Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


Go to: Contents - Previous page - Next page

Syntaxon descriptions: Halophiletum decipientis - Lauro azoricae<

Halophiletum decipientis ass. nova hoc loco (4.1.2)

(Syringodio-Thalassion, Thalassio-Syringodietalia, Halodulo wrightii-Thalassietea testudinum)

Typus associatio: Canary, Tenerife Island: El Palm-Mar at 21 m deep, sandy soil, 0,4 m2. Characteristic species: 3 Halophila decipiens. Companion species: 1 Caulerpa racemosa.

Characteristic species: Halophila decipiens.

Diagnosis: Benthic infralittoral thalo-cormophytic sandy substrata community, dominated by the pantropical perennial rhizomatous Halophila decipiens, sometimes growing with the also vascular hydrophytic Cymodocea nodosa and the thalophytic algae Caulerpa racemosa or Dictyota dichotoma. The community has been repported from the coast of Tenerife and Gran Canaria Islands down 30 m deep.

[Wildpret & M.C. Gil]

Helianthemo almeriensis-Sideritidenion pusillae (Alcaraz, T.E. Díaz, Rivas-Martínez & P. Sánchez 1989) suball. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (64.11b)

[Helianthemo almeriensis-Sideritidion pusillae Alcaraz, T.E. Díaz, Rivas-Martínez & P. Sánchez in Itinera Geobot. 2: 82. 1989 (art. 27a, 46H)]

Typus alliancia: Helianthemo almeriensis-Sideritidetum pusillae Alcaraz, T.E. Díaz, Rivas-Martínez & P. Sánchez in Itinera Geobot. 2: 82, tb. 10. 1989.

Characteristic species: Helianthemum almeriense, Sideritis ibanyezii, Sideritis marminorensis, Sideritis osteoxyla, Sideritis pusilla subsp. alhamillensis, Sideritis pusilla subsp. pusilla, Teucrium carolipaui subsp. fontqueri, Teucrium charidemi, Teucrium eriocephalum subsp. almeriense.

Diagnosis: Thermomediterranean semiarid-arid calcicolous dwarf scrubs in the Almeriensian Sector (64.11.2, 64.11.8, 64.11.9, 64.11.12), geovicariant of those in Alicantine-Murcian Sector included in the Thymo moroderi-Sideritidenion leucanthae suball. nova (64.11a: 64.11.4, 64.11.5, 64.11.6, 64.11.7, 64.11.10), both included in the allianceThymo-Siderition leucanthae O. Bolòs 1957.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Helichrysion obconico-devium all. nova hoc loco (19.6)

(Crithmo-Limonietalia, Crithmo-Limonietea)

Typus alliancia: Crithmo maritimi-Helichrysetum obconicae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez in Silva Lusit. 7(2): 284. 2000. (19.6.1).

Characteristic species: Argyranthemum pinnatifidum subsp. succulentum, Helichrysum devium, Helichrysum obconicum, Limonium pyramidatum.

Diagnosis: Madeiran inframediterranean dry and subhumid hyperoceanic coastal chasmophyte communities developed on cliffs and lithosols splashed by marine salt spray.

Crithmo maritimi-Helichrysetum obconicae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez in Silva Lusit. 7(2): 284, tb. 23. 2000 (19.6.1)

Distribution: Madeiran exposed coasts.

[Rivas-Martínez, Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim & Sequeira]

Heteropogono contorti-Hyparrhenietum sinaicae ass. nova hoc loco (56.7.8)

(Hyparrhenion hirtae, Hyparrhenietalia hirtae, Lygeo-Stipetea)

Typus associatio: Table 49, rel. 6 [Valencia: El Garbí (Estivella), YJ2597, red sandstone, 600 m, S, 25 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Andropogon distachyos, Centaurea saguntina, Heteropogon contortus.

Diagnosis: Perennial subnitrophilous grassland dominated by Andropogoneae such as Hyparrhenia sinaica, Andropogon distachyos and Heteropogon contortus. Other taxa such as Avenula bromoides, Centaurea saguntina or Galium maritimum are fine territorial differential taxa. It grows on calcareous or silicic rocky slopes, in the coastal areas of the Valencian-Tarraconensean and Setabensean Sectors (Catalan-Valencian Subprovince), mostly in the thermomediterranean dry bioclimatic belt, though it also reaches the warm areas of the mesomediterranean dry belt.

Table 49

56.7.8 Heteropogono contorti-Hyparrhenietum sinaicae
(Hyparrhenion hirtae, Hyparrhenietalia hirtae, Lygeo-Stipetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 30 23 20 15 50 60 60 10 34
Number of species 15 17 17 21 14 17 19 15 17
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6* 7 8 9
Characteristic species:
Hyparrhenia sinaica 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 V
Piptatherum coerulescens 1 2 + 1 1 + 1 1 V
Heteropogon contortus 1 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 V
Brachypodium retusum 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 V
Psoralea bituminosa + + + 1 + . + + V
Centaurea saguntina + . . 1 + 1 + + IV
Andropogon distachyos 1 . . + 1 1 . + IV
Avenula bromoides . + . + . + . + III
Stipa parviflora + + + . . . . . III
Lapiedra martinezii + . . . . + . + III
Galium maritimum . . . . . + + + III
Companion species:
Phagnalon saxatile 1 . + + + . 1 1 IV
Convolvulus althaeoides + + . 1 . 1 + . IV
Chamaerops humilis . + . + + + + . IV
Ballota hirsuta . 1 + + . . . + III
Lavatera maritima . + + + . . . + III
Lobularia maritima . . 1 + . + 1 . III
Dipcadi serotinum . . . + . + + + III
Sonchus tenerrimus + + . + . . . . III
Pallenis spinosa + . + + . . . . III
Cheilanthes maderensis . . . . + + + . III

Other species. Characteristic species: Dactylis hispanica + in 5 and 7. Companion species: Ulex parviflorus 1 in 1, + in 2. Euphorbia serrata + in 1 and 6. Silene secundiflora + in 2 and 7. Silene nocturna + in 3 and 4. Centaurea aspera + in 3 and 6. Plantago albicans + in 3 and 6. Piptatherum miliaceum + in 4 and 5. Teucrium pseudochamaepitys + in 5 and 7. Convolvulus siculus +, Misopates pusillus + in 2. Asperula scabra +, Dianthus valentinus +, Tripodion tetraphyllum + in 3. Phagnalon rupestre +, Salvia verbenaca + in 4. Erodium cicutarium + in 5. Centaurea melitensis +, Convolvulus arvensis +, Sedum sediforme + in 7. Ononis pubescens + in 8.

Localities: 1. Valencia: Montaña Negra (Puçol), YJ3091, marl-argilites. E, 80%, 10 m2. 2. Valencia: Cerro Bords (Nàquera), YJ2589, limestones. SW, 90%, 20 m2. 3. Valencia: Cerca de la Ermita de Sant Miquel (Llíria), YJ0688, limestones. S, 90%, 10 m2. 4. Valencia: Castillo de Sagunto, YJ3395, limestones. S, 100%, 20 m2. 5. Valencia: Castillo de Serra, YJ2195, both argilites and red sandstones. S, 80%, 10 m2. 6. Holotypus ass. Valencia: El Garbí (Estivella), YJ2597, red sandstones. S, 70%, 25 m2. 7. Castellón: Gàtova, YK1205, argilites. S, 90%, 25 m2. 8. Castellón: Almenara, cerro del Castillo, YK3804. S, 90%, 25 m2. 9. Synthesized table.

[M.B. Crespo]

Holcetum gayani ass. nova hoc loco (50.3.4)

(Molineriellion laevis, Tuberarietalia guttatae, Tuberarietea guttatae)

Typus associatio: Table 50, rel. 3 [Avila: El Hornillo, at the bottom of Peña del Mediodía. 30TUK1760. 1770 m, 0.5 m2].

Characteristic species: Holcus gayanus.

Diagnosis: Therophytic ephemeral grasslands dominated by the endemic Holcus gayanus and other grasses as Anthoxanthum aristatum. They grow on shallow lithosols developed on siliceous rocks (granites and gneiss) subjected to short episodes of hydromorphy during the spring. They bloom in late spring-early summer, in the vicinity of annual communities belonging to Triseto-Agrostietum truncatulae and Sedion pedicellato-andegavensis, and are mainly distributed in the supramediterranean belt of the Carpetan-Leonese mountains.

Table 50

50.3.4 Holcetum gayani
(Molineriellion laevis, Tuberarietalia guttatae, Tuberarietea guttatae)

Altitude (1=10m) 176 170 177 180 135 135 210 203 140 128 165
Number of species 8 9 7 7 7 9 12 9 12 15 10
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Characteristic species:
Holcus gayanus 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 V
Teesdalia nudicaulis 1 + 1 2 . . 1 1 1 2 V
Micropyrum tenellum 1 1 1 3 + 1 . . 1 . IV
Logfia minima . 1 1 1 . 1 + + + . IV
Trisetum ovatum . . + + + + . . + . III
Anthoxanthum aristatum 2 1 . . . . . . 2 4 III
Spergula morisonii 1 . + + . . . . . . II
Molineriella laevis . . . . . . . + 1 1 II
Periballia involucrata . . . . 2 1 . . . . II
Sedum arenarium . . . . . . 1 1 . . II
Moenchia erecta . . . . . . . . 1 1 II
Sedum pedicellatum . . . . . . . . 1 1 II
Arnoseris minima . . . . . . . . 1 + II
Ornithopus perpusillus . . . . . . . . + 1 II
Companion species:
Agrostis truncatula 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 . . V
Rumex pyrenaicus 1 + . . 1 1 1 + . 1 IV

Other species. Characteristic species: Campanula lusitanica 1 in 7. Jasione echinata 1, Leontodon longirostris 1, Hypochoeris glabra +, Logfia gallica + in 10. Companion species: Briófitos 2 in 1, 1 in 2. Poa bulbosa 1 in 2 and 9. Corynephorus canescens + in 5, 1 in 6. Sedum brevifolium 1 in 7, + in 8. Allium gredense + in 7 and 8. Arenaria querioides + in 6. Conopodium ramosum 2, Juncus capitatus +, Nardus stricta + in 7. Crepis capillaris +, Vulpia bromoides + in 10.

Localities: 1. Ávila: Solana de Ávila, Laguna del Duque. 30TTK704648. 1 m2. 2. Ávila: Solana de Ávila, Laguna del Duque. 30TTK707648. 1 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Ávila: El Hornillo, at the bottom of Peña del Mediodía. 30TUK1760. 0.5 m2. 4. Ávila: El Hornillo, at the bottom of Peña del Mediodía. 30TUK1760. 0.5 m2. 5. Ávila: El Hornillo, Peña del Mediodía, Garganta del Arroyo de Aguas Frías. 30TUK1859. 0.5 m2. 6. Ávila: El Hornillo, Peña del Mediodía, Aguas Frías creek. 30TUK1859. 0.5 m2. 7. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, San Juan de Gredos, between Gargantón and Portilla del Rey. 30TUK0858. 4 m2. 8. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Navalperal de Tormes, South exposures in Circo Pozas. 30TUK0859. 1 m2. 9. Madrid: Between La Morcuera pass and Rascafría. 30TVL2925. W, 1 m2. 10. Madrid: Between Miraflores and La Morcuera pass. 30TVL3419. SW, 7 m2. 11. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González, Sánchez-Mata & Sardinero]

Hugueninietum suffruticosae ass. nova hoc loco (42.1.9)

(Adenostylenion pyrenaicae, Adenostylion alliariae, Adenostyletalia, Mulgedio-Aconitetea)

Typus associatio: Table 51, rel. 1 [Huesca: Benasque, Plan del Hospital, Valleta Blanca. 42º 41'N-0º 37'E. 1780 m, N, 30%, 10 m2].

Characteristic species: Hugueninia tanacetifolia subsp. suffruticosa.

Diagnosis: Semi-shaded uppersupra-orotemperate humid-Pyrenean uncommon soft megaforb community, characterized by Hugueninia suffruticosa, growing on calcareous winter snowy gullies and edges on mesic or humid filtrable soils rich in organic matter. Similar geovicariant community can be found also in Orocantabrian (León, Babia, Puente de las Palomas).

Table 51

42.1.9 Hugueninietum suffruticosae
(Adenostylion alliariae, Adenostyletalia, Mulgedio-Aconitetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 178 177 137 188 181
Number of species 11 13 13 15 13
Ordinal number 1* 2 4 3 5
Characteristic species:
Hugueninia suffruticosa 4 3 3 4 4
Adenostyles pyrenaica 2 3 1 2 4
Meconopsis cambrica 1 2 2 . 2
Scrophularia alpestris 1 + . . 2
Aconitum vulgare + + . . 2
Angelica sylvestris . + 1 . 2
Geranium sylvaticum . . 2 2 2
Companion species:
Arabis alpina 3 1 . 1 3
Dactylis glomerata . + 2 + 3
Alchemilla xanthochlora 1 . 2 . 2
Polystichum lonchitis 1 . . 2 2
Urtica dioica . 1 1 . 2

Other species. Characteristic species: Heracleum pyrenaicum 1, Impatiens balfourii 1, Valeriana pyrenaica 1 in 3. Myrrhis odorata 2 in 4. Companion species: Epilobium lanceolatum 1, Phleum alpinum 1, Poa brevifolia 1 in 1. Poa nemoralis +, Sisymbrium chrysanthum +, Urtica dioica + in 2. Knautia arvernensis 2, Filipendula ulmaria + in 3. Valeriana montana 2, Anemone hepatica 1, Cystopteris pseudoregia 1, Rubus idaeus 1, Dryopteris filix-mas +, Polystichum aculeatum +, Polystichum xillyricum +, Ranunculus acer + in 4

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, Plan del Hospital, Valleta Blanca. 42º 41'N-0º 37'E. N, 30%, 10 m2. 2. Huesca: Benasque, Plan del Hospital, Valleta Blanca. N, 20%, 20 m2. 3. Lérida: Tavascán, Ribera de Tavascán. NE, 20%, 20 m2. 4. Huesca: Benasque, Pleta de Paderna. N, 40%, 20 m2. 5. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa & P. Soriano]

Iberido saxatilis-Erinaceetum anthyllidis G. Navarro ass. nova hoc loco (52.7.18 = 64.5.12)

[Iberido ibericae-Erinaceetum anthyllidis G. Navarro in Opusc. Bot. Pharm- Complut. 5: 36, tb. 16. 1989 (art. 2c)]
(Sideritido fontquerianae-Arenarion microphyllae, Festuco hystricis-Poetalia ligulatae, Festuco-Ononidetea)

Typus associatio: G. Navarro in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 5: 38, tb. 16, rel. 3. Holotypus hoc loco. [Soria: Beratón, calcareous tableland south of the village. W, 5%, 100 m2]. Characteristic species: 3 Erinacea anthyllis, 3 Festuca hystrix, 2 Anthyllis montana, 2 Carex humilis, 2 Coronilla minima, 1 Arenaria microphylla, 1 Carduncellus monspelliensium, 1 Erysimum gorbeanum, 1 Festuca gautieri, 1 Fumana procumbens, 1 Iberis saxatilis, 1 Koeleria vallesiana var. abbreviata, 1 Linum milletii subsp. appressum, 1 Ononis striata, + Arenaria grandiflora. Companion species: 2 Teucrium expansum, 2 Thymus vulgaris, 1 Avenula bromoides, 1 Rhamnus saxatilis, 1 Sideritis linearifolia, 1 Thymus grex praecox, + Anthyllis vulneraria, + Cerastium arvense, + Genista scorpius, + Globularia vulgaris, + Juniperus hemisphaerica, + Juniperus sabina, + Thesium divaricatum.

Characteristic species (territorials): Erinacea anthyllis, Iberis saxatilis, Arenaria erinacea subsp. microphylla, Festuca gautieri.

Diagnosis: Sorian Oroiberian upper supratemperate humid basophilous grassland with ephemeral snow cover and usual cryoturbation phenomena rich in dwarf cushion scrub and decumbent hemicrytophytes.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Inuletum revolutae O. Bolòs ass. nova hoc loco (34.12.5 = 34.6.5)

[Inuletum revolutae O. Bolòs in Phytocoenologia 2(1-2): 145, tb. 2. 1975 (art. 3b)]
(Bromo-Piptatherion miliacei, Agropyretalia repentis, Artemisietea vulgaris)

Typus associatio: O. Bolòs in Phytocoenologia 2 (1-2): 145, tb. 2, rel. 1. Holotypus hoc loco, 1975 (sub Inuletum revolutae prov.). [Algarve: Barrocal da Gralheira]. Characteristic species: 5 Inula revoluta, + Convolvulus althaeoides, + Piptatherum miliaceum. Companion species: 4 Oxalis pes-caprae, 1 Avena barbata, + Bromus madritensis, + Convolvulus arvensis, + Pistacia lentiscus, + Trifolium angustifolium.

Characteristic species: Inula viscosa subsp. revoluta.

Diagnosis: Perennial subnitrophilous community from South Portugal and surrounding areas, occupying permanently abandoned cultivation fields, slopes, suburban areas, etc. It comes after the pioneer therophytic seasonal vegetation of the Chenopodietalia muralis or Thero-Brometalia, and even forms mosaics with those. The association is well characterized by the South Alentejan and Algarvian endemic Inula viscosa subsp. revoluta, and can be considered as geovicarious of the wide Mediterranean Inulo viscosae-Piptatheretum miliacei.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Jasiono brevisepalae-Festucetum curvifoliae ass. nova hoc loco (49.3.2)

[Jasiono brevisepalae-Festucetum aragonensis M.E. García, L. Herrero, T.E. Díaz & Penas in M.E. García 1990 nom. inval. (art. 1)]
(Teesdaliopsio-Luzulion caespitosae, Festucetalia indigestae, Festucetea indigestae)

Typus associatio: Table 52, rel. 5 [Palencia: Camporredondo de Alba, El Viejo. 30TUN6147. 1790 m, N, 5%, 12 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Festuca curvifolia, Hieracium loscosianum, Jasione crispa subsp. brevisepala, Luzula caespitosa.

Diagnosis: Psicroxerophilous acidophilous and submediterranean orotemperate hyperhumid grasslands, growing in lithosols and podzolized "brown soils" (cambisols) in the Orocantabric continental territories of the meridional slopes of the Cantabrian Range. They seem to be at its optimum in the quartzite crests above 1700 m, and alternate or replace the climatophilous dwarf juniper vegetation of Vaccinio myrtilli-Juniperetum nanae jasionetosum brevisepalae. The Guadarramean and Sorian Oroiberian endemic Festuca curvifolia seems to be the most characteristic element of this association, together with Minuartia recurva, Hieracium loscosianum and Leucanthemopsis pallida subsp. virescens. The absence of Festuca eskia, Festuca gredensis and Teesdaliopsis conferta is also significant, and lets us differentiate it from the more oceanic Orocantabric orotemperate association Teesdaliopsio confertae-Festucetum eskiae, and from the more western Orensan-Sanabriensean Teesdaliopsio confertae-Festucetum summilusitanae.

Table 52

49.3.2 Jasiono brevisepalae-Festucetum curvifoliae
(Teesdaliopsio-Luzulion caespitosae, Festucetalia indigestae, Festucetea indigestae)

Altitude (1=10m) 178 180 178 175 179 172 170 176
Number of species 10 11 11 12 12 12 14 12
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8
Characteristic species:
Festuca curvifolia 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 V
Luzula caespitosa 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 V
Jasione brevisepala 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 V
Sempervivum cantabricum + 1 + + + + 1 V
Dianthus langeanus 1 + . + 1 + + V
Hieracium loscosianum + . . 1 + 1 . III
Minuartia recurva . 1 1 . . 1 1 III
Silene elegans . . 1 . 1 1 1 III
Leucanthemopsis virescens . . + . + . . II
Companion species:
Agrostis durieui 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 V
Avenella iberica 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 V
Sedum brevifolium + + . + + + + V
Solidago virgaurea . + . + . + + III
Leontodon autumnalis + 1 . . 1 . . III
Antennaria dioica . . + 1 . . 1 III

Other species. Companion species: Avenula sulcata + in 4 and 7. Rumex acetosella + in 3. Sedum pyrenaicum + in 7.

Localities: 1. Palencia: Camporredondo de Alba, El Viejo. 30TUN6147. N, 5%, 10 m2. 2. Palencia: Camporredondo de Alba, Cueto Palomo. 30TUN6147. N, 5%, 20 m2. 3. Palencia: Camporredondo de Alba, Cueto Palomo. 30TUN6147. N, 2%, 10 m2. 4. Palencia: Velilla de Tarilonte, Castros Negros. 30TUN6446. NW, 2%, 20 m2. 5. Holotypus ass. Palencia: Camporredondo de Alba, El Viejo. 30TUN6147. N, 5%, 12 m2. 6. Palencia: Valcovero, El Reguilón. 30TUN5946. N, 2%, 15 m2. 7. Palencia: Valcovero, El Reguilón. 30TUN5946. N, 5%, 18 m2. 8. Synthesized table.

[M.E. García, L. Herrero, T.E. Díaz, Penas & F. Salegui]

Junipero lagunae-Quercetum suberis ass. nova hoc loco (75.2.4)

(Quercenion broteroi, Quercion broteroi, Quercetalia ilicis, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Portugal: Bragança, Torre de Moncorvo. 480 m, SW, 20%, 18 m, 50 cm, 400 m2. Characteristic species: 5 Quercus suber, 2 Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. lagunae, 2 Osyris alba, 1 Arbutus unedo, 1 Daphne gnidium, 1 Quercus broteroi (S2), 1 Asplenium onopteris, + Rubia peregrina. Companion species: 2 Luzula forsteri, 2 Teucrium scorodonia, 2 Tamus communis, 2 Asphodelus aestivus, 2 Cytisus multiflorus, 2 Geranium purpureum, 1 Cytisus scoparius subsp. bourgaei, + Lavandula sampaioana, + Cistus populifolius, 1 Ranunculus ollissiponensis, 1 Umbilicus rupestris, 1 Aristolochia paucinervis, + Cistus psilosepalus, + Genista falcata, + Sedum hirsutum, + Geranium lucidum, + Anthriscus caucalis.

Characteristic species (territorials): Arbutus unedo, Cytisus multiflorus, Genista falcata, Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. lagunae, Osyris alba, Retama sphaerocarpa, Quercus suber, Ranunculus carpetanus.

Diagnosis: Cork-oak (Quercus suber) and Laguna Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. lagunae) climatophilous and edaphoxerophilous micro and mesoforests growing on metamorphic or plutonic siliceous almost shallow soils in mesomediterranean dry and lower subhumid bioclimatic belt in Lusitan Duriensean Sector. The marginal and substitution broom community belongs to Cytiso multiflori-Retametum sphaerocarpae.

[Rivas-Martínez, Aguiar, Cantó & Ladero]

Junipero sabinae-Pinetum mauretanicae ass. nova hoc loco (74.1.3)

[Daphno hispanicae-Pinetum sylvestris pinetosum clusianae Rivas Goday in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 7(2): 1002, tb. 1. 1968 (p.p., excl. rel. 4 & 5)]
(Junipero sabinae-Pinion ibericae, Junipero sabinae-Pinetalia sylvestris, Junipero sabinae-Pinetea sylvestris)

Typus associatio: Rivas Goday in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 7(2): 1002, tb. 1, rel. 6. 1968. Holotypus hoc loco. [Jaén: Sierra de Cazorla, Cabañas summit. 37º 47'N-2º 57'W. NO, 2000 m, 15%, 500 m2]. Characteristic species: 4 Pinus nigra subsp. mauretanica, 3 Juniperus sabina, 1 Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, 1 Lonicera splendida, 1 Ononis aragonensis, 1 Rosa sicula, + Aquilegia pyrenaica subsp. cazorlensis, + Cotoneaster granatensis, + Daphne oleoides subsp. hispanica, + Epipactis atrorubens, + Erysimum cazorlense, + Galium debeauxi, + Geum heterocarpum, + Orchis cazorlensis, + Poa flaccidula, + Polygala boissieri, + Prunus prostrata, + Satureja acinos subsp. meridionalis. Companion species: 2 Berberis hispanica, 2 Erinacea anthyllis, 1 Amelanchier ovalis, + Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. microcephala, + Bupleurum ranunculoides subsp. gramineum, + Campanula rotundifolia, + Cerastium gibraltaricum, + Erigeron acer, + Festuca hystrix, + Helleborus foetidus, + Hepatica nobilis, + Jonopsidium prolongoi, + Poa ligulata, + Polystichum lonchitis, + Primula veris, + Senecio adonidifolius, + Seseli granatense, + Silene mellifera, + Viola suavis.

Characteristic species (territorials): Aquilegia cazorlensis, Galium debeauxi, Genista pseudopilosa, Orchis cazorlensis, Pinus nigra subsp. mauretanica.

Diagnosis: Upper supra-oromediterranean, subhumid and lower humid climactical mesoforests communities spread in all high mountains of Subbetic Sector, with a canopy dominated by Pinus nigra subsp. mauretanica and a dense understory of scrubs as Juniperus sabina, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Ononis aragonensis, Daphne oleoides subsp. hispanica, Rosa sicula, etc. as well as a lot of other perennial semi-shaded plants, growing on humic nutrient-rich soils.

[Rivas-Martínez, Gómez-Mercado & F. Valle]

Laguro ovati-Silenetum balearicae ass. nova hoc loco (50.7.4)

(Alkanno-Maresion nanae, Cutandietalia maritimae, Tuberarietea guttatae )

Typus associatio: Table 53, rel. 7 [Mallorca. Campos (Platja de Ses Covetes). 1,5 m2].

Characteristic species: Silene sericea var. balearica.

Diagnosis: Therophytic ephemeral sandy community found in open areas of meridional coastal sand dunes in Majorca Island.

Table 53

50.7.4 Laguro ovati-Silenetum balearicae
(Alkanno-Maresion nanae, Cutandietalia maritimaeTuberarietea guttatae )

Altitude (1=10 m) 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1
Number of species 15 13 10 9 6 8 10 9 13 7 9 10
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7* 8 9 10 11 12
Characteristic species:
Lagurus ovatus + 1 2 + . + 2 2 1 + 1 V
Vulpia membranacea + + + 1 . . + + 2 + 2 V
Silene balearica 2 . 1 2 3 2 2 1 . 2 1 V
Pseudorlaya pumila + + 2 1 1 . 1 . . . + IV
Maresia nana + + 1 . 1 + + + . . . IV
Cutandia maritima 1 . . . 1 + 1 . + . + III
Rumex bucephalophorus . 1 + . . . + . + +   III
Medicago littoralis + 1 . . . + . . . . . II
Polycarpon alsinifolium . + . . . . . . + . + II
Companion species:
Arenaria leptoclados + + . . . . . + + 1 + III
Lotus cytisoides + + . . + + . + . . + III
Reichardia tingitana + . . + . + + + 1 . . III
Valantia muralis + 1 + . . . + . + . . III
Cerastium semidecandrum + + . . . . . . 1 1 . II
Teucrium dunense + . . + . + . . + . . II
Minuartia mediterranea + . . + . . . . + . + II
Pancratium maritimum . + + + . . + . . . . II
Allium roseum . . + + . . . + + . . II

Other species. Companion species: Polypogon subspathaceus + in 2, 9 and 10. Crucianella maritima + in 1 and 8. Aetheorhiza bulbosa 1 in 3 and 5.

Localities: 1. Mallorca. Campos. Platja de Sa Ràpita. 2 m2. 2. Mallorca. Campos. Platja de Ses Covetes. 1 m2. 3. Mallorca. Campos. Platja de Sa Ràpita. 1 m2. 4. Mallorca. Campos. Platja de Sa Ràpita. 1,5 m2. 5. Mallorca. Campos. Platja de Ses Covetes. 2 m2. 6. Mallorca. Campos Platja des Trenc. 1 m2. 7. Holotypus ass. Mallorca. Campos. Platja de Ses Covetes. 1,5 m2. 8. Mallorca. Campos Platja des Trenc. 1,5 m2. 9. Mallorca. Ses Salines. Platja des Carbó. 2 m2. 10. Mallorca. Campos Platja des Trenc. 2 m2. 11. Mallorca. Campos Platja des Trenc. 1 m2. 12. Synthesized table.

[Llorens & Gil]

Lauro azoricae-Juniperetea brevifoliae classis nova hoc loco (73)

Typus classis: Ericetalia azoricae Lüpnitz in Bot. Jahrb. 95(2): 155. 1975.

Characteristic species: Carex peregrina, Dryopteris crispifolia, Erica azorica, Euphorbia stygiana, Hedera azorica, Ilex azorica, Lysimachia azorica, Myrsine retusa, Platanthera micrantha, Smilax divaricata.

Diagnosis: Azorean evergreen broad-leaved micro-mesoforests ("laurisilva") and related matle or seral thickets, thermo- to supratemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic, rather submediterranean, growing on shallow or deep andosols.

Ericetalia azoricae Lüpnitz in Bot. Jahrb. 95(2): 155. 1975 (73a)

Typus ordo: Culcito macrocarpae-Juniperion brevifoliae Sjögren ex Lüpnitz in Bot. Jahrb. 95(2): 155. 1975.

Characteristic species: see classis.

Diagnosis: We recognize three alliances: Pittosporo-Myricion (infra-thermotemperate humid submediterranean microforests with strong anthropogenic influence), Culcito-Juniperion brevifoliae (from thermotemperate to supratemperate ultrahyperhumid; Culcito-Juniperenion = microforest on lithosols, Pteridio-Ericenion azoricae = seral thicket and mantle) and Drypoterido-Laurion azoricae (meso-supratemperate mesic or hydric natural potential micro-mesoforest vegetation on developed andosols).

Culcito macrocarpae-Juniperion brevifoliae Sjögren ex Lüpnitz in Bot. Jahrb. 95(2): 155. 1975 (73.1)

Typus alliancia: Daphno-Ericetum azoricae Lüpnitz in Bot. Jahrb. 95(2): 156, tb. 2. 1975 (holotypus, art. 17).

Characteristic species: Corema azorica, Daphne azorica, Juniperus brevifolia, Vaccinium cylindraceum, Viburnum subcordatum.

Diagnosis: Infra- to supratemperate humid to ultrahyperhumid edaphoxerophilous microforests on lithosols, mantle and seral heaths of Erica azorica.

Culcito macrocarpae-Juniperenion brevifoliae (73.1a) (art. 28)

Typus suballiancia: Daphno-Ericetum azoricae Lüpnitz in Bot. Jahrb. 95(2): 156, tb. 2. 1975.

Characteristic species: [see alliancia 73.1.].

Diagnosis: Infra- to supratemperate edaphoxerophilous microforests on lithosols or shallow soils.

Cerastio vulgare-Juniperetum brevifoliae Lüpnitz 1976 corr. hoc loco (73.1.1)

[Cerastio vagantis-Juniperetum brevifoliae Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 51: 290, tb. 27. 1976 (art. 43)]

Distribution: Infra- to lower mesotemperate humid-hyperhumid microforests on lithosols.

Daphno azoricae-Ericetum azoricae Lüpnitz in Bot. Jahrb. 95(2): 156, tb. 2. 1975 (73.1.2)

Distribution: Meso-supratemperate hyper-ultrahyperhumid microforest organized by Juniperus brevifolia, Viburnum subcordatum, Ilex azorica, Daphne laureola subsp. azorica and Myrsine retusa, growing on lava fields.

Pteridio pubescentis-Ericenion azoricae suball. nova hoc loco (73.1b)

Typus suballiancia: Pteridio pubescentis-Ericetum azoricae ass. nova hoc loco.

Characteristic species (territorial): Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens.

Diagnosis: Mantle of Juniperus or Laurus forests and seral thickets dominated by Erica azorica, as well as permanent coastal aerohaline heaths organized by Corema azorica.

Pteridio pubescentis-Ericetum azoricae ass. nova hoc loco (73.1.4)

[Pteridio aquilini-Ericetum azoricae ass. nova (Addenda) in Itinera Geobot. 14: 164. 2001]

Typus associatio: Table 54, rel. 3 [Açores, Ilha do Pico: Misterios da Prainha, Chã Verde. 38º 22'N-28º 12'W. 540 m, N, 40 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Erica azorica, Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens.

Diagnosis: Seral thicket and heath mantle community of temperate Azorean laurisilva, organized by Erica azorica, Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens, Hypericum foliosum and Vaccinium cylindraceum.

Table 54

73.1.4 Pteridio pubescentis-Ericetum azoricae
(Culcito-Juniperion brevifoliae, Ericetalia azoricae, Lauro-Juniperetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 55 58 54 55
Number of species 11 12 14 12
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4
Characteristic species:
Erica azorica 5 5 4 3
Pteridium pubescens 2 3 2 3
Hypericum foliosum 2 1 1 3
Vaccinium cylindraceum 1 2 + 3
Luzula purpureo-splendens + 2 2 3
Myrsine retusa + 1 . 2
Companion species:
Sibthorpia europaea 1 1 + 3
Potentilla anglica 1 . 1 2
Blechnum spicant 3 2 . 2
Avenella foliosa 1 + . 2

Other species. Characteristic species Lysimachia azorica 2, Platanthera micrantha + in 2. Hedera azorica 2, Rubia azorica 2, Myrica faya 1, Pittosporum undulatum 1, Juniperus brevifolia + in 3. Companion species: Teucrium scorodonia 2 in 1. Culcita macrocarpa 2 in 2. Rubus inermis 2, Hedychium gardneranum + in 3.

Localities: 1, 2. Açores, Ilha Terceira: Sanguinhal. 38º 44'N-27º 14'W. N, 50 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Açores, Ilha do Pico: Misterios da Prainha, Chã Verde. 38º 22'N-28º 12'W. N, 40 m2. 4. Syntesized table.

Festuco petraeae-Corematetum azoricae ass. nova hoc loco (73.1.3)

Typus associatio: Table 55, rel. 3 [Açores: Ilha do Pico, Faro de Manhenha. 38º 23'N-28º 15'W. SE, 10 m, 20 m2].

Characteristic species: Corema azorica.

Diagnosis: Submediterranean coastal heaths characterized by Corema azorica growing on lithosols exposed to marine wind.

Table 55

73.1.3 Festuco petraeae-Corematetum azoricae
(Culcito-Juniperion brevifoliae, Ericetalia azoricae, Lauro-Juniperetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 1 0.5 1 1
Number of species 6 6 4 5
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4
Characteristic species:
Corema azorica 3 3 3 3
Erica azorica 3 2 3 3
Juniperus brevifolia . + + 2
Myrica faya + . . 1
Companion species:
Festuca petraea 1 2 + 3
Daucus azoricus + + . 2
Ornithopus pinnatus + . . 1
Crithmum maritimum . 1 . 1

Localities: 1. Açores: Ilha do Pico, Cachorro.38º 22'N-28º 23'W. N, 50 m2. 2, 3. Ilha do Pico, Faro de Manhenha. 38ºd 23'N-28º 15'W. SE, 20 m2. Holotypus ass.: rel. 3 4. Syntesized table.

Myrico fayae-Pittosporion undulati Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol Pflanzen 51: 263. 1976 (73.2)

Typus alliancia: Hedychio-Pittosporetum undulati Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol Pflanzen 51: 266, tb. 22. 1976.

Characteristic species: Hedychium gardneranum, Myrica faya (terr.), Picconia azorica, Pittosporum undulatum.

Diagnosis: Thermotemperate submediterranean humid microforests strongly disturbed by human activities and often replaced by synanthropic trees and other perennial exotic plants.

Carici hochstetterianae-Picconietum azoricae ass. nova hoc loco (73.2.1)

Typus associatio: Table 56, rel. 1 [Açores, Ilha do Faial: Varadouro. 38º 34'N-28º 43'W. 20 m, SW, 200 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Carex hochstetteriana, Myrica faya, Picconia azorica.

Diagnosis: Thermosubmediterranean humid Azorean potential natural forest vegetation, characterized by Picconia azorica, Myrica faya and Carex hochstetteriana, largely destroyed by farming; particularly on rich soils, but naturally conserved on coastal lava fields and spontaneously regenerated on abandoned vineyards.

Table 56

73.2.1 Carici hochstetterianae-Picconietum azoricae

(Pittosporo-Myricion fayae, Ericetalia azoricae, Lauro-Juniperetea)

Altitude (1=10 m) 2 2 5 2 3 3
Number of species 12 15 10 11 10 11
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5 6
Characteristic species:
Picconia azorica 4 2 2 2 3 V
Myrica faya 1 2 3 4 2 V
Pittosporum undulatum + 2 2 1 2 V
Carex hochstetteriana + 1 1 1 2 V
Erica azorica 2 3 . 1 . III
Euphorbia azorica . 1 + . . II
Juniperus brevifolia . 2 . 1 . II
Hedera azorica . . . + 2 II
Myrsine retusa . 2 . . . I
Smilax divaricata . 2 . . . I
Companion species:
Pteridium pubescens 2 . 2 3 4 IV
Parietaria debilis 2 . . 1 + III
Umbilicus gaditanus + + . . . II
Zantedeschia aethiopica 2 . 2 . . II
Arisarum vulgare 2 . 1 . . II
Ficus carica . + 1 . . II
Rubus ulmifolius . . 2 . + II
Solanum sublobatum . . . + 1 II

Other species. Companion species: Brachypodium gaditanum 2, Cyrtomium falcatum + in 1. Daucus azoricus 1, Festuca petraea 1, Sonchus azoricus 1 in 2. Gaudinia coarctata + in 2. Polypodium azoricum + in 4. Senecio mikanoides 1 in 5.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Açores, Ilha do Faial: Varadouro. 38º 34' N-28º 43' W. SW, 8 m., 40 cm., 200 m2, lava field. 2. Açores, Ilha do Pico: Cachorro. 38º 32' N-28º 25' W. N, 4 m., 25 cm., 200 m2, coastal basaltic lithosols. 3. Açores, Ilha do Pico: Caes do Pico. 38º 30' N-28º 16' W. NE, 10 m., 40 cm., 200 m2, old vineyard lava field. 4, 5. Açores, Ilha do Pico: Faro de Manhenha. 38º 23' N-28º 15' W. SW, 10 m., 30 cm., 200 m2, old vineyard lava field. 6. Syntesized table.

Hedychio gardnerani-Pittosporetum undulati Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 51: 266, tb. 22. 1976 [Lectotypus hoc loco: l.c. tb. 22, rel. 8] (73.2.2)

[Myrico-Pittosporetum undulati Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 51: 271, tb. 23. 1976. (Lectotypus hoc loco: l.c., tb. 23, rel. 9) (syntax. syn.)]

Distribution: Secondary anthropogenic microforest, that replaces, due to human activities, the warmest Azorean temperate laurisilva, and is often dominated by synanthropic plants as the Australian fragrant small tree Pittosporum undulatum, and the hymalayan herbaceous phanerophyte Hedychium gardneranum.

Dryopterido azoricae-Laurion azoricae all. nova hoc loco (73.3)

[Laurion macaronesicum sensu Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 51: 248. 1976 non Rübel 1930]

Typus alliancia: Dryopterido azoricae-Lauretum azoricae ass. nova hoc loco.

Characteristic species: Carex vulcani, Dryopteris azorica, Frangula azorica, Laurus azorica, Prunus azorica, Sanicula azorica.

Diagnosis: Meso-supratemperate hyperhumid and ultrahyperhumid hyperoceanic Azorean mesic or hydric potential natural micro-mesoforests vegetation growing on developed andosols.

Dryopterido azoricae-Lauretum azoricae ass. nova hoc loco (73.3.1)

[Lauretum azoricae sensu Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 51: 251, tb. 30. 1976 non Oberdorfer in Beitr. Naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl. 24(1). 70, tb. 4. 1965, Lauro-Perseetum indicae sensu Lüpnitz in Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 51: 257, tb. 21. 1976 non Oberdorfer in Beitr. Naturk. Forsch. Südwestdeutschl. 24(1). 70, tb. 4. 1965]

Typus associatio: Table 57, rel. 2 [Açores, Illa do Pico: Misterios da Painha, Chã Verde. 38º22'N-28º12'W. N, 250 m, 9 m, 35 cm diameter, 500 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Dryopteris azorica, Frangula azorica, Laurus azorica, Lysimachia azorica.

Diagnosis: Meso-supratemperate hyperhumid Azorean mesic climactical temperate laurisilva growing on andosols.

Table 57

73.3.1 Dryopterido azoricae-Lauretum azoricae
(Dryopterido-Laurion azoricae, Ericetalia azoricae, Lauro-Juniperetea brevifoliae)

Altitude (1=10m) 56 54 56 55
Number of species 29 25 16 23
Ordinal number 1 2* 3 4
Characteristic species:
Laurus azorica 3 4 3 3
Dryopteris azorica 3 3 2 3
Frangula azorica 2 2 2 3
Ilex azorica 2 2 1 3
Vaccinium cylindraceum 1 2 2 3
Lysimachia azorica 1 + 1 3
Myrsine retusa + 2 1 3
Hedera azorica 3 2 . 2
Carex vulcani 1 1 . 2
Carex peregrina 1 + . 2
Myrica faya 1 + . 2
Platanthera micrantha + + . 2
Dryopteris crispifolia + . + 2
Juniperus brevifolia . + 1 2
Companion species:
Blechnum spicant 2 1 1 3
Diplazium caudatum 2 3 . 2
Rubia agostinhoi 2 2 . 2
Selaginella krausiana 1 3 . 2
Athyrium filix-femina 1 2 . 2
Dryopteris affinis 1 1 . 2
Dryopteris aemula 3 . 2 2
Sibthorpia europaea 1 . 3 2
Pteridium pubescens + . 1 2
Culcita macrocarpa . 2 2 2

Other species. Characteristic species: Sanicula azorica 1, Erica azorica +, Smilax divaricata + in 1. Luzula purpureo-splendens 2, Pittosporum undulatum 1, Hypericum foliosum + in 2. Companion species: Rubus inermis 1, Polypodium azoricum +, Rubus ulmifolius +, Umbilicus gaditanus + in 1. Pteris incompleta 2, Trichomanes speciosum 1 in 2. Hymenophyllum tunbrigense 1, Sphagnum sp. 1, Elaphoglossum semicylindricum + in 3.

Localities: 1. Açores, Illa do Pico: Santa Luzia. 38º30'N-28º25'W. NO, 20%, 12 m, 50 cm, 400 m2, deep andosol. 2. Holotypus ass. Açores, Illa do Pico: Misterios da Prainha, Chã Verde. 38º22'N-28º12'W. N, 9 m, 35 cm, 500 m2, shallow andosol. 3. Açores, Illa do Terceira: Sanguinhal. 38º 44'N-27º 14'W. N, 30%, 35 cm, 400 m2, shallow andosol. 4. Synthesized table.

Woodwardio radicantis-Prunetum azoricae ass. nova hoc loco (73.3.2)

Typus associatio: Açores, Illa do Terceira: Ribera Malha Verde, deep creek, 550 m. 38º43'N-27º16'W. 70 %, 10 m, 25 cm, 200 m2. Characteristic species: 3 Prunus azorica, 3 Woodwardia radicans, 3 Dryopteris azorica, 2 Laurus azorica, 1 Ilex azorica, 1 Frangula azorica, + Vaccinium cylindraceum, + Luzula purpureo-splendens, + Lysimachia azorica, + Sanicula azorica, + Hedera azorica, + Carex vulcani. Companion species: 3 Selaginella krausiana, 2 Marchantia sp., 2 Rubus hochstetterorum, 1 Culcita macrocarpa, 1 Blechnum spicant, 1 Diplazium caudatum, + Hedychium gardneranum, + Vandenboschia speciosa, + Cardamine caldeirarum.

Characteristic species (territorials): Prunus azorica, Sanicula azorica, Woodwardia radicans.

Diagnosis: Meso-supratemperate hydric climactical microforest vegetation growing on andosols with fluvicor gleyic properties, chatacterized by Prunus azorica and Sanicula azorica.

[Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, F. Prieto, J.C. Costa, Días & Aguiar]