Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxon descriptions: Lavandulion lanatae - Luzulo henriquesii

Lavandulion lanatae (Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz 1984) all. nova hoc loco, stat. nov. (64.15)

[Lavandulenion lanatae Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz in Lazaroa 5: 124. 1984 (art. 27a, 46H)]
(Convolvuletalia boissieri, Rosmarinetea officinalis)

Typus alliancia: Centaureo bombycinae-Lavanduletum lanatae (Rivas Goday & Esteve 1972) Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz in Lazaroa 5: 126. 1984 (art. 34). [Nomencl. syn.: Convolvulo-Lavanduletum dolomiticola Rivas Goday & Esteve in Anales Real Acad. Farm. 38(3): 446. 1972 Typus ass. (lectotypus): Rivas Goday & Esteve, l.c. tb. 11, rel. 1].

Characteristic species: Anthyllis plumosa, Anthyllis polycephala, Anthyllis tejedensis, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. argyrophylla, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. arundana, Arenaria delaguardiae, Centaurea bombycina, Centaurea gadorensis, Centaurea granatensis, Fumana procumbens subsp. baetica, Helianthemum estevei, Helianthemum viscarioides, Helianthemum viscidulum, Lavandula lanata, Phlomis crinita subsp. composita, Rothmaleria granatensis, Sideritis occidentalis, Sideritis reverchonii, Thymelaea angustifolia.

Diagnosis: Dolomitic communities of South Betic distribution dominated by chamaephytes, thermo- to supramediterranean dry- subhumid bioclimatic belts.

Arenario delaguardiae-Centaureetum bombycinae Mota, F. Valle & Cabello in Vegetatio 109: 35, tb. 4. 1993 (64.15.1)

Distribution: Meso-supramediterranean subhumid Almijarensean in doloclasts.

Convolvulo lanuginosi-Lavanduletum lanatae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 25: 55, tb. 13. 1969 (64.15.2)

Distribution: Supramediterranean dry to subhumid Gadorensean in dolomitic limestone.

Galio baetici-Thymetum granatensis Mota & F. Valle in Act. Simp. Intern. Bot. P. Font Quer (Lleida, 1988) 2: 285, tb. 3. 1992 (64.15.3)

Distribution: Meso-supramediterranean subhumid Rondean in doloclasts.

Helianthemo visciduli-Anthyllidetum argyrophyllae Rivas Goday & Esteve in Anales Real Acad. Farm. 38(3): 453, tb. 12. 1972 (64.15.4)

[Centaureo bombycinae-Lavanduletum lanatae (Rivas Goday & Esteve 1972) Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Alcaraz in Lazaroa 5: 126. 1984 (art. 34)]

Distribution: Thermo-mesomediterranean dry to subhumid Almijaensean in doloclasts.

Thymo gracilis-Lavanduletum lanatae Pérez-Raya & Molero in Mem. Soc. Brot. 28: 147, tb. 4. 1988 (64.15.6)

Distribution: Thermo-mesomediterranean dry Alpujarrean and Granatensean in dolostone.

Ulici baetici-Lavanduletum lanatae Martínez-Parras, Peinado & Cruz in Studia Bot. 6: 43, tb. 2. 1987 (64.15.7)

Distribution: Meso-supramediterranean subhumid-humid Rondean in dolomitic limestone.

Cisto clusii-Ulicetum rivasgodayani Nieto & Cabezudo in Nieto, Cabezudo & Trigo in Acta Bot. Malacitana Bot. Malacitana 14: 163, tb. 1. 1989 (64.15.8 = 64.2.3)

Distribution: Thermomediterranean dry Almijarensean in doloclasts.

[Rivas-Martínez, Molero & Pérez-Raya]

Lavandulo stoechadis-Cistetum monspeliensis (Lapraz 1974) ass. nova hoc loco, stat. nov. (62.1.6)

[Cistetum catalaunicum cistetosum monspeliensis Lapraz in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 9: 90, tb. 1974 (basion.) (art. 27d, 46H), Sarothamnetum cistetosum monspeliensis (Lapraz 1974) Franquesa 1995 (art. 5, 18), Lupino angustifolii-Lavanduletum stoechadis Franquesa 1995 (art. 37)]
(Cistion ladaniferi, Lavanduletalia stoechadis, Cisto-Lavanduletea)

Typus associatio: G. Lapraz in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 9: 90, tb., rel. 78. 1974 (lectotypus hoc loco). Barcelona: Mont Negre, entre Vilardel y Gualba de Baix, Serrat Aulet, granit, 160 m, S, 25 %, 80 m2. Characteristic species: 5 Cistus monspeliensis, 1 Lavandula stoechas, + Calluna vulgaris f. mediterranea, + Cistus salviifolius, + Cytinus hypocistis. Companion species: 2 Pinus pinea, 1 Ulex parviflorus, + Arbutus unedo, + Dorycnium suffruticosum, + Quercus ilex, + Thapsia villosa.

Characteristic species (territorials): Calicotome spinosa, Centaurea pectinata, Cistus monspeliensis, Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas, Ulex parviflorus.

Diagnosis: Mesomediterranean dry Vallesan-Empordanese secondary open scrub silicicolous community growing on poor sandy soils.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Lavaterion maritimae all. nova hoc loco (28.5)

(Parietarietalia, Parietarietea)

Typus alliancia: Erodietum gausseniani Rivas-Martínez & Cantó ass. nova hoc loco.

Characteristic species: Erodium gaussenianum, Lavatera maritima, Piptatherum coerulescens.

Diagnosis: Rupestrian ornithocoprophilous thermophilous and edaphic indifferent communities, as well littoral as inland, where the short shrub and pulvini chamaephytes are frequent. Well characterized by Lavatera maritima and Piptatherum coerulescens, as well as a great number of local endemics such as: Antirrhinum charidemi, Erodium crispum, Erodium gaussenianum, Rosmarinus tomentosus, etc. They colonize steps, shelfs, rocks and crevices visited by birds and rich in other organic debris, in the West Mediterranean basin with thermomediterranean or lower mesomediterranean dry and semiarid bioclimatic belts. All these communities have a strong influence of Pegano-Salsoletea species.

Antirrhinetum charidemi F. Casas in Trab. Dep. Bot. Univ. Granada 1: 36, tb. 12. 1972 (28.5.1)

Distribution: Thermomediterranean arid Charideman Almeriensian in volcanic rocks.

Balloto hirsutae-Lavateretum maritimae Cantó, Laorga & Belmonte in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 3: 51, tb. 23. 1986 (28.5.2)

Distribution: Thermomediterranean semiarid and dry Murcian-Almeriensian and Balearic-Catalan-Provençal in calcareous rocks.

Erodietum gausseniani ass. nova hoc loco (28.5.3)

Typus associatio: Table 58, rel. 1. [Huesca: Riglos, Mallo del Cuchillo, Cueva del Palomar. 750 m, SE, 30 m2].

Characteristic species: Erodium gaussenianum.

Diagnosis: Association only known from cliffs, crevices, shelfs and the base of the outcrops of the conglomerate massifs from the Mallos de Riglos and Agüero. It is well characterized by the Somontane Aragonese Sector endemic Erodium gaussenianum accompanied by Lavatera maritima. The nitrophilous character of the community is conditioned not only by the birds but also by goats in the more accessible zones and by the quick decomposition of organic materials.

Table 58

28.5.3 Erodietum gausseniani
(Lavaterion maritimae, Parietarietalia, Parietarietea)

Altitude (1=10m) 75 71 73 76 74
Number of species 6 6 8 8 7
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5
Characteristic species:
Erodium gaussenianum 2 2 2 1 4
Lavatera maritima 1 + + 2 4
Asplenium ceterach 1 + + + 4
Companion species:
Piptatherum miliaceum 1 1 + 1 4
Sedum dasyphyllum + 1 1 . 3
Rhamnus alaternus + . . 1 2
Silene mellifera . 1 + . 2
Euphorbia characias . . + + 2
Ballota hirsuta . . + + 2
Rhamnus lycioides . . . + 1

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Riglos, Mallo del Cuchillo, Cueva del Palomar. SE, 30 m2. 2. Huesca: Riglos, Mallo Pisón, bottom of via Murciana. S, 20 m2. 3. Huesca: Riglos, Macizo del Pisón, bottom of Chimenea de los Cachorros. SE, 30 m2. 4. Huesca: Riglos, Mallo Melchor Frechín, bottom of La Visera. S, 20 m2. 5. Synthesized table.

Lavatero maritimae-Erodietum crispi Franquesa ass. nova hoc loco (28.5.4)

[Com. Lavatera maritima-Erodium petraeum subsp. crispum Franquesa in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 109: 134, tb. 36. 1995, sub "prox. Diantho-Lavateretum maritimae (Maeier & Br.-Bl. 1934) Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre, Group. Vég. France Médit.: 25. 1952"]

Typus associatio: In Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 109: 134, tb. 36, rel. 4. 1995. Holotypus ass. hoc loco. [Girona: Cap Norfeu, replà culminal del primer barranc, sustrato calcáreo, 120 m, N, 10 m2]. Characteristic species: 1 Erodium crispum, + Brassica robertiana, + Lavatera maritima, + Parietaria judaica. Companion species: + Asperula cynanchica, + Brachypodium retusum, + Dactylis hispanica, + Festuca gr. ovina (cf. Festuca ruscinonensis), + Galium lucidum, + Ononis minutissima, + Sedum sediforme, + Teucrium polium, + Thymus vulgaris, + Valantia muralis.

Characteristic species (territorials): Erodium crispum, Lavatera maritima, Piptatherum coerulescens.

Diagnosis: Rupestrian basophilous association well characterized by the endemic from the Ruscinic district (Vallesan-Empordanese Sector) Erodium crispum (Erodium foetidum subsp. crispum) and by the rupestrian ornithocoprophilous west mediterranean thermophilous element Lavatera maritima. It develops on cliffs and limestone rocks visited by birds and salt spray in the coasts from Empordá to Rosselló.

Rosmarinetum tomentosi F. Casas & M. López in F. Casas in Trab. Dep. Bot. Univ. Granada 1: 1972 (28.5.5)

Distribution: Thermomediterranean semiarid Alpujarrean and Almeriensian dolomiticolous community, related with Lavandulion lanatae (64.15).

[Rivas-Martínez & Cantó]

Lilio pyrenaici-Molopospermetum peloponesiaci ass. nova hoc loco (42.3.2)

(Calamagrostion arundinaceae, Calamagrostietalia villosae, Mulgedio-Aconitetea)

Typus associatio: Table 59, rel. 3 [Huesca: Benasque, Tuca del Ésera, Cueva de la Llastra. 42º 40'N-0º 36'E. 1750 m, NW, 30%, 20 m2].

Characteristic species: Lilium pyrenaicum, Molopospermum peloponesiacum.

Diagnosis: Orotemperate humid and hyperhumid silicicolous sunny exposed megaforbic community, characterized by the Alpine-Pyrenean tall umbelliferous Molopospermum peloponesiacum and the Pyrenean wide endemic Lilium pyrenaicum.

Table 59

42.3.2 Lilio pyrenaici-Molopospermetum peloponesiaci
(Calamagrostion arundinaceae, Calamagrostietalia villosae, Mulgedio-Aconitetea)

Altitude (1=10 m) 185 175 175 173 165 175
Number of species 14 14 17 19 20 17
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4 5 6
Characteristic species:
Molopospermum peloponesiacum 5 4 3 3 4 V
Calamagrostis arundinacea 2 . 1 2 2 IV
Gentiana lutea 1 2 . . + III
Lilium pyrenaicum + . 1 . 1 III
Cicerbita plumieri . 1 . 3 1 III
Companion species:
Rosa pendulina 1 1 1 1 2 V
Dryopteris filix-mas 1 1 1 1 . IV
Dryopteris oreades + 1 3 . . III
Solidago virgaurea 2 2 . 1 . III
Vaccinium myrtillus 2 2 . . + III
Prenanthes purpurea 2 . . 2 2 III
Rubus idaeus 2 . 2 3 . III

Other species. Characteristic species: Aconitum vulgare 2, Veratrum album 1 in 2. Aconitum anthora +, Aconitum lamarckii + in 3. Valeriana montana 2 in 4. Angelica razulii 2, Geranium sylvaticum 2 in 5. Companion species: Vincetoxicum intermedium + in 2, 2 in 3. Knautia arvensis + in 2, 1 in 5. Euphorbia hyberna 1 in 3, 2 in 5. Gentiana burseri 1 in 3, + in 5. Rhododendron ferrugineum 2, Laserpitium latifolium +, Senecio pyrenaicus + in 1. Lilium martagon 1, Trifolium medium 1 in 2. Rumex scutatus 2, Galeopsis angustifolia 1, Asplenium trichomanes +, Rhamnus alpina +, Sambucus racemosa + in 3. Angelica sylvestris 2, Deschampsia flexuosa 2, Arrhenatherum elatius 1, Dactylis glomerata 1, Hypericum tetrapterum 1, Phleum alpinum 1, Phyteuma pyrenaicum 1, Silene nutans 1, Silene vulgaris 1, Trifolium pratense 1 in 4. Stachys alopecuros 1, Campanula precatoria +, Crepis lampsanoides +, Hieracium prenanthoides +, Laserpitium latifolium +, Ranunculus aconitifolius +, Silene vulgaris + in 5.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Cerler, Pico de Cerler. N, 20%, 20m2. 2. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Mulleres. NW, 20%, 40 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, Tuca del Ésera, Cueva de la Llastra. 42º 40'N-0º 36'E. NO, 30%, 20 m2. 4. Huesca: Benasque, Ball de Cregüeña. SW, 20%, 20 m2. 5. Huesca: Benasque, La Abetosa above Paso Nuevo dam. W, 20%, 20m2. (reg. 1996: 38). 6. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa & P. Soriano]

Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenion laevis all. nova hoc loco (20.5)

(Glauco-Puccinellietalia, Juncetea maritimi)

Typus alliancia: Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenietum laevis Herrera in Guineana 1: 231, tb. 41. 1995.

Characteristic species: Limonium ovalifolium, Frankenia laevis.

Diagnosis: Halophilous Cantabrian-Atlantic communities, with preponderant rosulate and prostrate chamaephytes, that colonize the upper tideland sandy marshes reached by the sea water only during the highest tides.

Crithmo maritimi-Frankenietum laevis ass. nova hoc loco (20.5.2)

Typus associatio: Table 60, rel. 5 [Asturias: Llanes, Cabo S. Antonio. 30TUP4414. 50 m, 2 m²].

Characteristic species (territorials): Frankenia laevis, Limonium binervosum, Inula crithmoides, Crithmum maritimum.

Diagnosis: Rich in aerohaline chamaephytes community that colonizes sandy deposits of the karstic littoral platform humidified by sea water coming from the swell. They are present in the central area of the Cantabrian Asturian coast (Ovetense District), mainly around the typical "bufones" (snorty holes) of these areas. It can be differentiated from other associations of the same alliance, besides the biotopes occupied, by the abundance of Frankenia laevis, Crithmum maritimum and Inula crithmoides. It often contacts with other aerohaline associations such as: Leucanthemo crassifolii-Festucetum pruinosae and Plantagini maritimae-Schoenetum nigricantis, as well as the halochasmophytic communities of the Crithmo maritimi-Limonietum binervosi.

Table 60

20.5.2 Crithmo maritimi-Frankenietum laevis
(Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenion laevis, Glauco-Puccinellietalia, Juncetea maritimi)

Altitude (1=10 m) 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 4
Number of species 5 5 5 4 6 7 12 5 6 4 5 5 8 6 7 7 4 5 5 6
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Characteristic species:
Frankenia laevis 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 2 1 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 2 4 3 V
Armeria depilata + 2 1 + 1 1 1 2 3 . + + + 1 3 1 1 + 1 V
Limonium binervosum + 2 1 . 1 + 1 3 2 2 1 + 1 2 1 2 . + 2 V
Inula crithmoides + 3 4 2 1 2 1 1 3 + 2 3 3 + + 3 . . . V
Crithmum maritimum + . . 1 + . 2 1 1 + + + + 1 2 . 1 3 1 V
Festuca pruinosa . 1 1 . + + + . . . . . 2 . 1 + 2 . . III
Plantago maritima . . . . . . . . . . . . + + 1 . . + + II
Silene uniflora . . . . . + 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . I

Other species. Companion species: Plantago coronopus + in 6 and 9. Lithodora diffusa 1, Allium sp. +, Beta maritima +, Euphorbia portlandica +, Sonchus oleraceus + in 7. Agrostis stolonifera + in 13. Atriplex prostrata +, Cynodon dactylon + in 16.

Localities: 1. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 6 m². 2. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 30 m². 3. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 8 m². 4. Asturias: Llanes, Cabo S. Antonio. 30TUP4414. 2 m². 5. Holotypus ass. Asturias: Llanes, Cabo S. Antonio. 30TUP4414. 2 m². 6. Asturias: Llanes, Cabo S. Antonio. 30TUP4414. 2 m². 7. Asturias: Gozón, San Juan de Nieva. 30TTP3162. 10 m². 8. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 5 m². 9. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 5 m². 10. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 3 m². 11. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 10 m². 12. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 4 m². 13. Asturias: Llanes, Garaña. 30TUP4014. 8 m². 14. Asturias: Llanes, Cabo S. Antonio. 30TUP4414. 10 m². 15. Asturias: Llanes, Cabo S. Antonio. 30TUP4414. 10 m². 16. Asturias: Ribadesella, Cuerres. 30TUP3913. 50 m². 17. Asturias: Llanes, Cabo S. Antonio. 30TUP4414. 1 m². 18. Asturias: Ribadesella, Cuerres. 30TUP3913. 6 m². 19. Asturias: Ribadesella, Cuerres. 30TUP3913. 40 m². 20. Synthesized table.

Limonio binervosi-Armerietum depilatae T.E. Díaz & F. Prieto ass. nova hoc loco (20.5.5) (*)

(Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenion laevis, Glauco-Puccinellietalia, Juncetea maritimi)

Typus associatio: Table 61, rel. 1 [Asturias: Ría de Villaviciosa. 30TUP0721. 5 m2].

Characteristic species: Limonium binervosum, Armeria depilata

Diagnosis: This association includes small hemicryptophyte communities developed on supratidal areas growing on well-drained sandy soils and distributed throughout the Cantabrian-Basque territories reaching the central ans eastern areas of the Galician-Asturian Sector. These fragile communities could be affected by the sea water influence only during the high tide time, usually at the ecotonic sites placed between the salt-marsh and dune or beach areas.

Table 61

20.5.5 Limonio binervosi-Armerietum depilatae
(Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenion laevis, Glauco-Puccinellietalia, Juncetea maritimi)

Altitude (1=10m) 0-1 1 1 0.5 1 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.6
Number of species 10 7 9 12 12 7 10 11 12
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Characteristic species:
Limonium binervosum 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 2 V
Frankenia laevis 3 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 V
Armeria depilata 3 1 2 + 1 2 + 2 V
Plantago maritima 1 1 2 2 2 + 2 + V
Puccinellia maritima 1 + 1 . + 1 . . IV
Halimione portulacoides 1 + . 1 1 + . . IV
Festuca rubra s.l. 1 . + 2 1 . 1 2 IV
Sarcocornia perennis + . . + 1 + . . III
Spergularia media . . + + + . . . II
Juncus maritimus . . . . . . + + II
Triglochin maritima . . . + + . . . II
Suaeda vera . . + + . . . . II
Inula crithmoides . . . + . . + . II
Glaux maritima . . . . . . . + I
Companion species:
Elymus pycnanthus 1 1 + + 1 . 1 2 V
Parapholis strigosa + . . . + . + . II
Stenotaphrum secundatum . . . . . . 1 + II
Silene uniflora . . . . . . . + I
Agrostis pseudopungens . . . . . . . + I
Paspalum vaginatum . . . . . . . + I

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Asturias: Ría de Villaviciosa. 30TUP0721, 5 m2. 2. Asturias: Ría de Villaviciosa. 30TUP0721, 10 m2. 3. Asturias: Ría de Villaviciosa. 30TUP0621, 10 m2. 4. Asturias: Ría de Villaviciosa. 30TUP0621, 5 m2. 5. Asturias: Ría de Villaviciosa. 30TUP0621, 10 m2. 6. Asturias: Ría de Villaviciosa. 30TUP0721, 5 m2. 7. Asturias: Barayo beach (Navia-Valdés). 29TPJ9225, 2 m2. 8. Asturias: Barayo beach (Navia-Valdés). 29TPJ9225, 2 m2. 9. Synthesized table.

[T.E. Díaz & F. Prieto] (*)

Limonio dodartii-Frankenietum laevis Izco & J.M. Sánchez 1997 corr. T.E. Díaz, Nava & A.R. García hoc loco (20.5.3)

[Limonio binervosi-Frankenietum laevis Izco & J.M. Sánchez in Thalassas 12: 70. 1997 (art. 43), Armerio depilatae-Frankenietum laevis Bueno & F. Prieto in Bueno, Fl. Veg. Estuarios Asturianos: 187, tb. 5. 1997 (syntax. syn.)]

Distribution: Galician marshes reached by see water during the highest tides.

Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenietum laevis Herrera in Guineana 1: 231, tb. 41. 1995 (20.5.4)

Distribution: Cantabrian-Basque uncommon community growing on littoral sandy upper marshes biotopes.

[Arbesú, Bueno & F. Prieto]

Limonio ruizii-Sarcocornietum alpini ass. nova hoc loco (23.3.1)

(Suaedion braun-blanquetii, Sarcocornietalia fruticosae, Sarcocornietea fruticosae)

Typus associatio: Zaragoza: Tauste, Barranco de Valdespartera. 30TXM502483. 320 m, 20 m2. Characteristic species: 4 Sarcocornia alpini, 1 Limonium ruizii.

Characteristic species (territorials): Limonium ruizii, Sarcocornia alpini.

Diagnosis: Temporarily flooded halo-gypsicolous communities where the decumbent pachycaulous chamaephyte with adventicious roots Sarcocornia alpini is dominant, and often accompanied by the local endemic Limonium ruizii, as well as other thick-leaved or stemmed chamaephytes: Suaeda braun-blanquetii and Arthocnemum macrostachyum. Its known distribution is restricted to the Districts of Cinco Villas and Belchite from Bardenan-Monegrensean Sector, where these halophilous communities of Sarcocornia and Arthrocnemum are threatened of extinction by the works for irrigation systems in these semiarid territories.

[Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Sánchez-Mata]

Linario filicaulis-Ranunculetum cabrerensis ass. nova hoc loco (33.4.4)

(Linarion filicaulis, Thlaspietalia rotundifolii, Thlaspietea rotundifolii)

Typus associatio: Table 62, rel. 3 [León: Boca de Huérgano, Llánaves de la Reina, Tres Provincias Peak. 30TUN5765. 2350 m, S, 30%, 20 m2].

Characteristic species: Linaria filicaulis (terr.), Ranunculus cabrerensis.

Diagnosis: Chionophilous community of scarce coverage characterized by the endemic Ranunculus parnassifolius subsp. cabrerensis, peculiar to the siliceous screes with medium-sized stones (generally of slate), living in the oro-cryorotemperate hyperhumid bioclimatic belt of the Altocarrionese Subsector (Orocantabric Subprovince). It belongs to the siliceous oro-cryorotemperate Altocarrionese cliffs microgeosigmetum where it is in contact with the associations Murbeckiello boryi-Saxifragetum willkommianae and Linario filicaulis-Sperguletum viscosae that occupy the more wind exposed areas with less snow cover. In the screes of big-sized stones and exposed to prolonged snow cover it can be near the Cryptogrammo crispae-Dryopteridetum oreadis and at lower altitude it can also be in contact with the Triseto hispidi-Rumicetum suffruticosi and therefore with the psicroxerophilous pastures of Teesdaliopsio confertae-Festucetum eskiae. In the cryorotemperate areas it can be in contact with the Junco trifidi-Oreochloetum blankae. It differs from the oromediterranean Orensan-Sanabriensean and orotemperate Lacian-Ancarensean vicarious association Cryptogrammo crispae-Ranunculetum cabrerensis, by the existence of Linaria filicaulis and Poa cenisia, and also by the absence of Linaria alpina and Silene foetida subsp. gayana.

Table 62

33.4.4 Linario filicaulis-Ranunculetum cabrerensis
(Linarion filicaulis, Thlaspietalia rotundifolii, Thlaspietea rotundifolii)

Altitude (1=10m) 193 191 235 238 215 240 194 223 207 215
Number of species 4 5 6 6 6 8 9 9 12 7
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Characteristic species:
Ranunculus cabrerensis 2 1 2 3 2 + + 2 1 V
Linaria filicaulis 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 + 2 V
Senecio pyrenaicus . . . + + . 1 + + III
Rumex suffruticosus 3 2 . . + . 1 . . III
Cryptogramma crispa . . 1 . 3 . . 2 + III
Poa cenisia . . . . . 2 . 1 + II
Galeopsis ladanum . . . . . . + . . I
Rumex scutatus . . . . . . . . 2 I
Companion species:
Avenella iberica + 1 1 + . . 1 . + IV
Festuca eskia . . + + + . 1 1 1 IV

Other species. Companion species: Armeria cantabrica + in 6, 1 in 9. Heracleum pyrenaicum 1 in 7, 3 in 9. Carex asturica + in 2. Juncus trifidus + in 3. Teesdaliopsis conferta + in 4. Jasione brevisepala +, Linaria saxatilis +, Minuartia recurva +, Sedum candollei + in 6. Sedum brevifolium + in 7. Alchemilla saxatilis +, Campanula hispanica +, Omalotheca supina + in 8. Hypericum burseri 1, Meum athamanticum + in 9.

Localities: 1. León: Boca de Huérgano, Barniedo de La Reina, bottom of Pico Murcia. 30TUN5361. N, 50%, 40 m2. 2. León: Boca de Huérgano, Barniedo de La Reina, bottom of Pico Murcia. 30TUN5361. NW, 10%, 15 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. León: Boca de Huérgano, Llánaves de la Reina, Tres Provincias Peak. 30TUN5765. S, 30%, 20 m2. 4. León: Boca de Huérgano, Llánaves de la Reina, near Pico Tres Provincias. 30TUN5865. SW, 25%, 100 m2. 5. León: Boca de Huérgano, Barniedo de La Reina, between Pico Murcia and Peñas Matas. 30TUN5361. NW, 50%, 10 m2. 6. León: Boca de Huérgano, Portilla de la Reina, proximidades de Las Lomas. 30TUN5764. N, 50%, 20 m2. 7. León: Boca de Huérgano, Barniedo de La Reina, Peñas Zahurdias. 30TUN5361. NW, 30%, 25 m2. 8. León: Boca de Huérgano, Portilla de La Reina, near Las Lomas. 30TTUN5664. N, 50%, 100 m2. 9. León: Boca de Huérgano, Barniedo de La Reina, Peñas Zahurdias. 30TUN5361. NW, 50%, 100 m2. 10. Synthesized table.

[R. Alonso, Puente, Penas & F. Salegui]

Linario polygalifoliae-Vulpion alopecuroris Br.-Bl., Rozeira & P. Silva in Br.-Bl., G. Braun-Blanquet, Rozeira & P. Silva in Agron. Lusit. 33(1-4): 218. 1972 (39.11)

[Vulpion alopecuroris Rivas-Martínez & Izco in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 34(1): 375. 1977 (art. 8), Linario viscosae-Vulpion alopecuroris Rivas-Martínez & Izco ex Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés in Lazaroa 2: 78. 1980 (syntax. syn.)]
(Thero-Brometalia, Stellarietea mediae)

Lectotypus hoc loco: Scrophulario frutescentis-Vulpietum alopecuroris Br.-Bl., J. & G., Rozeira & P. Silva in Agron. Lusit. 33: 228, tb. 5, rel. 6. 1972 (art. 20).

Characteristic species: Linaria incarnata, Linaria polygalifolia, Linaria viscosa, Vulpia alopecuros.

Diagnosis: Thermomediterranean and thermotemperate submediterranean semiarid to subhumid ephemeral spring blooming subnitrophilous communities, growing on coastal dunes and paleodunes with high anthropogenic influence in Galician-Asturian and West Mediterranean sandy coasts.

Chamaemelo mixti-Vulpietum alopecuroris Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés ex J.C. Costa, Lousã, Capelo, Espírito-Santo, Izco & Arsenio in Finisterra 35: 69. 2000 (39.11.1)

[Chamaemelo mixti-Vulpietum alopecuroris Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés in Lazaroa 2: 80, tb. 42. 1980 (art. 3b)]

Distribution: Thermomediterranean dry and subhumid ephemeral grassland-like community of Coastal Lusitan-Andalusian dunes and paleodunes.

Linario viscosae-Carduetum meonanthi Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés in Lazaroa 2: 78, tb. 41. 1980 (39.11.2)

Distribution: Gaditan-Coastal Onubensean turned over littoral dunes and paleodunes.

Malcolmio littoreae-Vulpietum alopecuroris Díez Garretas, Hernández & Asensi in Acta Bot. Malacitana 1: 73, tb. 4. 1975 (39.11.3)

Distribution: Thermomediterranean dry and semiarid Gaditan and Malacitan littoral dunes, close and geovicariant of Chamaemelo-Vulpietum alopecuroris.

Scrophulario frutescentis-Vulpietum alopecuroris Br.-Bl., Rozeira & P. Silva in Br.-Bl., G. Braun-Blanquet, Rozeira & P. Silva in Agron. Lusit. 33(1-4): 228, tb. 5. 1972 (39.11.4)

Distribution: Thermotemperate submediterranean and thermomediterranean subhumid Galician-Portuguese and Dividing Portuguese coastal dunes and paleodunes.

Triplachno nitentis-Vulpietum alopecuroris Peinado, Alcaraz & Martínez-Parras in Flora et Vegetatio Mundi 10: 315. 1992 (39.11.5)

Distribution: Thermomediterranean arid and semiarid Almeriensian.

[Rivas-Martínez & Izco]

Lonicero periclymeni-Quercetum pyrenaicae ass. nova hoc loco (76.7.15)

(Quercenion robori-pyrenaicae, Quercion pyrenaicae, Quercetalia roboris, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus associatio: Asturias: From San Antolín de Ibias to Sena, near Castaosa. 43º02'N-6º53'W. 570 m, E, 30%, 90 cm, 1000 m2. Dystric cambisol on gneissic bed rock. Characteristic species: 3 Quercus pyrenaica, 2 Quercus robur subsp. robur, 2 Avenella flexuosa subsp. flexuosa, 2 Hedera hibernica, 2 Lonicera periclymenum, 1 Holcus mollis, 1 Saxifraga spathularis, + Lathyrus linifolius, + Melampyrum pratense, + Physospermum aquilegifolium, + Teucrium scrodonia, + Stellaria holostea, + Viola riviniana. Companion species: 3 Erica arborea, 2 Arbutus unedo, 2 Arenaria montana, 2 Hylocomium splendens, 2 Pleurozium schreberi, 2 Polypodium vulgare, 2 Pteridium aquilinum, 2 Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, 2 Vaccinium myrtillus, 1 Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, 1 Daboecia cantabrica, 1 Polypodium xmantoniae, 1 Ruscus aculeatus, + Lithodora prostrata, + Ulex gallii subsp. breoganii.

Characteristic species (territorials): Arenaria montana, Avenella flexuosa, Cytisus striatus, Daboecia cantabrica, Lonicera periclymenum, Luzula lactea, Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus robur, Saxifraga spathularis, Ulex gallii subsp. breoganii, Vaccinium myrtillus.

Diagnosis: Meso-lower supratemperate upper subumid-humid submediterranean, euoceanic Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica climactical mesoforests community, spread and characteristic of all Suarna and Ibias dry but foggy inner valleys, that represent a more continental transitional zone between Orocantabric, Lacian-Ancarensean and Galician-Asturian biogeographic sectors. They grow on dystric and humic cambisols and in warmer and south expositions have Artutus unedo and Erica arborea in the mantle, as well as a broom mantle of Ulici-Cytision striati; it could be differentiated from the Galician Rusco-Quercetum roboris by: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Avenella flexuosa subsp. flexuosa, Melampyrum pratense, Saxifraga spathularis and Vaccinium myrtillus; from the Orocantabric Linario-Quercetum pyrenaicae by: Arbutus unedo, Cytisus striatus, Galium scabrum, Lithodora prostrata, Quercus robur, Ulex gallii subsp. breoganii, Ulex europaeus, etc., and from the closest Asturian-Galician pedunculate oak association Blechno-Quercetum roboris by: Arbutus unedo, Galium scabrum, Luzula lactea and Quercus pyrenaica particularly on close forests.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Luzulo baeticae-Quercetum pyrenaicae ass. nova hoc loco (76.7.9)

[Cytiso triflori-Quercetum pyrenaicae sensu A.V. Pérez, Galán, Deil & Cabezudo in Acta Bot. Malacitana 21: 252, tb. 3. 1996 non Barbéro, Quézel & Rivas-Martínez in Phytocoenologia 9(3): 391, tb. 31. 1981]
(Quercenion pyrenaicae, Quercion pyrenaicae, Quercetalia roboris, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus associatio: Cytiso triflori-Quercetum pyrenaicae sensu A.V. Pérez, Galán, Deil & Cabezudo in Acta Bot. Malacitana 21: 252, tb. 3, rel. 3. 1996.

Characteristic species: Differential species as opposed to the rest of Iberian associations of Quercion pyrenaicae: Avenula sulcata subsp. albinervis, Cistus populifolius subsp. major, Luzula forsteri subsp. baetica, Quercus canariensis, Quercus fruticosa, Senecio lopezii, Teucrium scorodonia subsp. baeticum, Ulex borgiae.

Diagnosis: Silicicolous meso and microwoodlands, sometimes infiltrated by Quercus canariensis or Quercus suber, growing in mesomediterranean humid and hyperhumid summit areas of the high mountains of Málaga and Cádiz, particularly in Sierra del Aljibe (Aljibic Sector). The difference with the vicarious association of the Rif Mountains (Rifean Sector) is shown by the absence of the characteristic species of Querco-Cedretalia and Balanseo-Quercion rotundifoliae, which do not exist in the Iberian Peninsula: Balansea glaberrima, Geranium malviflorum, Origanum elongatum, Vicia cedretorum, Viola munbyana, etc.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Luzulo henriquesii-Quercenion petraeae suball. nova hoc loco (76.8b)

(Ilici-Fagion, Quercetalia roboris, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus suballiance: Luzulo henriquesii-Quercetum petraeae (F. Prieto & Vázquez 1987) T.E. Díaz & F. Prieto in Itinera Geobot. 8: 293. 1994 (syn. Linario triornithophorae-Quercetum petraeae luzuletosum henriquesii F. Prieto & Vázquez in Lazaroa 7: 367, tb. 1. 1987 (holotypus rel. 10).

Characteristic species: Quercus petraea, Quercus orocantabrica, Quercus petraea x Quercus pyrenaica (=Quercus xtrabutii), Quercus orocantabrica x Quercus petraea (=Quercus xpuentei), Quercus pyrenaica x Quercus orocantabrica (=Quercus xpenasii).

Diagnosis: White oak forests (Quercus petraea) sometimes mixed with other climatophilous broadleaved trees or their hybrids (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus orocantabrica, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea x Quercus pyrenaica=Quercus xtrabutii, Quercus petraea x Quercus orocantabrica, Quercus petraea x Quercus robur=Quercus xrosacea) developed on siliceous soils of the humid and hyperhumid euoceanic upper supratemperate belt of the Cantabrian Range, León Mountains, Iberian Range, Universals Mountains (Sierra Valdemeca) and middle-east Central Range, where they represent the potential vegetation. In the deeper soils and shadier or less xerophilous stations they are usually substituted by the beech forests of the Ilici-Fagenion in those territories where Fagus sylvatica is present. In the lower orotemperate belt of the siliceous Cantabrian Range (Orocantabric Subprovince) these mesoforests of white oak are substituted by the microforests of Quercus orocantabrica. By fire and anthropozoic action they are substituted by secondary forests of birch and trembling aspens (Betulion fontqueri-celtibericae, Betulo-Populetalia tremulae).

Asperulo odoratae-Quercetum petraeae (Rivas-Martínez & G. Navarro in G. Navarro 1989) ass. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (76.8.5) (*)

[Linario triornithophorae-Quercetum petraeae asperuletosum odoratae Rivas-Martínez & G. Navarro in G. Navarro in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 5: 22, tb. 8. 1989 (basion.) (art. 27d, 46H)]

Typus associatio: Linario triornithophorae-Quercetum petraeae asperuletosum odoratae Rivas-Martínez & G. Navarro in G. Navarro in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 5: 22, tb. 8, rel. 4. 1989. Holotypus. [Zaragoza: macizo del Moncayo, monte de La Mata, alt:. 1010 m, NE, 200 m2]. Characteristic species: 4 Quercus petraea, 2 Hepatica nobilis, 2 Lonicera periclymenum, 2 Melica uniflora, 2 Poa nemoralis, 2 Stellaria holostea, 2 Teucrium scorodonia, 1 Asperula odorata, 9 Hedera helix, 1 Hieracium murorum, 1 Lathyrus montanus, 1 Luzula forsteri, 1 Melampyrum pratense, 1 Primula canescens, 1 Quercus xtrabutii, 1 Viola reichenbachiana, + Cephalanthera rubra, + Epipactis helleborine, + Monotropa hypopitys, + Sorbus torminalis, + Veronica officinalis. Companion species: 1 Arenaria montana, 1 Fragaria vesca, 1 Polypodium vulgare, 1 Rubia peregrina, 1 Veronica chamaedrys, 1 Viola hirta, + Anthoxanthum odoratum, + Arctostaphylos crassifolia, + Erica arborea, + Galium rivulare, + Lathyrus niger, + Ribes alpinum, + Ruscus aculeatus, + Sedum forsteranum, + Vicia sepium.

Characteristic species (territorials): Arenaria montana, Asperula odorata, Erica vagans, Genista florida subsp. polygaliphylla, Lathyrus linifolius, Melampyrum pratense, Quercus petraea, Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus xtrabutii, Viola reichenbachiana.

Diagnosis: Silicicolous supratemperate submediterranean humid-hyperhumid mesoforests, with oroiberian at least Moncayensean, distribution, where Quercus petraea is preponderant and the hybrids with Quercus pyrenaica (Quercus xtrabutii) relatively common. They have as border the broom formations of the Genistion polygaliphyllae and as substitution heaths on the distric cambisols or ferric podsols the Calluno-Genistetum occidentalis ericetosum aragonensis Rivas-Martínez & G. Navarro in G. Navarro in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 5: 32, tb. 14. 1987. These climatophilous oak forests are replaced in the deeper soils from the shady slopes by the beech forests (Galio rotundifolii-Fagetum), and in the most xerophilous or sunny environments by the oak formations with Quercus pyrenaica (Festuco braun-blanquetii-Quercetum pyrenaicae).

[Rivas-Martínez & Cantó] (*)

Avenello ibericae-Quercetum orocantabricae Rivas-Martínez, Amigo, Bueno, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Izco, Penas & Puente ass. nova hoc loco (76.8.9) (*)

Typus associatio: Table 63, rel. 10 [Asturias: Ibias, Monte Valdebois. 29TPH86. 1260 m, SE, 200 m2].

Characteristic species: Quercus orocantabrica.

Diagnosis: Upper supra- to lower orotemperate hyperhumid and seldom ultrahyperhumid, euoceanic orocantabric oak (Quercus orocantabrica) climactical micro-mesoforest, growing on very acid dystric cambisols or cambic podzols originated from siliceous bed-rock, spread in all Orocantabric and seldom in Orensan-Sanabriensean, as one of the forest community that represents the timber-line in high Cantabrian Mountains. Well characterized by the endemic oak Quercus orocantabrica and by the hybrids with Quercus petraea and Quercus pyrenaica, as well as by other acidophilic species like: Vaccinium myrtillus, Avenella iberica, Melampyrum pratense, etc.

Table 63

76.8.9 Avenello ibericae-Quercetum orocantabricae
(Luzulo-Quercenion petraeae, Ilici-Fagion, Quercetalia roboris, Querco-Fagetea)

Altitude (=10 m.) 122 128 120 130 118 120 156 115 117 126 127
Number of species 16 26 26 24 26 23 15 21 17 26 22
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10* 11
Characteristic species
Quercus orocantabrica 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 V
Vaccinium myrtillus 1 1 + 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 V
Avenella iberica 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 . 3 V
Melampyrum pratense + + + . + + + . . + IV
Lonicera periclymenum . + + + + + + . 1 . IV
Teucrium scorodonia . + . + + + + . 1 + IV
Arenaria montana 1 . . . + . 1 + + + III
Stellaria holostea . + + 1 + + + . . . III
Ilex aquifolium . + + + . + . 1 . . IV
Crepis lampsanoides . + + + + + . . . . III
Sorbus aucuparia . + + + . + . . + . III
Corylus avellana . . + + . . + + + . III
Allium victorialis . . . + . . . 1 + 1 III
Anemone nemorosa . + + . . . . + . 1 III
Frangula alnus . . + . . + . 1 1 . III
Betula celtiberica . . . . . . + + 1 + III
Companion species:
Erica arborea 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 . V
Festuca longiespicula 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 V
Ulex cantabricus 1 + 2 + + + . 1 1 1 V
Asphodelus albus . + + + + + 2 1 1 + V
Pseudarrhenatherum longifolium 1 + . + + 1 . 1 + + IV
Pteridium aquilinum + 2 3 3 . 3 . . 1 2 IV
Daboecia cantabrica 1 . + . + + + 1 . + III
Arrhenatherum bulbosum + 1 1 1 1 1 . . . . III

Other species. Characteristic species: Physospermum cornubiense + in 2, 3 and 5. Holcus mollis 1 in 2 and 5. Luzula henriquesii + in 4, 1 in 10. Sorbus intermedia + in 6 and 8. Linaria triornithophora + in 3. Euphorbia amygdaloides + in 4. Brachypodium sylvaticum 1, Polygonatum verticillatum + in 10. Companion species. Anthoxanthum odoratum + in 2, 3, 4 and 5, 1 in 6. Rubus gr. corylifolii + in 2, 3, 5 and 6. Sedum anglicum + in 2, 3, 5 and 6. Solidago virgaurea + in 2, 4, 5 and 7. Coyncia setigera + in 1, 3 and 5. Erica aragonensis 2 in 1 and 8, + in 10. Cytisus scoparius 1 in 2 and 5, + in 4. Galium saxatile + in 2 and 10. Lithodora diffusa + in 3 and 5. Rumex acetosa + in 4 and 10. Digitalis purpurea + in 5 and 10. Genista polygaliphylla + in 8 and 9. Luzula lactea 1, Jasione montana + in 1. Hieracium gr. murotum + in 3. Pterospartum cantabricum +, Simethis planifolia + in 8. Agrostis curtisii +, Agrotis tenuis +, Avenula sulcata +, Silene nutans + in 10.

Localities: 1. Asturias: Cangas del Narcea, Monte Muniellos, Western slope of Pico Bliella, near Arroyo de la Reguerona. 29TPH86. 200 m². 2. Asturias: Ibias, Monte Valdebois,. 29TPH86. 200 m². 3. Asturias: Ibias, Monte Valdebois,. 29TPH86. 200 m². 4. Asturias: Ibias, Monte Valdebois,. 29TPH86. 300 m². 5. Asturias: Ibias, Monte Valdebois,. 29TPH86. 200 m². 6. Asturias: Ibias, Monte Valdebois,. 29TPH86. 200 m². 7. Asturias: Cangas del Narcea, Monte Muniellos, slope of Pico de la Candanosa. 29TPH86. 200 m². 8. Asturias: Cangas del Narcea, Monte Muniellos, La Crestona, slope of Pico Lambón,. 29TPH86. 200 m². 9. Asturias: Cangas del Narcea, Monte Muniellos, slope of Pico Acidiello. 29TPH86. 200 m². 10. Holotypus ass. Asturias: Ibias, Monte Valdebois. 29TPH86. 200 m². 11. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Amigo, Bueno, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Izco, Penas & Puente] (*)

Linario triornithophorae-Quercetum petraeae (Rivas-Martínez, Izco & Costa ex F. Navarro 1974) F. Prieto & Vázquez in Lazaroa 7: 367, tb. 1. 1987 (76.8.6)

Distribution: Orocantabric supratemperate humid, mostly in dry and sunny stations.

Luzulo henriquesii-Quercetum petraeae (F. Prieto & Vázquez 1987) T.E. Díaz & F. Prieto in Itinera Geobot. 293. 1994 (76.8.7)

Distribution: Orocantabric supratemperate hyperhumid, mostly in shaded slopes.

Pulmonario longifoliae-Quercetum petraeae (Rivas-Martínez, Báscones, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & Loidi 1991) Loidi, Biurrun & Berastegi in Lazaroa 17: 138. 1996 (76.8.8)

Distribution: Cantabrian-Basque supratemperate hyperhumid.

[Rivas-Martínez & Izco]