Rivas Goday, Veg. Fl. Guadiana: 545, tb. 81. 1964 (71.2.7)

Distribution: Mesomediterranean often flooded riparian forests growing on Mediterranean West Iberian Province.

Salici neotrichae-Populetum nigrae T.E. Díaz & Penas ass. nova hoc loco (71.2.8)

[Populo nigrae-Salicetum neotrichae Rivas-Martínez & Cantó in T.E. Díaz & Penas in Publ. Univ. La Laguna, Ser. Informes 22: 143, tb. 3. 1987 (art. 2b), Populo nigrae-Salicetum neotrichae salicetosum salviifoliae T.E. Díaz & Penas in Publ. Univ. La Laguna, Ser. Informes 22: 143, tb. 3. 1987 (art. 4a)]

Typus associatio: T.E. Díaz & Penas in Publ. Univ. La Laguna, Ser. Informes 22: 143, tb. 3, rel 6. 1987, sub Populo nigrae-Salicetum neotrichae salicetosum salviifoliae Holotypus, Zamora: Orbigo river, Santa Colomba, 740 m, 90 m2. Characteristic species: 4 Salix neotricha, 2 Fraxinus angustifolia, 2 Populus alba, 2 Populus nigra, 2 Salix salviifolia, 2 Salix triandra subsp. discolor, 1 Brachypodium sylvaticum, 1 Cucubalus baccifer, 1 Humulus lupulus, 1 Ranunculus ficaria, 1 Salix eleagnos subsp. angustifolia, 1 Salix xmatritensis, 1 Salix purpurea subsp. lambertiana, 1 Salix xpseudoeleagnos, + Salix atrocinerea, + Salix fragilis. Companion species: 1 Conium maculatum, 1 Lythrum salicaria, + Rosa canina.

Characteristic species (territorials): Populus nigra, Populus alba, Salix salviifolia, Salix neotricha.

Diagnosis: Supramediterranean often flooded riparian forests spread in semicontinental Iberian Peninsule, in Mediterranean West Iberian Province as well as Castilian and Oroiberian Subprovinces.

Vinco-Populetum albae O. Bolòs, El Paisaje Vegetal Barcelonés: 48, tb. 9. 1962 (71.2.9)

Distribution: Thermo-mesomediterranean euoceanic often flooden riparian forests spread in Catalan-Valencian Subprovince south of Ter river.

[Rivas-Martínez & Cantó]

Salicion pyrenaicae Vigo all. nova hoc loco (45.2)

[Laserpitio-Ranunculion thorae Vigo in Folia Bot. Misc. 1: 8. 1979 (art. 8), Laserpitio-Ranunculion thorae Vigo ex Molero Brion. & Vigo in Acta Bot. Malacitana Inst. Bot. Barcelona 6: 64. 1981 (art. 8, 3f), Laserpitio nestleri-Ranunculenion thorae Vigo ex I. Soriano in Acta Bot. Barcinon. 47: 115. 2001 (art. 8)]
(Seslerietalia caeruleae, Kobresio myosuroidis-Seslerietea caeruleae)

Typus alliancia: Dryado octopetalae-Salicetum pyrenaicae Chouard in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 90: 27. 1943 (sub ass. à Dryas octopetala L. et Salix pyrenaica Gouan).

Characteristic species: Salix pyrenaica.

Diagnosis: Oro-cryorotemperate and north exposed winter snowy upper supratemperate Pyrenean rich in dwarf chamaephyte communities growing on shallow or deep alpin rendzinic calcareous soils but without gleyic or histic properties.

Remarks: The content, area and subordinate syntaxa of the alliance Laserpitio-Ranunculion thorae invalidly proposed (art. 8, 3f) by Vigo (1979), and accepted by us (45.2) in Itinera Geobot. 14: 101. 2001, is the same that the new alliance Salicion pyrenaicae, but this new name is clearly more accurate and informative.

Agrostio schleicheri-Festucetum scopariae Loidi 1983 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991 (45.2.1)

[Agrostio schleicheri-Festucetum gautieri Loidi 1983 (art. 43)]

Distribution: Basque territories: Aitzgorri and Aralar mountains.

Anthyllido vulnerarioidis-Festucetum nigrescentis Ninot (1988) 1996 (45.2.2)

[Saponario-Festucetum gautieri lotetosum alpini Ninot 1988 (basion.)]

Distribution: Lower orotemperate humid and hyperhumid Central Pyrenean mesic community growing on deep alpin rendzinic soils with long snow cover.

Aquilegio pyrenaicae-Seslerietum caeruleae Herrera, Loidi & F. Prieto 1991 (45.2.3)

Distribution: Cantabrian-Basque mountains.

Geo pyrenaici-Caricetum sempervirentis Chouard in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 90: 25. 1943 (45.2.4)

[ass. à Carex sempervirens et Geum pyrenaicum Chouard in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 90: 25. 1943 (art. 10, 29b), Semperviretum pyrenaicum Chouard in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 90: 25. 1943 (art. 43)]

Distribution: Upper orotemperate hyperhumid Central Pyrenean community growing on deep alpin rendzinic soils with long snow cover.

Dryado octopetalae-Salicetum pyrenaicae Chouard in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 90: 27. 1943 (45.2.5)

[ass. à Dryas octopetala-Salix pyrenaica Chouard in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 90: 27. 1943 (art. 10), Veronico gouanii-Salicetum pyrenaicae Nègre 1970 (syntax. syn.)]

Distribution: Upper orotemperate and lower cryorotemperate hyperhumid Western and Central Pyrenean growing on shallow alpin rendzinic soils with short snow cover.

Ranunculo thorae-Seslerietum caeruleae Vigo ass. nova hoc loco (45.2.7)

[Ranunculo thorae-Seslerietum caeruleae Vigo in Folia Bot. Misc. 1: 8. 1979 (art. 5)]

Typus associatio: Vigo in Folia Bot. Misc. 1: 9, tb., rel. 1, holotypus hoc loco [Girona: Ribes de Freser, Bruguera, Sant Amanç. Repeu pedregos d"una cinglera; alt. 1700 m, exp. N, incl. 45º, cob. 90%, area 25 m2]. Characteristic species: 5 Sesleria caerulea, 3 Pulsatilla alpina (corr. subsp. font-queri), 3 Ranunculus thora, 2 Carex ornithopoda, 1 Laserpitium nestleri, + Alchemilla plicatula (corr. Alchemilla alpigena), + Carex montana. Companion species: 4 Festuca gautieri, 2 Galium verum, 2 Hieracium cordifolium subsp. neocerinthe, 2 Valeriana montana, 1 Aquilegia vulgaris, 1 Gentiana lutea, + Campanula speciosa, + Carduus carlinifolius, + Euphorbia angulata, + Lilium martagon, + Lonicera pyrenaica, + Pinus uncinata (seedling), + Ranunculus nemorosus, + Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, + Thesium alpinum.

Characteristic species (territorials): Laserpitium nestleri, Pedicularis foliosa, Pulsatilla alpina subsp. font-queri, Ranunculus thora, Sesleria caerulea.

Diagnosis: Upper supra and orotemperate snowy north exposed rendzinic walled grasslands rich in geophytes growing on Eastern calcareous Pyrenees.

Alchemillo alpigenae-Dryadetum octopetalae I. Soriano 1998 corr. hoc loco (45.2.8)

[Alchemillo plicatulae-Dryadetum octopetalae I. Soriano J. Bot. Soc. Bot. Fr. 5: 24, tb. 1. 1998 (art. 43)]

Diagnosis: Upper orotemperate and lower cryorotemperate Eastern Pyrenean growing on shallow alpin rendzinic soils without a long snow cover period.

[Rivas-Martínez]