Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxon descriptions: Pinetum uncinato - Pulmonario longifoliae

Pinetum uncinato-pyrenaicae ass. nova hoc loco (74.3.2)

(Junipero intermediae-Pinion catalaunicae, Junipero sabinae-Pinetalia sylvestris, Junipero sabinae-Pinetea sylvestris)

Typus associatio: Table 71, rel. 12 [Huesca: Benasque, El Paso Nuevo. 42º38"15"'N-0º33"30"'E. 1370 m, N, 25%, 200 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica, Pinus uncinata, Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica x Pinus uncinata (Pinus xrhaetica nothovar. bolosii), Juniperus communis var. intermedia (prox. Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica), Buxus sempervirens.

Diagnosis: Central Pyrenean supratemperate humid and hyperhumid (on steep sunny slopes) semicontinental natural potential coniferous mesoforest community, growing on rich and poor substratum but with an acidic upper organic horizon. In this natural pineland forest community the commonest tree is Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica, but also is abundant Pinus uncinata as well the natural hybrid between both (Pinus xrhaetica nothovar. bolosii). In the understory as scrubs are common Juniperus communis var. intermedia (often close to Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica) and particularly Buxus sempervirens, but are scarce Juniperus communis subsp. nana and Juniperus sabina (except as relict in exposed sunny biotopes); it is also conspicuous the grass chamaephyte layer of Festuca gautieri and Avenella flexuosa.

Table 71

74.3.2 Pinetum uncinato-pyrenaicae
(Junipero-Pinion catalaunicae, Junipero-Pinetalia, Junipero-Pinetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 155 133 138 134 160 160 162 165 160 130 144 137 130 161 140
Number of species 14 14 15 16 16 16 18 18 21 20 21 25 27 28 19
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12* 13 14 15
Characteristic species (territorials):
Pinus pyrenaica 2 2 5 5 4 2 4 4 4 3 2 4 3 4 V
Pinus uncinata 3 1 . . 2 3 + 1 3 . + 1 + 2 IV
Pinus xbolosii + 3 1 1 . . 1 + . 2 3 2 3 . IV
Juniperus intermedia 4 2 + 1 + + 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 V
Buxus sempervirens 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 . . 4 4 3 3 2 V
Festuca gautieri 1 1 3 1 . 2 1 3 . 2 3 1 . 1 IV
Vicia pyrenaica . . . . + . . 1 + . 1 . 1 2 III
Avenella flexuosa . . . . 1 . 2 . . . . 3 3 2 III
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi . 3 . . 3 . . . 1 . . . 1 . II
Ononis aragonensis . 1 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . II
Juniperus nana . . . . . . + . 1 . . . . . II
Juniperus sabina . . . . . . . 4 2 . . . . . II
Querco-Fagetea species:
Anemone hepatica . 1 3 2 1 2 . + . 3 2 2 3 1 IV
Amelanchier ovalis . 2 1 2 + . 1 . . 1 + . 1 . IV
Sorbus aucuparia . . + . . + + + . . 1 . 1 + III
Viburnum lantana . . 1 + . . . + . . 1 . + . III
Abies alba . . 1 . . + . . . . + 1 1 . III
Hieracium murorum + . . . + . . . . . + . 1 . II
Betula pendula . . . . + 1 2 2 . . . . . . II
Vaccinium myrtillus . . . . . 1 . . . . . 3 1 2 II
Oxalis acetosella . . . . . + . . . . . + + + II
Viola reichenbachiana . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 . II
Quercus xcalvescens (S2) . . . . . . + . . + . + + . II
Digitalis lutea . . . . . . + + 1 . . . . . II
Fraxinus excelsior (S2) . . . . . . . . . 1 . . + + II
Companion species:
Fragaria vesca + . + . 1 1 + . 1 + + 1 3 1 IV
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus 1 2 2 2 . 1 . . . 2 . 3 4 1 IV
Hylocomium splendens 3 . 2 1 . . . . . 1 . 3 . . III
Cruciata glabra 1 . 1 . + 1 . . . + . . . . II
Calluna vulgaris . . . . . . 1 . . . . 1 + + II
Rhododendron ferrugineum . . . . . + . . . . . + . + II

Other species. Querco-Fagetea species: Ilex aquifolium + in 7, 12 and 13. Veronica officinalis + in 7, 1 in 12, 3 in 14. Sorbus aria 1 in 3, + in 9. Coronilla emerus 2 in 3, + in 11. Festuca heterophylla 2 in 4 and 10. Primula columnae 2 in 4, 1 in 10. Epipactis helleborine 1 in 4, + in 13. Vicia cracca 1 in 5 and 8. Lilium martagon 1 in 10 and 12. Ribes alpinum + in 12 and 13. Populus tremula 2, Quercus petraea + in 5. Neottia nidus-avis +, Saxifraga umbrosa + in 6. Lonicera alpigena 1, Rhamnus alpina + in 9. Corylus avellana + in 10. Daphne laureola 1 in 11. Melampyrum pratense 2 in 12. Laserpitium latifolium +, Salix caprea + in 13. Festuca heterophylla 2, Luzula pilosa +, Ranunculus tuberosus +, Sanicula europaea +, Sorbus intermedia + in 14. Companion species: Teucrium chamaedrys + in 8, 1 in 9 and 10. Phyteuma orbiculare + in 8, 2 in 9. Thymus palearensis + in 8, 1 in 9. Rosa pendulina 1 in 9, 2 in 11. Dicranum scoparium 1, Sesleria caerulea + in 1. Juniperus phoenicea 1 in 2. Carex humilis 1 in 5. Festuca costei 1, Iberis sempervirens 1 in 7. Festuca cinerea 1, Lathyrus latifolius + in 8. Laserpitium siler 2, Dianthus monspessulanus 1, Satureja montana 1, Silene nutans + in 9. Hippocrepis comosa 1, Silene nutans 1, Helianthemum nummularium + in 11. Pleurozium schreberi 3, Polypodium vulgare 1 in 12. Trifolium repens 2, Galium pumilum 1, Lotus alpinus 1, Melampyrum sylvaticum 1, Plantago media 1, Trifolium montanum 1 in 14.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Barbaruens, Cotiella. NE, 30%, 100 m2. 2. Huesca: Benasque, Montaña de la Rueda. S, 40%, 50 m2. 3. Huesca: Benasque, El Tosquero. N, 40%, 100 m2. 4. Huesca: Benasque, Fuen de Ferri. NW, 20%, 200 m2. 5. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Ballibierna. S, 30%, 100 m2. 6. Huesca: Barbaruens, Cotiella. NE, 20%, 150 m2. 7. Huesca: Benasque, Plan de Bañs. E, 40%, 50 m2. 8. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Ballibierna. S, 40%, 50 m2. 9. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Ballibierna. S, 40%, 100 m2. 10. Huesca: Benasque, Bajo embalse de Paso Nuevo. NW, 20%, 100 m2. 11. Huesca: Benasque, bottom of Ball de Cregüeña. E, 30%, 100 m2. 12. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, El Paso Nuevo. 42º38"15"'N-0º33"30"'E. N, 25%, 200 m2. 13. Huesca: Benasque, Fuen de Piedra Bebedera. NW, 25%, 200 m2. 14. Huesca: Plan, Pinar de la Somierre. S, 35%, 200 m2. 15. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa, J.A. Molina & P. Soriano]

Polycarpaeo niveae-Traganetea moquini Santos classis nova hoc loco (81)

[Zygophyllo fontanesii-Polycarpaetea niveae Santos, Proc. II Congr. Int. Pro Fl. Macaronesica (Funchal): 206. 1983 (art. 5), Ammophiletea auct. canar. non Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946]

Typus classis: Zygophyllo-Polycarpaetalia niveae Santos ex Géhu, Biondi, Géhu-Franck, Hendoux & Mossa in Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest 27: 182. 1996.

Characteristic species: Polycarpaea nivea, Zygophyllum fontanesii.

Diagnosis: Canarian and West Oceanic Sahara inframediterranean arid hyperoceanic and euoceanic shrubby and dwarf-scrub desertic sand dunes communities , growing on deep sandy regosols.

Zygophyllo fontanesii-Polycarpaetalia niveae Santos ex Géhu, Biondi, Géhu-Franck, Hendoux & Mossa in Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest 27: 182. 1996 (81a)

[Zygophyllo fontanesii-Polycarpaetalia niveae Santos, Proc. II Congr. Int. Pro Fl. Macaronesica (Funchal): 206. 1983 (art. 5), Ononidetalia ramosissimae Galán, I. Sánchez & Vicente in Phytocoenologia 27(3): 330. 1997 (syntax. syn.)]

Typus ordo: Ononido ramosissimae-Polycarpaeion niveae Biondi, Allegrezza, Taffetani & Wildpret in Fitosociol. 27: 110. 1994.

Characteristic species: (see class).

Diagnosis: Only one order; see class diagnosis.

Traganion moquini Sunding in Skr. Norske Vidensk.-Akad. Oslo, Mat.-Naturvidensk. Kl., N.S. 29: 38. 1972 (81.1)

[Zygophyllion fontanesii Esteve in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 7: 308. 1968 (art. 3b), Zygophyllion fontanesii Esteve ex Santos, Proc. II Congr. Int. Pro Fl. Macaronesica (Funchal): 206. 1983 (syntax. syn.), Ononido ramosissimae-Polycarpaeion niveae Biondi, Allegrezza, Taffetani & Wildpret in Fitosociol. 27: 110. 1994 (syntax. syn.)]

Typus alliancia: Traganetum moquini Sunding in Skr. Norske Vidensk Akad. Oslo, Mat.-Naturvidensk. Kl., N.S. 29: 40, tb. 4. 1972. [lectotypus: l.c. rel. 5].

Characteristic species: Androcymbium psamophilum, Lotus lancerottensis, Traganum moquini.

Diagnosis: Tall and dwarf-scrub stable desertic communities of coastal and inland sand dunes, spread in Canarian and West Oceanic Sahara on hyperocenaic and euoceanic inframediterranean arid territories.

Frankenio-Zygophylletum gaetuli Del Arco & Wildpret, Homenaje al Prof. Dr. Telesforo Bravo (Secr. Publ. Univ. La Laguna) 1: 97. 1991 (81.1.1)

Distribution: Dwarf-scrub inframediterranean desertic sand dune community of Majorean Sector (Fuerteventura Isle).

Polycarpaeo niveae-Lotetum lancerottensis Esteve in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 7: 308, tb. 1. 1968 (81.1.2)

Distribution: Dwarf-scrub arid and hyperarid stable community Lanzarotean and Majorean.

Suaedo-Limonietum callibotryi Pérez de Paz & Acebes in Acebes & Pérez de Paz in Vieraea 14(1-2): 153. 1985 (81.1.3)

Distribution: Salvajes Isles.

Traganetum moquini Sunding in Skr. Norske Vidensk Akad. Oslo, Mat.-Naturvidensk. Kl., N.S. 29: 40, tb. 4. 1972 (81.1.4)

Distribution: Tall scrub permanent stable sand dune community, Lanzarotean, Majorean, Grancanarian, Teneriffean and Gomeran.

Polycarpaeo niveae-Euphorbion paraliae all. nova hoc loco (81.2)

Typus alliancia: Euphorbio paraliae-Cyperetum kallii Sunding in Skr. Norske Vidensk Akad. Oslo, Mat.-Naturvidensk. Kl., N.S. 29: 38, tb. 3. 1972 [lectotypus: l.c. rel. 14].

Characteristic species: Calystegia soldanella (terr.), Euphorbia paralias (terr.), Polygonum balansae var. tectifolium, Polygonum maritimum (terr.), Senecio leucanthemifolius var. falcifolius.

Diagnosis: Dwarf-scrub and pernnial-grass unstable communities on mobile littoral sand dunes with marine salt-spray.

Euphorbio paraliae-Cyperetum kalii Sunding in Skr. Norske Vidensk Akad. Oslo, Mat.-Naturvidensk. Kl., N.S. 29: 38, tb. 3. 1972 (81.2.1)

Distribution: Lanzarotean, Majorean, Grancanarian and Teneriffean coasts.

[Rivas-Martínez & Wildpret]

Polysticho falcinelli-Ericion arboreae all. nova hoc loco (82.7)

(Pruno hixae-Lauretalia novocanariensis, Pruno-Lauretea novocanariensis)

Typus alliancia: Polysticho falcinelli-Ericetum arboreae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez in Silva Lusit. 7 (2): 267, tb. 7, rel. 3. 2000.

Characteristic species: Erica arborea (tree up 12 m), Polystichum falcinellum, Vaccinium padifolium.

Diagnosis: Madeiran supratemperate upper hyperhumid to ultrahyperhumid natural potential vegetation microforest of Erica arborea (prob. subsp. canariensis) on acidic shallow and deep andosols.

Polysticho falcinelli-Ericetum arboreae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez in Silva Lusit. 7(2): 267, tb. 7. 2000 (82.7.1)

Distribution: Summit zones of Madeira Isle up 1300 m.

[Rivas-Martínez, Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim & Sequeira]

Potentillo anserinae-Agrostietum stoloniferae ass. nova hoc loco (59.13.1)

(Agrostion stoloniferae, Plantaginetalia majoris, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea)

Typus associatio: Table 72, rel. 4 [León: Crémenes, Las Salas. 30TUN2955. 1000 m, 6 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Agrostis stolonifera, Potentilla anserina, Senecio aquaticus.

Diagnosis: Hygronitrophilous meadows growing in sandy-stony soils on the banks of the rivers prone to flooding, influenced by anthropozoogen actions. They seem to have their best development in the supratemperate humid-hyperhumid belt of the Ubinnean Subsector (Orocantabric Subprovince). They belong to the edaphohygrophilous series of the shrubby willow formations of the Salicetum cantabricae and the ash woods of the Euphorbio hybernae-Fraxinetum excelsioris, where they sometimes grow under the protection of the river trees in contact with megaforbic communities of Chaerophyllo-Valerianetum pyrenaicae and Filipendulion ulmariae, both occupying the nearest areas to the water channel.

Table 72

59.13.1 Potentillo anserinae-Agrostietum stoloniferae
(Agrostion stoloniferae, Plantaginetalia majoris, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea)

Altitude (1=10m) 114 114 114 100 100 108
Number of species 12 14 14 18 26 17
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4* 5 6
Characteristic species:
Potentilla anserina 5 3 2 1 2 V
Agrostis stolonifera 1 1 + 3 2 V
Ranunculus repens 1 1 1 2 2 V
Senecio aquaticus + + 1 . . III
Juncus inflexus 1 3 . 1 . III
Mentha longifolia . + + 1 . III
Dactylis glomerata . + + . + III
Trifolium repens . . + 2 2 III
Agrostis capillaris 1 1 . . . II
Mentha arvensis . + 1 . . II
Cynosurus cristatus . + . . + II
Juncus acutiflorus . + . . + II
Holcus lanatus . . . 1 + II
Filipendula ulmaria . . . + 1 II
Lysimachia vulgaris . . . + + II
Companion species:
Equisetum arvense . . . 1 2 II
Vicia cracca . . . 1 1 II
Chaerophyllum aureum . . . + 1 II

Other species. Characteristic species: Alopecurus geniculatus 2, Lolium perenne + in 1. Carex hirta + in 2. Potentilla reptans 2 in 4. Briza media 1, Festuca arundinacea 1, Plantago lanceolata 1, Trifolium pratense 1, Carex leporina + in 5. Companion species: Equisetum palustre 1, Agrostis xmurbeckii +, Elymus caninus +, Glyceria declinata + in 1. Myosotis arvensis +, Phleum bertolonii + in 2. Odontites serotina 3, Carex rostrata 2, Galium palustre 1, Juncus subglomeratus 1, Epilobium montanum +, Juncus conglomeratus + in 3. Aconitum napellus +, Angelica sylvestris +, Epilobium hirsutum +, Heracleum elegans +, Lythrum salicaria + in 4. Centaurea jacea 1, Cirsium pyrenaicum 1, Geum rivale 1, Lotus pedunculatus 1, Veronica chamaedrys 1, Bromus erectus +, Phalaris arundinacea +, Pimpinella major + in 5.

Localities: 1. León: Acebedo. 30TUN2768. 10 m2. 2. León: Acebedo. 30TUN2768. 30 m2. 3. León: Acebedo. 30TUN2768. 10 m2. 4. Holotypus ass. León: Crémenes, Las Salas. 30TUN2955. 6 m2. 5. León: Crémenes, Las Salas. 30TUN2955. 5 m2. 6. Synthesized table.

[R. Alonso, Lence, Puente, Penas & F. Salegui]

Pruno mahalebo-Cornetum sanguineae ass. nova hoc loco (66.1.3)

(Berberidenion vulgaris, Berberidion vulgaris, Prunetalia spinosae, Rhamno-Prunetea)

Typus associatio: Table 73, rel. 1 [Huesca: Between Sahún and Villanova, Estrecho de Sahún. 42º 34'N-0º 27'E. 1070 m, SE, 5%, 50 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Betula pendula, Cornus sanguinea, Corylus avellana, Prunus mahaleb.

Diagnosis: Pyrenean supratemperate humid matle community of Brachypodio sylvatici-Fraxinetum excelsioris mesic to slightly hydric climactical deciduous forest.

Table 73

66.1.3 Pruno mahalebo-Cornetum sanguineae
(Berberidion vulgaris, Prunetalia spinosae, Rhamno-Prunetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 107 90 115 114 106
Number of species 13 18 20 18 17
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5
Characteristic species:
Cornus sanguinea 4 3 4 2 4
Ligustrum vulgare 3 2 2 1 4
Clematis vitalba 2 1 2 3 4
Lonicera xylosteum + 2 2 + 3
Crataegus monogyna 1 1 2 . 3
Prunus mahaleb 1 1 . 2 3
Prunus spinosa 2 . . + 2
Viburnum lantana . 3 1 . 2
Buxus sempervirens . 1 . 2 2
Rosa canina . . + 1 2
Companion species:
Corylus avellana 1 1 3 3 4
Betula pendula 1 + + . 2
Fraxinus excelsior 2 . 1 + 3
Agrimonia eupatoria 1 . . 1 2

Other species: Characteristic species: Rubus caesius 2, Rubus ulmifolius 2 in 1. Malus sylvestris 2, Rosa glauca 1 in 2. Rhamnus cathartica 2, Rosa corymbifera 1, Amelanchier ovalis + in 3. Companion species: Campanula persicifolia + in 2, 1 in 3. Quercus pubescens + in 2, 1 in 4. Brachypodium sylvaticum 3, Lonicera etrusca 2, Salix lambertiana 1, Juniperus communis + in 2. Anthriscus sylvestris 1, Campanula rapunculus 1, Geum urbanum 1, Quercus pubescens x Quercus petraea 1, Rubus idaeus 1 in 3. Brachypodium rupestre 2, Alliaria petiolata 1, Hypericum xdesetangsii 1, Tamus communis 1, Origanum vulgare +, Solanum dulcamara + in 4.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Between Sahún and Villanova, Estrecho de Sahún. 42º 34'N-0º 27'E. SE, 5%, 50 m2. 2. Huesca: Castejón de Sos: bigger bed of Ésera river. 40 m2. 3. Huesca: Benasque: Eriste. W, 40 m2. 4. Huesca: Chia. E, 20 m2. 5. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa & P. Soriano]

Pteridio aquilini-Cytisetum oromediterranei ass. nova hoc loco (65.1.6)

(Genistion floridae, Cytisetalia scopario-striati, Cytisetea scopario-striati)

Typus associatio: Table 74, rel. 7 [Madrid: Rascafría, near Puerto de Cotos. 30TVL2019. 1720 m, S, 80 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Avenella iberica, Cytisus oromediterraneus, Genista cinerascens, Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, Pteridium aquilinum.

Diagnosis: Nanophanerophytic communities formed by Cytisus oromediterraneus, usually accompanied by Genista cinerascens, together with other Genisteae. They represent the first substitution stage of the Pteridio-Pinetum ibericae woods and the Pyrenean oak forests of the Luzulo-Quercetum pyrenaicae galietosum rotundifolii. They are biogeographically distributed in the Guadarramean Sector, of the Carpetan-Leonese Subprovince, in the supramediterranean and suprasubmediterranean bioclimatic belts, in subhumid and humid ombroclimates. They appear between (1250) 1400 and 1700 (1830) m.

Table 74

65.1.6 Pteridio aquilini-Cytisetum oromediterranei
(Genistion floridae, Cytisetalia scopario-striati, Cytisetea scopario-striati)

Altitude (1=10m) 154 140 129 168 165 160 172 177 152 166 154 158
Number of species 8 9 11 14 12 9 14 16 9 18 18 13
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7* 8 9 10 11 12
Characteristic species:
Cytisus oromediterraneus 5 1 1 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 4 V
Genista cinerascens 2 4 3 3 + 3 3 2 3 1 3 V
Pteridium aquilinum 3 1 . + 2 + 2 + 2 2 2 V
Pinus iberica (terr.) . . + . . . 1 3 1 1 + III
Cytisus scoparius 1 3 3 . . . . . . . + II
Orobanche rapum-genistae . . . . . + . . . 1 1 II
Companion species:
Avenella iberica 1 . . 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 1 IV
Avenula sulcata 2 . . . 2 1 . 1 . 2 1 III
Lactuca viminea . . . 1 + . + + + + . III
Arrhenatherum carpetanum . . . + . . 1 1 + 1 1 III
Stipa gigantea 1 1 . . + 2 . . . + . III
Agrostis truncatula 1 . . . + + . . . 1 1 III
Luzula lactea . . . 1 + . + 1 . 2 . III
Koeleria crassipes . . . + . + . + 1 1 . III
Linaria nivea . . . . + . 1 + + 1 . III
Juniperus hemisphaerica . 1 . . . . 1 + . . 2 III

Other species. Companion species: Thymus zygis 1 in 2, + in 3 and 9. Lavandula pedunculata 1 in 3 and 4, 2 in 11. Agrostis castellana 1 in 4 and 11, 2 in 10. Thymus bracteatus + in 5, 2 in 9, 1 in 11. Festuca curvifolia + in 5 and 11, 1 in 9. Leucanthemopsis alpina 1 in 2, + in 11. Jasione echinata + in 3 and 8. Armeria lacaitae + in 3, 1 in 11. Arenaria montana 1 in 4 and 7. Quercus pyrenaica + in 8, 1 in 11.Carduus carpetanus 1 in 2. Corynephorus canescens 1, Lotus carpetanus 1, Plantago radicata + in 3. Arenaria querioides +, Linaria spartea +, Ononis australis + in 4. Digitalis carpetana +, Sorbus aucuparia +, Spergula morisonii + in 7. Hieracium castellanum +, Rumex angiocarpus + in 8. Thymus mastichina 1, Crataegus monogyna +, Rosa corymbifera + in 10. Rosa canina + in 11.

Localities: 1. Ávila: El Espinar, Cabeza Renales. 30TUL9005. NW, 90 m2. 2. Ávila: Peguerinos. 30TUK9799. N, 80 m2. 3. Ávila: Las Navas del Marqués. 30TUK8895. N, 80 m2. 4. Madrid: Puerto de Navafría, Southern slope. 30TVL3136. S, 60m2. 5. Madrid: Morcuera-Rascafría, km 12. 30TVL2922. E, 60 m2. 6. Madrid: Morcuera-Rascafría, km 14. 30TVL2924. S, 80 m2. 7. Holotypus ass. Madrid: Rascafría, near Puerto de Cotos. 30TVL2019. S, 80 m2. 8. Madrid: Puerto de Navafría, Southern slope. 30TVL3137. S, 200 m2. 9. Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama, Mondalindo Northern slope. 30TVL4027. W, 100 m2. 10. Madrid: Morcuera-La Najarra. 30TVL3021. S, 40 m2. 11. Madrid: Miraflores-Morcuera, km 7. 30TVL3221. NW, 50 m2. 12. Synthesized table.

[Gavilán, Cantó, Fernández-González, Rivas-Martínez & Sánchez-Mata

Pteridio aquilini-Pinetum ibericaeass. nova hoc loco (74.4.5)

(Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae, Junipero-Pinetalia, Junipero-Pinetea)

Typus associatio: Table 75, rel. 4 [Madrid: Cercedilla, Fuenfría Pass. 30TVL1016. W, 20%, 1690 m, 200 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, Avenella iberica, Conopodium pyrenaeum, Festuca braun-blanquetii, Galium rotundifolium, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Pteridium aquilinum.

Diagnosis: Guadarramean supratemperate submediterranean and supramediterranean subumid and humid semicontinental natural potential vegetation mesoforests community dominated by Pinus sylvestris var. iberica, sometimes extent by human technics and grazed activities. In orotemperate submediterranean belt of Guadarrama Mountains is replaced by the also climactical microforest Avenello ibericae-Pinetum ibericae.

Table 75

74.4.5 Pteridio aquilini-Pinetum ibericae
(Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae, Junipero-Pinetalia, Junipero-Pinetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 179 174 160 169 165 175 152 145 153 152 153 160 161
Number of species 18 19 22 22 24 26 26 26 27 28 29 31 25
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Characteristic species:
Pinus sylvestris var. iberica 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 V
Festuca braun-blanquetii + 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 V
Cytisus oromediterraneus + 1 1 + 1 + + 2 1 + 2 2 V
Juniperus hemisphaerica 2 2 + 3 1 1 2 1 + + 1 . V
Avenella iberica 2 3 . 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 3 V
Conopodium pyrenaeum . + . 1 1 . 2 1 2 + 1 + IV
Differential species to Avenello-Pinetum:
Pteridium aquilinum 4 3 5 3 3 4 4 2 4 3 3 3 V
Galium rotundifolium 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 1 . 2 3 V
Holcus mollis . 1 3 . 1 2 . . 2 2 2 2 IV
Rosa canina . . . . . . + + + + + 1 III
Genista florida . . . . . . . 1 1 1 . 1 II
Querco-Fagetea species:
Viola riviniana . + 2 1 . 2 1 . . . 1 2 III
Veronica officinalis . . . + . 1 1 . 1 . . + III
Luzula forsteri . . . . . . 1 1 . . 1 1 II
Companion species:
Arenaria montana 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 V
Luzula lactea 2 2 . 1 3 . 1 2 2 1 . . IV
Agrostis castellana + . . . + . 1 1 . 2 1 + III
Cruciata glabra . + . 1 . 2 1 . . 1 2 2 III
Acinos meridionalis . . 2 . 1 . + 2 + 2 2 . III
Lactuca chondrilliflora . . . + . . + 1 1 1 1 + III
Clinopodium vulgare . . . . 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 . III
Rumex pyrenaicus 1 1 1 1 . + . . . . 1 . III
Linaria nivea + 1 1 1 . 1 . . . . . + III
Dicranum scoparium 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 1 . . . . III
Leontodon bourgaeanus . + . 1 + . . . . . 1 1 III
Galium verum . . 2 . . . 1 . + + . 1 III
Ranunculus alpinus . . . . 1 . . + + . 1 1 III
Arrhenatherum carpetanum 1 2 . + . 2 . . . . . . II
Erica arborea 1 . . . 2 + . . . . + . II
Avenula sulcata . . + . 1 . . 2 . . 2 . II
Carduus carpetanus . . 1 . . . . + . + + . II
Viola odorata . . . . 1 . . 2 2 2 . . II
Carex divulsa . . . . . . + + + . . + II

Other species. Characteristic species: Juniperus alpina 1 in 1 and 3. Pinus sylvestris var. iberica (S2) 3 in 3. Viscum austriacum + in 5. Differential species: Arctostaphylos crassifolia + in 5. Rubus castellarnaui + in 12. Querco-Fagetea species: Sanicula europea + in 7. Companion species: Hypochoeris radicata 1 in 3, 1 in 5, + in 9. Cistus laurifolius 2 in 3, 1 in 11, + in 12. Urtica dioica + in 4, 6 and 12. Cynosurus echinatus 2 in 10, 1 in 11, 1 in 12. Silene nutans 1 in 10, + in 11 and 12. Genista cinerascens + in 1, 1 in 10. Festuca iberica 1 in 2 and 4. Poa nemoralis 1 in 3 and 6. Cynosurus elegans + in 8 and 9. Hieracium castellanum 1 in 10 and 11. Cytisus scoparius 1 in 11 and 12. Cerastium ramosissimum + in 1. Galium aparinella 1, Geranium purpureum 1 in 3. Teucrium scorodonia + in 4. Jasione carpetana +, Leucanthemopsis alpina + in 5. Galium aparine 1, Galium pinetorum 1, Mycelis muralis 1, Anthoxanthum odoratum +, Digitalis carpetana +, Lapsana communis + in 6. Homalothecium sericeum 2, Geranium robertianum 1, Epilobium lanceolatum + in 7. Conopodium subcarneum 1, Thymus bracteatus + in 8. Achillea millefolium +, Campanula rapunculus +, Herniaria scabrida +, Rosa corymbifera + in 9. Adenocarpus hispanicus 1, Quercus rotundifolia 1, Rosa micrantha 1, Lavandula pedunculata + in 10. Potentilla micrantha 1, Geum sylvaticum +, Rubus ulmifolius + in 12.

Localities: 1. Madrid: Rascafría, Valle de Valdemartín-Cabezas de Hierro. 30TVL1913. S, 400 m2. 2. Madrid: Cercedilla, Collado Ventoso. 30TVL1115. S, 400 m2. 3. Madrid: Navacerrada, Valle de la Barranca. 30TVL1513. S, 400 m2. 4. Holotypus ass. Madrid: Cercedilla, Fuenfría Pass. 30TVL1016. W, 20%, 200 m2. 5. Ávila: Peguerinos, Collado del Hornillo. 30TVL0004. N, 200 m2. 6. Segovia: Aldealengua de Pedraza, Puerto de Navafría. 30TVL3138NE. 400 m2. 7. Madrid: Guadarrama, Puerto de los Leones. 30TVL0503. NE, 400 m2. 8. Madrid: Guadarrama, Puerto de los Leones. 30TVL0405. E, 200 m2. 9. Madrid: Guadarrama, Cabeza Líjar. 30TVL0305. E, 400 m2. 10. Madrid: S. Lorenzo del Escorial, Abantos. 30TVL0296. S, 200 m2. 11. Madrid, Cercedilla, Valle de Cercedilla from El Ventorrillo. 30TVL1312. W, 400 m2. 12. Madrid, Cercedilla, El Ventorrillo. 30TVL1412. W, 400 m2. 13. Synthesized table.

Avenello ibericae-Pinetum ibericae Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina in Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi in Itinera Geobot. 13: 397. 1999 (74.4.1)

(Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae, Junipero-Pinetalia, Junipero-Pinetea)

Typus associatio: Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 21(1): 180, tb. 22, rel. 19. 1964 ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi in Itinera Geobot. 13: 397. 1999 (Holotypus sub Junipero-Sarothamnetum purgantis pinetosum sylvestris) [Segovia: Sierra de Guadarrama Siete Picos, Northern slope, 1950 m, NE, 25%, 100 m2]. Characteristic species: 5 Pinus sylvestris (var. iberica), 3 Avenella iberica, 3 Juniperus alpina, 2 Cytisus oromediterraneus. Companion species: 2 Digitalis purpurea, 2 Nardus stricta, 2 Senecio pyrenaicus subsp. carpetanus, 1 Cerastium ramosissimum, 1 Erica arborea, 1 Hieracium argyrocomum, 1 Lactuca chondrilliflora, 1 Luzula lactea, 1 Polytrichum juniperinum, + Agrostis capillaris, + Agrostis truncatula, + Armeria caespitosa, + Gagea guadarramica, + Rumex angiocarpus.

Characteristic species (territorials): Avenella iberica, Jasione laevis subsp. carpetana, Juniperus alpina, Pinus sylvestris var. iberica.

Diagnosis: Orotemperate submediterranean humid and hyperhumid Pinus sylvestris var. iberica microforests (mesoforests only in lower altitudes on deep soils), growing between 1700-2100 m in siliciceous medium acid tangel cambisols or rankers, covered by winter snow for at least five months, in the high mountains of Sierra de Guadarrama (Iberian Central Range). At lower altitudes 1500-1850 m in expositions and soils where Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus petraea or Betula celtiberica deciduous forest can"t grow, the Avenello-Pinetum ibericae forests are replaced by the also primary or locally old secondary Guadarramean Iberic Scots pine mesoforest association Pteridio-Pinetum ibericae rich in Querco-Fagetea and Cytisetea scopario-striati species.

Table 76

74.4.1 Avenello ibericae-Pinetum ibericae
(Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae, Junipero Pinetalia, Junipero-Pinetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 192 181 184 185 171 175 188 181 177 183 188 187 183
Number of species 14 14 14 14 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 22 17
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Characteristic species:
Pinus sylvestris var. iberica 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 V
Avenella iberica 5 4 3 5 4 5 3 5 4 4 4 3 V
Juniperus alpina 2 3 3 1 . + 3 2 1 + 1 1 V
Juniperus hemisphaerica . 1 + 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 V
Cytisus oromediterraneus 1 . . 1 1 1 + + + + 1 . IV
Conopodium pyrenaeum . 1 + + . . + + . + 2 1 IV
Festuca braun-blanquetii . . . 1 2 2 . 1 . 2 1 2 III
Companion species:
Arenaria montana 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 V
Rumex pyrenaicus 2 2 2 + 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 V
Dicranum scoparium 2 2 1 2 2 3 . 2 2 1 2 2 V
Jasione carpetana 2 3 3 . 2 1 . 2 2 1 3 2 V
Cerastium ramosissimum 1 + 1 + . 1 + . 1 + 1 . IV
Linaria nivea . . . . + 2 + + + 1 1 + IV
Nardus stricta 1 . + . 1 . . 1 1 + + . III
Festuca iberica 2 . . . 1 1 1 1 1 . . 1 III
Arrhenatherum carpetanum . + + . . . 1 1 1 . 1 1 III
Agrostis castellana 1 . . 1 . 1 . + 1 . . . III
Campanula herminii . + 1 . . . . . 1 . . . II
Veronica officinalis . + . . . . . . 1 . . + II
Galium rotundifolium . . + . . . . + . + . . II
Stellaria media . . . + . + . . . . + . II
Teesdalia coronopifolia . . . . + + + . . . . . II
Luzula lactea . . . . 3 . 2 . . . . + II
Leontodon bourgaeanus . . . . . . 1 . . 1 . + II

Other species. Companion species: Leucanthemopsis alpina + in 1 and 7. Carex ovalis + in 2 and 9. Omalotheca carpetana 1 in 10, + in 12. Viola riviniana + in 10, 1 in 12. Hieracium castellanum + in 1. Senecio adonidifolius + in 4. Koeleria crassipes +, Sorbus aucuparia + in 5. Linaria elegans + in 6. Acinos meridionalis 1, Carduus carpetanus + in 7. Sedum brevifolium + in 8. Hypochoeris radicata + in 9. Digitalis carpetana + in 10. Ranunculus alpinus 2, Avenula sulcata 1, Narcissus rupicola 1, Adenocarpus hispanicus + in 11. Cerastium arvense 2, Cruciata glabra 2, Vicia pyrenaica 2, Carex pairaei + in 12.

Localities: 1. Madrid: Cercedilla, Siete Picos (1º). 30TVL1215. NW, 400 m2. 2. Madrid: Rascafría, Cabezas de Hierro. 30TVL2118. N, 400 m2. 3. Madrid: Rascafría, Cabezas de Hierro. N, 400 m2. 4. Segovia: La Granja, Peña del Águila. 30TVL1717. N, 200 m2. 5. Segovia: El Espinar, Peña Águila-Río Moros. 30TVL0714. N, 200 m2. 6. Segovia: El Espinar, Collado de Marichiva, Río Moros. 30TVL0815. N, 200 m2. 7. Madrid: Cercedilla, Collado Ventoso. 30TVL1116. S, 400 m2. 8. Madrid: Manzanares El Real, Valdemartín. 30TVL1914. N, 200 m2. 9. Madrid: Rascafría, Cabezas de Hierro. 30TVL2119. N, 400 m2. 10. Segovia: Aldealengua de Pedraza, Puerto de Navafría. 30TVL3137. N, 400 m2. 11. Segovia: La Granja, Los Cogorros. 30TVL1417. NE, 200 m2. 12. Segovia: Aldealengua de Pedraza, Puerto de Navafría. 30TVL3137. NE, 400 m2. 13. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina]

Pterosparto cantabrici-Ericetum aragonensis M. Losa & P. Montserrat in Tüxen & Oberdorfer in Veröff. Ber. Geobot. Inst. E.T.H. Stiffung Rübel 32(2): 214. 1958 (61.4.10)

[Erica aragonensis-Pterospartum cantabricum ass. M. Losa & P. Montserrat in Tüxen & Oberdorfer 1958 (art. 10), Daboecio cantabricae-Ericetum aragonensis Rivas-Martínez in F. Prieto & Loidi in Lazaroa 5: 81. 1984 (syntax. syn.)]
(Daboecion cantabricae, Ulicetalia minoris, Calluno-Ulicetea)

Typus associatio: Tüxen & Oberdorfer in Veröff. Ber. Geobot. Inst. E.T.H. Stiffung Rübel 32(2): 214., tb. 67, rel.: single. 1958.

Characteristic species (territorials): Daboecia cantabrica, Erica aragonensis, Pterospartum cantabricum.

Diagnosis: Orocantabric supratemperate and scarcely reaching lower orotemperate hyperhumid secondary siliceous and acidic heath community, that produces "raw humus" or 0 horizon generative agent of atlantic podzols.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Pulmonario affinis-Abietetum albae ass. nova hoc loco (76.3.2)

(Saxifrago umbrosae-Abietenion, Galio rotundifolii-Abietion, Fagetalia sylvaticae, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus associatio: Table 77, rel. 2 [Huesca: Benasque, at the bottom of Ball Cregüeña. 42º39'N-0º35'E. 1620 m., W, 20%, 500 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Abies alba, Buxus sempervirens, Carex digitata, Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica, Pulmonaria affinis.

Diagnosis: Central Pyrenean upper supratemperate humid and hyperhumid mostly semicontinental and shadowless Abies alba fir macroforest community, growing on deep A umbric horizon mesic soils with a long winter snow cover; differentiated of the moister, longer snowed and foggiest North Pyrenean Goodyero-Abietetum albae by the more "southern" species like: Buxus sempervirens, Pulmonaria affinis, Luzula nivea, Pinus sylvestris var. pyrenaica, etc.

Table 77

76.3.2 Pulmonario affinis-Abietetum albae
(Saxifrago umbrosae-Abietenion, Galio rotundifolii-Abietion, Fagetalia sylvaticae, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 140 162 145 142 143 146
Number of species 25 28 26 26 29 27
Ordinal number 1 2* 3 4 5 6
Characteristic species (territorials):
Abies alba 5 5 5 5 5 V
Buxus sempervirens 3 3 3 4 3 V
Carex digitata 2 1 2 2 2 V
Pulmonaria affinis 1 1 1 + + V
Luzula nivea 1 . 1 + 2 IV
Lonicera xylosteum 1 . 1 + + IV
Pinus pyrenaica . 1 + 1 1 IV
Sorbus intermedia . 1 + + + IV
Lonicera nigra + 1 . . . II
Characteristic species (order and class):
Prenanthes purpurea 2 2 1 1 1 V
Corylus avellana + + 2 2 + V
Hepatica nobilis + 2 2 1 1 V
Viola reichenbachiana + 1 1 1 1 V
Sorbus aucuparia 2 2 + . . III
Oxalis acetosella 2 . . 1 1 III
Ilex aquifolium + . + + . III
Daphne laureola . 2 + . + III
Rubus hirtus 2 . 1 1 . III
Melica uniflora 1 + 1 . . III
Phyteuma pyrenaicum 1 2 . . . II
Companion species:
Hylocomium splendens 3 1 3 1 2 V
Vaccinium myrtillus 1 1 1 + 2 V
Dechampsia flexuosa 2 2 . . 1 III
Rhythidiadelphus triquetrus 1 . 2 . 2 III

Other species. Characteristic species: Polystichum aculeatum + in 1 and 5. Asperula odorata 1 in 2, + in 3. Lilium martagon 1 in 2 and 4. Hieracium murorum 1 in 2, + in 4. Betula pendula + in 2 and 5. Poa nemoralis 1 in 3 and 4. Fragaria vesca 1 in 3 and 5. Polystichum aculeatum + in 4 and 5. Rubus idaeus + in 4 and 5. Lathyrus niger +, Quercus petraea +, Veronica officinalis + in 1. Cicerbita muralis 1, Geranium sylvaticum 1, Populus tremula 1, Cardamine impatiens + in 2. Cephalanthera rubra +, Epipactis helleborine +, Moehringia trinervia + in 4. Lathyrus latifolius 1, Luzula sylvatica 1, Aquilegia vulgaris +, Polystichum aculeatum + in 5. Companion species: Calamagrostis arundinacea 1 in 2, + in 5. Adenostyles pyrenaica + in 2 and 5. Conopodium majus 1, Pyrola secunda +, Rosa pendulina +, Viburnum lantana + in 3. Dicranum scoparium 1 in 4. Athyrium filix-femina + in 5.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Benasque, L"Abetosa de Canal Seca. W, 30%, 500 m2. 2. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, at the bottom of Ball Cregüeña. 42º39'N-0º35'E. W, 20%, 500 m2. 3. Huesca: Benasque, Plan de Rosec. NW, 20%, 500 m2. 4. Huesca: Benasque, Plan de Senarta. W, 25%, 1000 m2. 5. Huesca: Benasque, Plan de Rosec. NW, 20%. 500 m2. 6. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa & P. Soriano]

Pulmonario longifoliae-Quercion roboris all. nova hoc loco (76.4)

[Fraxino-Carpinion sous-alliance à Hypericum androsaemum Vanden Berghen in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 102: 115. 1968 (art. 29), Polysticho-Corylenion (Vanden Berghen 1968) O. Bolòs in Pirineos 108: 65. 1973 (art. 29), Carpinion sensu auct. iber. non Issler 1931, Pulmonario-Carpinenion Oberdorfer, Süddeutsch. Pflanzenges.: 418. 1957 excl. holotypus: Stellario-Carpinetum Oberdorfer, Süddeutsch. Pflanzenges.: 418. 1957]
(Fagetalia sylvaticae, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus alliancia: Crataego laevigatae-Quercetum roboris Rivas-Martínez & Loidi in Lazaroa 10: 81. 1988

Characteristic and differential species against Carpinion betuli Issler 1931: Crataegus laevigata, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Hypericum androsaemum, Hypericum xinodorum, Pulmonaria longifolia, Saxifraga hirsuta.

Diagnosis: Cantabrian-Atlantic, Orocantabrian and Pyrenean spread in Castilian Cantabrian and Sorian Oroiberian thermo- to supratemperate humid to hyperhumid often submediterranean, deciduous mesic forests, dominated by Quercus robur (and hybrids with: Q. pubescens, Q. petraeae, Q. faginea, Q. pyrenaica), Fraxinus excelsior, Acer campestre, etc., growing on deep rich soils with gleyic properties.

Brachypodio sylvatici-Fraxinetum excelsioris Vigo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 7(2): 1176. 1968 (76.4.1)

Distribution: Pyrenean mostly south valleys, meso-supratemperate often submediterranean.

Crataego laevigatae-Quercetum roboris Rivas-Martínez & Loidi in Lazaroa 10: 81, tb. 1. 1988 (76.4.2)

Distribution: Cantabrian-Basque, mostly Navarran-Alavese submediterranean upper meso-lower supratemperate subhumid-humid.

Doronico pardalianchis-Fraxinetum excelsioris O. Bolòs, J.M. Montserrat & Romo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 22: 56, tb. 1. 1993 (76.4.3)

Distribution: Vallesan-Empordanese mesotemperate humid submediterranean.

Isopyro thalictroidis-Quercetum roboris Tüxen & Diemont 1936 (76.4.4)

Distribution: North Pyrenean and Gironese meso-lower supratemperate humid-hyperhumid.

Polysticho setiferi-Coryletum avellanae O. Bolòs in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 5(1): 244, tb. 30. 1956 (76.4.6)

Distribution: Montsignatic and Vallesan permanent and secondary microforest, where Quercus canariensis, Quercus pubescens and Acer campestre, show an structure closer to primary forest (tb. 30, rel. 3, 5 and 9).

Polysticho setiferi-Fraxinetum excelsioris (Tüxen & Oberdorfer 1958) Rivas-Martínez ex C. Navarro in Lazaroa 4: 121. 1983 (76.4.7)

[Corylo-Fraxinetum cantabricum Tüxen & Oberdorfer in Veröff. Ber. Geobot. Inst. E.T.H. Stiffung Rübel 32: 284, tb. 87. 1958 (art. 34)]

Distribution: Cantabrian-Basque and Ovetensean thermo-mesotemperate humid.

[Rivas-Martínez & Izco]