Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxon descriptions: Euphorbio pithyusae - Gnaphalio uliginosi

Euphorbio pithyusae-Anthemidetum maritimae ass. nova hoc loco (19.2.1)

(Launaeion cervicornis, Crithmo-Limonietalia, Crithmo-Limonietea)

Typus associatio: Table 41, rel. 3 [Menorca. Ets Alocs. 30 m, NE 20m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Anthemis maritima, Euphorbia pithyusa.

Diagnosis: Nanophanerophytic-chamaephytic community found on coastal plains and slopes. This community has thermophilous, umbrophilous and relative nitrophilous character, also determined by the influence of strong marine wind and the presence of marine birds or human activity. It is found prevalently on the northern coast of Minorca, although occasionally in the south of Minorca and Majorca.

Table 41

19.2.1 Euphorbio pithyusae-Anthemidetum maritimae
(Launaeion cervicornis, Crithmo-LimonietaliaCrithmo-Limonietea)

Altitude (1=10 m) - 3 3 1 2
Number of species 14 6 10 9 10
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4 5
Characteristic species:
Anthemis maritima 3 3 3 3 4
Euphorbia pithyusa + . 1 2 3
Limonium minutum + . . + 2
Launaea cervicornis + . . . 1
Companion species:
Reichardia picroides + + + + 4
Artemisia gallica 2 + 1 . 3
Sonchus tenerrimus + + . 1 3
Dactylis hispanica . + 2 2 3
Anagallis arvensis + . + + 3
Desmazeria loliacea + . + + 3
Lotus edulis + + . . 2
Melilotus indicus 4 . + . 2
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum + . . 1 2

Other species: Companion species: Hyoseris radiata +, Micromeria rodriguezii + in 1. Limonium companyonis +, Limonium virgatum + in 3.

Localities: 1. Menorca. North coast. (Bolòs, O., Moliner, R. & Montserrat, P. in Acta Bot. Barcinon. 5: 109. 1970). N. 2. Menorca. Pregonda. NW, 15 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Menorca. Ets Alocs. NE, 20 m2. 4. Mallorca. Llucmajor: Cap Enderrocat. NW, 15 m2. 5. Synthesized table.

[Llorens, Llop & Gil]

Festucion frigidae all. nova hoc loco (14.6)

Typus alliancia: Leontodonto microcephali-Ranunculetum uniflori Esteve & P. Prieto in P. Prieto in Collec. Monogr. Univ. Granada 11: 83, tb. 1971. (Lectotypus hoc loco, l.c., reg. núm. 290. Granada, Sierra Nevada, cuenca del Monachil, alt. 2950 m, 100 m2. Characteristic species: 3 Leontodon microcephalus Boiss., 2 Ranunculus angustifolius var. uniflorus Boiss. (syn. Ranunculus alismoides Bory), 2 Festuca frigida (Hack.) K. Richt. (sub Festuca halleri All.), 1 Carex nigra (L.) Reichard (sub Carex fusca var. intricata (Tineo) C. Vicioso), 1 Carex nevadensis Boiss. & Reut., 1 Viola palustris L. Companion species: 1 Cerastium trigynum Vill., + Poa laxa Haenke in Jirasek & al.).

Characteristic species: Agrostis canina subsp. granatensis, Festuca frigida, Gentiana pneumonanthe subsp. depressa, Leontodon microcephalus, Pinguicula nevadensis, Ranunculus angustifolius subsp. alismoides, Veronica turbicola.

Diagnosis: Oro and cryoromediterranean Nevadensian oligo-mesotrophic peat endemic communities.

Remarks: The alliance Caricion intricatae had been proposed by Quézel (1953:67) to include the oligo-mesotrophic peat communities distributed throughout the high mountains territories at High Atlas, Sierra Nevada and Corsica. In addition to the Sierra Nevada published association by Quézel (1953: 64, tb. 19): ass. à Festuca rivularis et Veronica repens var. nevadensis (Veronico turbicolae-Festucetum rivularis Quézel 1953 corr. hoc loco) this author frames in the new alliance the association proposed for the high mountains of Corsica: Caricetum intricatae Litardière & Malcuit 1926. The protologue of Caricion intricatae Quézel 1953 (op. cit.: 67) do not designate the alliance holotype and the author includes the Corsica association that has the same name of the newly proposed alliance; in consequence Caricetum intricate Litardière & Malcuit 1926 is the obliged lectotype of the alliance Caricion intricate (art. 20). Moreover Caricion intricate Quézel 1953 is the correct and priority name that must be used as opposed to validy published by Gamisams (1977:36) for Corsica: Bellido bernardii-Bellion nivalis which has as first designated association Caricetum intricatae Litardière & Malcuit 1926.

Veronico turbicolae-Festucetum rivularis Quézel 1953 nom. mut. (14.6.3 = 14.2.9)

[Ass. à Festuca rivularis et Veronica repens var. nevadensis Quézel in Mem. Soc. Brot. 9: 64, tb. 19. 1953 (art. 43)]

Distribution: Oromediterranean and lower cryoromediterranean belts of Nevadensian Sector. Veronico turbicolae-Festucetum rivularis is an association related to peaty soils developed close to smallest watercourses and staying a long time period under the snow packs in the Sierra Nevada high mountain areas. These communities are in contact with those of the Montio-Cardaminetea class, with the sedge peat communities always flooded (Leontodonto microcephali-Ranunculetum alismoidis), and with the more hygrophilous communities of the alliance Plantaginion nivalis that may could include this association because of its intermediate ecologic features.

Leontodonto microcephali-Ranunculetum alismoidis Esteve & P. Prieto in P. Prieto 1971 nom. mut. (14.6.1 = 14.2.10)

[Leontodonto microcephali-Ranunculetum uniflori Esteve & P. Prieto in P. Prieto in Collec. Monogr. Univ. Granada 11: 83, tb. 1971 (art. 45)]

Distribution: Oro and cryoromediterranean belt of Nevadensian Sector. This association constitutes the more characteristic and widely distributed of all the sedge peat communities always flooded that can be recognized in Sierra Nevada high mountains areas ("borreguiles"). The more frequent characteristic taxa showing also a high biomass are: Carex nigra, Ranunculus alismoides and Leontodon microcephalus.

Table 42

14.6.1 Leontodonto microcephali-Ranunculetum alismoidis
(Festucion frigidae, Caricetalia nigrae, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae)

Altitude (1=10 m) 280 280 295 272 290 294 261 285 285 285 285 272 272 272 305 295 283
Number of species 8 5 5 10 8 6 10 9 7 12 8 8 12 10 6 10 8
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Characteristic species:
Carex nigra 4 4 5 5 4 1 4 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 + 3 V
Festuca frigida 3 3 2 3 3 5 + 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 V
Ranunculus alismoides 2 1 1 1 . . 1 + 1 2 2 + 1 + . 2 V
Leontodon microcephalus . . . + 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 V
Carex nevadensis . . . . . . 2 3 3 3 4 2 1 3 2 + V
Viola palustris . 1 . 2 1 . . 2 . + . 2 . . . 1 IV
Carex furva 1 + 2 . . . . . . + . . . . 2 . III
Veronica turbicola 1 . . 1 2 + . . . . . . . . . . III
Agrostis granatensis . . 1 1 . . . . . . . . + . . . III
Pinguicula nevadensis . . . . 1 . . . . . . . + . . 1 III
Carex echinata . . . . . . 2 . . + . . . . . . II
Gentiana depressa . . . . . . . . . + . . . . . . I
Companion species:
Euphrasia wilkommii + . . + 1 . 1 2 . + 2 . 2 1 . 2 IV
Sagina nevadensis 2 . . 1 1 . . 1 . . . 1 1 . + . III
Nardus stricta . . . . . . 2 . 1 2 1 . 1 2 . . III
Agrostis nevadensis . . . . . . . + 1 + + 2 . + . . III
Sedum melanantherum 1 . . . . 1 . . . . . . + + . . III
Gentiana boryi . . . . . . 1 . . . . . + 1 . . II
Phleum abbreviatum . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II
Cerastium cerastioides . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . I
Trifolium nevadense . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . I
Campanula herminii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . + . I
Festuca iberica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I

Localities: 1, 2. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Borreguiles. 10 m2. 3. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Laguna de las Yeguas. 16 m2. 4, 12, 13, 14. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Lavadero de la Reina. 12 m2. 5. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Laguna Hondera. 6 m2. 6. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Lagunillos de la Virgen. 10 m2. 7. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Valle del Dílar. 10 m2. 8, 9, 10, 11. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Borreguiles. 6 m2. 15. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Laguna Altera. 10 m2. 16. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Laguna Hondera. 12 m2. 17. Synthesized table.

Pinguiculo nevadensis-Eleocharitetum quinqueflorae ass. nova hoc loco (14.6.2 = 14.2.11)

Typus associatio: Table 43, rel. 3 [Granada: Sierra Nevada, Lavadero de la Reina. 2670 m, 4 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Eleocharis quinqueflora, Pinguicula nevadensis, Triglochin palustre.

Diagnosis: Community poor in species, pioneer of the muddy peat bogs with flowing waters, characteristic of the oro and crioromediterranean belts from Sierra Nevada (Nevadensian Sector). It is well characterized by the small northern Holarctic Eleocharis quinqueflora and by the Nevadensian turfy endemic Pinguicula nevadensis.

Table 43

14.6.2 Pinguiculo nevadensis-Eleocharitetum quinqueflorae
(Festucion frigidae, Caricetalia nigrae, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae)

Altitude (1=10m) 290 290 267 256 255 272
Number of species 4 4 6 7 8 6
Ordinal number 1 2 3* 4 5 6
Characteristic species:
Eleocharis quinqueflora 4 5 4 4 4 V
Pinguicula nevadensis + + 1 + + V
Carex nigra + 1 + 2 2 V
Juncus alpestris 1 2 1 1 . IV
Carex nevadensis . . 1 + . II
Leontodon microcephalus . . . + + II
Triglochin palustre . . 2 . . I
Carex echinata . . . . 1 I
Agrostis granatensis . . . . + I
Parnassia palustris . . . . + I

Other species. Companion species: Festuca iberica + in 4. Nardus stricta + in 5.

Localities: 1. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Laguna Hondera, Siete Lagunas. 4 m2. 2. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Cañada de Siete Lagunas. 2 m2. 3. Holotypus ass. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Lavadero de la Reina. 4 m2. 4. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Borreguiles de San Juan. 4 m2. 5. Granada: Sierra Nevada, Borreguiles de San Juan. 2 m2. 6. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Díez Garretas, Asensi, Molero & F. Valle]

Festuco hystricis-Ononidetea striatae classis nova hoc loco (52)

[Festuco hystricis-Ononidetea striatae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas in Itinera Geobot. 5: 506. 1991 (art. 17), Festucetea hystricis Mayor in Mayor, M.A. Fernández, Nava, J.R. Alonso, Lastra & Homet in Bol. Ci. Naturaleza I.D.E.A. 30: 93. 1982 (art. 8)]

Typus classis: Festuco hystricis-Poetalia ligulatae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez , Estudio y clasificación de los pastizales españoles: 142. 1963. [Holotypus: Festuco-Poion ligulatae Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez (l.c.) 1963, holotypus: Poo ligulatae-Festucetum hystricis (Font Quer 1954) Rivas Goday & Borja in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 115. 1961=Festucetum hystricis Font Quer in Vegetatio 5-6: 135. 1954].

Characteristic species: Achillea odorata, Acinos alpinus subsp. meridionalis, Aethionema marginatum, Allium senescens subsp. montanum, Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. serpyllifolium, Anthericum liliago, Anthyllis montana, Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. vulnerarioides, Arenaria grandiflora, Artemisia alba, Aster linosyris, Bupleurum ranunculoides, Carduncellus monspelliensium, Carex humilis, Carex liparocarpos, Chamaespartium delphinense, Coronilla minima subsp. minima, Draba aizoides subsp. estevei, Festuca gautieri, Festuca gracilior, Fumana procumbens subsp. procumbens, Globularia borjae, Inula montana, Koeleria vallesiana subsp. humilis, Lotus corniculatus subsp. delortii, Medicago suffruticosa, Ononis cristata, Orchis mascula subsp. mascula, Paronychia kapela subsp. serpyllifolia, Plantago monosperma, Poa badensis subsp. multiflora, Potentilla cinerea, Potentilla neumanniana var. hirsuta, Potentilla xzapateri, Ranunculus gramineus var. gramineus, Satureja montana subsp. montana, Serratula nudicaulis, Seseli montanum subsp. montanum, Tragopogon lamottei, Valeriana tuberosa.

Diagnosis: Basophilous, orophilous and quionophobous dry pastures and cushion-like thickets, mainly formed by caespitose hemicryptophytes and chamaephytes, sometimes pulviniform, living on shallow soils, many of them suffering frequent cryoturbation processes during the cold period. With a southwestern European distribution, its present optimum is both Southern Eurosiberian (submediterranean) supra-orotemperate as well as supra-oromediterranean subhumid-humid. It is also present in a poor and reduced way in the Betic and Mauritanian Provinces. The communities of this class with periglaciar western oromediterranean origin, generally belong to substitution stages of climatophilous or edaphoxerophilous mediterranean, submediterranean or paleo-mediterranean vegetation series, whose mature stages belong to the classes and orders Junipero-Pinetea, Quercetalia ilicis and Quercetalia pubescentis.

[Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas]

Festuco pruinosae-Brachypodietum rupestris ass. nova hoc loco (20.6.8)

(Crithmo-Armerion maritimae, Crithmo-Armerietalia, Juncetea maritimi)

Typus associatio: Table 44, rel. 6 [Asturias: Castropol, Penarronda. 29TPJ2462. 100%, 10 m²].

Characteristic species (territorials): Brachypodium rupestre, Rumex biformis, Festuca pruinosa, Daucus gummifer.

Diagnosis: Grass communities of deep soils located in the protected zones of the Cantabrian littoral cliffs. It is characterized by Brachypodium rupestre and Festuca pruinosa, as well as the presence of other species which are not exclusive of the coastal environments. They contact with other associations occupying biotopes more exposed to the marine exhalation, such as: Dauco gummifero-Festucetum pruinosae and Leucanthemo crassifolii-Festucetum pruinosae.

Table 44

20.6.8 Festuco pruinosae-Brachypodietum rupestris
(Crithmo-Armerion maritimae, Crithmo-Armerietalia, Juncetea maritimi)

Altitude (1=10 m) 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1
Number of species 25 22 19 14 21 17 12 18
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6* 7 8
Characteristic species:
Brachypodium rupestre 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 V
Festuca pruinosa 2 3 1 1 3 4 2 V
Rumex biformis 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 V
Silene uniflora 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 V
Anthyllis iberica 2 2 + . 1 1 2 V
Daucus gummifer 1 + . 1 1 1 . IV
Armeria depilata + 1 . + . . . III
Dactylis maritima . . . . 1 1 1 III
Angelica pachycarpa 2 . + . . . . II
Plantago maritima . 1 . . + . . II
Companion species:
Senecio macrochaetus 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 V
Picris hieracioides 1 2 + . 1 1 + V
Agrostis stolonifera 1 1 . . 2 2 2 IV
Lotus corniculatus 1 1 . . 2 1 1 IV
Potentilla montana + 1 . . + + . IV

Other species. Companion species: Rubus sp. + in 1, 3 and 4, 1 in 7. Holcus lanatus 1 in 1 and 2, + in 3. Parietaria judaica 1 in 1 and 6, 2 in 2. Plantago lanceolata 1 in 1, 2 and 6. Koeleria albescens 1 in 1, + in 5, 2 in 7. Hedera helix 1 in 3, 2 in 4, 1 in 5. Centaurea gr. nigra + in 5, 1 in 6 and 7. Lithodora prostrata + in 1, 2 and 4. Iris foetidissima 2 in 1 and 2. Geranium robertianum 1 in 1 and 2. Asplenium onopteris +, Sonchus oleraceus + in 1 and 2. Primula vulgaris 1 in 2 and 3. Heracleum sphondylium 2 in 3, + in 4. Galium mollugo 1 in 3, 1 in 4. Asphodelus sp 1 in 3, + in 4. Cirsium filipendulum 1 in 3, + in 4. Omphalodes nitida 1 in 3, + in 4. Teucrium scorodonia + in 3, 1 in 4. Potentilla reptans + in 5, 1 in 6. Lavatera arborea + in 1. Aquilegia vulgaris + in 3. Carex glauca +, Centaurium scilloides +, Prunella vulgaris + in 5. Convolvulus arvensis 1 in 6. Sonchus asper + in 6.

Localities: 1. Asturias: Castropol, Penarronda. 29TPJ2462. 100%, 30 m². 2. Asturias: Castropol, Penarronda. 29TPJ2462. 100%, 100 m². 3. Asturias: Tapia de Casariego, Figueiria. 29TPJ2669. 100%, 50 m². 4 Asturias: Tapia de Casariego, Figueiria. 29TPJ2669. 100%, 100 m². 5 Asturias: Castropol, Penarronda. 29TPJ2462. 100%, 20 m². 6. Holotypus ass. Asturias: Castropol, Penarronda. 29TPJ2462. 100%, 10 m². 7. Asturias: Castropol, Penarronda. 29TPJ2462. 100%, 50 m². 8. Synthesized table.

[Arbesú, Bueno & F. Prieto]

Frankenio capitatae-Suaedetum verae ass. nova hoc loco (23.4.7)

(Suaedion verae, Sarcocornietalia fruticosae, Sarcocornietea fruticosae)

Typus associatio: Canary Islands, Lanzarote: Jameos del Agua, alt. 2 m., 10 m2. Characteristic species: 5 Suaeda vera, + Frankenia capitata, + Zygophyllum fontanesii (terr.). Companion species: + Lycium intricatum.

Characteristic species (territorials): Suaeda vera, Zygophyllum fontanesii,.

Diagnosis: Halophilous, slightly nitrophilous association, distributed at least in the central eastern part of the Canary Islands. It is characterized by the thick-leaved nanophanerophyte widemediterranean Suaeda vera, as well as by the casual Canarian or Canarian-Saharian elements living with it such as Zygophyllum fontanesii or Frankenia capitata. It grows on incipient saline soils with the influence of salt water, mainly coming from the sea.

[Reyes, Rivas-Martínez & Wildpret]

Galio idubedae-Nardetum strictae (Rivas Goday & Borja 1961) nom. nov. hoc loco (60.4.16 = 60.1.5)

[Nardetum gudaricum Rivas Goday & Borja in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 219, tb. 50. 1961 (art. 34, 39)]
(Campanulo herminii-Nardion strictae, Nardetalia strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Typus: Rivas Goday & Borja in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 219-221, tb. 50, inv. 1. 1961, lectotypus.

Characteristic species (territorial): Galium idubedae.

Remarks: Galio idubedae-Nardetum strictae (Rivas Goday & Borja 1961) nom. nov. (60.1.5) in Itinera Geobot. 14: 132. 2001, placed in Carici macrostyli-Nardenion strictae (Nardion strictae) should be removed into Campanulo herminii-Nardion strictae (60.4.16).

Distribution: Oroiberian Maestracensean supra-orotemperate submediterranean humid.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Galio veri-Arrhenatheretum bulbosi (Rivas Goday & Borja 1961) nom. nov. hoc loco (59.4.3)

[Galio veri-Arrhenatheretum gudaricum Rivas Goday & Borja in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 260, tb. 63. 1961 (art. 34, 39)]
(Arrhenatherion, Arrhenatheretalia, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea)

Typus: Rivas Goday & Borja in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 260, tb. 63, rel. 4. 1961, lectotypus.

Distribution: Oroiberian Maestracensean supratemperate submediterranean humid.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Genisto falcatae-Quercetum pyrenaicae Penas & T.E. Díaz ass. nova hoc loco (76.7.7)

[Genisto falcatae-Quercetum pyrenaicae Rivas-Martínez in Penas & T.E. Díaz in Acta Bot. Malacitana 10: 157, tb, 2. 1985 (art. 5)]
(Quercenion pyrenaicae, Quercion pyrenaicae, Quercetalia roboris, Querco-Fagetea)

Typus associatio: Penas & T.E. Díaz in Acta Bot. Malacitana 10: 157, tb, 2, holotypus hoc loco, rel. 2. 1985 [León: Santa Colomba de Somoza. 42º 27'N-6º 18'W. 29TQH30. N, 1200 m, 100 m2]. Characteristic species: 5 Quercus pyrenaica, 2 Genista falcata, 1 Festuca braun-blanquetii (sub. Festuca heterophylla), 1 Melampyrum pratense, + Clinopodium vulgare, + Doronicum plantagineum, + Prunella hastifolia (sub. Prunella grandiflora), + Viola riviniana. Companion species: 1 Avenula sulcata, 1 Cruciata glabra, 1 Erica arborea, 1 Festuca elegans, 1 Genista florida subsp. polygaliphylla, + Achillea millefolium, + Agrostis capillaris, + Arrhenatrerum elatius, + Conopodium majus, + Cytisus scoparius, + Galium divaricatum, + Halimium umbellatum, + Lotus corniculatus, + Luzula campestris, + Jasione montana, + Sedum forsteranum, + Silene italica, + Teesdalia nudicaulis, + Thymus praecox, + Vicia sativa.

Characteristic species (territorials): Aquilegia dichroa, Genista falcata, Genista florida subsp. polygaliphylla, Omphalodes nitida, Quercus pyrenaica.

Diagnosis: Supramediterranean and upper meso-supratemperate submediterranean, subhumid to lower hyperhumid, euoceanic, Orensan-Sanabriensean and North Salmanticensean climactical Quercus pyrenaica micro-mesoforest community, growing on dystric and humic cambisols seldom on dystric planosols. For this mediterranean and temperate Western West Iberian association head of the serie are diagnostics the broom mantle of Genistion polygaliphyllae with Genista hystrix, Cytisus multiflorus or Echinospartum ibericum, the perennial grasslands of Festucion merinoi, the seral podzolic heath of Ericenion aragonensis, as well as a lot of western iberian nemoral species in the understory such: Aquilegia dichroa, Genista falcata, Narcissus triandrus subsp. triandrus, Omphalodes nitida, etc. It could be easily differentiated of the more western and oceanic association Holco mollis-Quercetum pyrenaicae by its broom mantle dominated by Cytisus striatus subsp. striatus or Ulex europaeus subsp. europaeus.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Genisto scorpii-Cistetum laurifolii ass. nova hoc loco (62.2.3)

(Cistion laurifolii, Lavanduletalia stoechadis, Cisto-Lavanduletea)

Typus associatio: Table 45, rel. 2 [León: San Miguel de Escalada. 30TUN01. 800 m, 40 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Cistus laurifolius, Genista scorpius, Lavandula pedunculata, Lotus corniculatus subsp. carpetanus.

Diagnosis: Supramediterranean subhumid furce-cistus formations in the Castilian Duriensean Sector and in other semicontinental Mediterranean Central Iberian territories. They are the substituting thicket, on thin soils, of the evergreen oak forests Junipero thuriferae-Quercetum rotundifoliae and of the Quercus faginea forests Cephalanthero-Quercetum fagineae. The superficial soil washing makes it possible the presence of very acidophilous taxa, such as Cistus laurifolius, Halimium umbellatum subsp. viscosum or Lavandula pedunculata, together with others which prefer base rich substrata, such as Genista scorpius or Dorycnium pentaphyllum which get their nutrients deeper in the soil. It can be differentiated from other aulagar-jarales of Cistion laurifolii, such as Lavandulo-Genistetum hystricis, by the absence in our association of species such as Genista hystrix, Cistus salviifolius, Cistus ladanifer, Erica cinerea, Polygala microphylla, Genista cinerascens or Cytisus multiflorus, and by the presence of Cistus laurifolius and Genista scorpius, absent in Lavandulo pedunculatae-Genistetum hystricis.

Table 45

62.2.3 Genisto scorpii-Cistetum laurifolii
(Cistion laurifolii, Lavanduletalia stoechadis, Cisto-Lavanduletea)

Altitude (1=10m) 90 80 92 79 89 86 86
Number of species 12 11 9 9 13 16 12
Ordinal number 1 2* 3 4 5 6 7
Characteristic species:
Cistus laurifolius 3 3 4 2 3 5 V
Genista scorpius 1 2 1 2 2 1 V
Lavandula pedunculata 2 2 1 1 1 . V
Halimium viscosum 2 1 2 1 . + V
Thymus mastichina + 1 + . + . IV
Lotus carpetanus 1 . + . . . II
Companion species:
Dorycnium pentaphyllum 1 1 + . 2 1 V
Quercus faginea + + . + + . IV
Thymus zygis 1 . 1 . . 1 III
Helichrysum stoechas 1 1 . + . . III
Arenaria montana . 1 + 1 . . III
Daphne gnidium . . . . 1 + II
Quercus rotundifolia + + . . . . II
Thesium humifusum + . . + . . II

Other species. Companion species: Leucanthemum pallens 1 in 2. Galium aparine + in 4. Crataegus monogyna 3, Rosa pouzinii 3, Brachypodium sylvaticum 1, Hypericum perforatum 1, Juniperus communnis 1, Thapsia villosa + in 5. Plantago radicata 2, Hieracium pilosella 1, Linum milletii subsp. appressum 1, Potentilla reptans 1, Teucrium chamaedrys 1, Thymelaea pubescens 1, Dianthus hispanicus +, Ranunculus paludosus +, Rhamnus saxatilis +, Rosa canina + in 6.

Localities: 1. León: Villacontilde. 30TUN01. 50 m2. 2. Holotypus ass. León: San Miguel de Escalada. 30TUN01. 40 m2. 3. León: Santovenia del Monte. 30TTN92. 30 m2. 4. León: Cerezales del Condado. 30TUN03. 25 m2. 5. León: Casasola de Rueda, Valle de Valmacín. 30TUN122194. NE, 5% , 60 m2. 6. León: Villasabariego, El Chopo. 30TUN028131. N, 15%, 25 m2. 7. Synthesized table.

[Penas, De Paz, M.E. García, M.J. López, R. Alonso, Del Río & F. Salegui]

Geo rivales-Cirsietum rosulati ass. nova hoc loco (59.7.9)

(Molinio-Holoschoenion vulgaris, Holoschoenetalia vulgaris, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea)

Typus associatio: Table 46, rel. 1 [Jaén: Segura de la Sierra, Rocanales creek. 30S WH3233. 1250 m, 50 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Cirsium rosulatum, Ranunculus granatensis, Succisella andreae-molinae, Geum rivale, Sanguisorba officinalis, Aquilegia hispanica.

Diagnosis: Tall forbs community characterized by two Subbetic endemic species: Cirsium rosulatum and Succisella andreae-molinae, and the more general species Ranunculus granatensis, Geum rivale, Aquilegia hispanica and Sanguisorba officinalis. It appears in stream edges, in temporary damp soils with oligotrophic waters. The association is endemic of the Subbetic Sector of the Betic Province, where it represents a vicariant of the close tall forb Nevadensian community Aquilegio-Ranunculetum granatensis, from which the mentioned subbetic endemic species are lacking.

Table 46

59.7.9 Geo rivales-Cirsietum rosulati
(Molinio-Holoschoenion, Holoschoenetalia, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea)

Altitude (1=10m) 125 120 128 130 120 124
Number of species 18 22 15 15 17 17
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5 6
Characteristic species:
Cirsium rosulatum 5 5 4 5 5 V
Hypericum caprifolium + + 1 1 2 V
Thalictrum speciosissimum + + + 1 + V
Peucedanum hispanicum + + + 1 . IV
Ranunculus granatensis 1 + 1 . + IV
Succisella andreae-molinae + + + . + IV
Sonchus aquatilis 1 + . + + IV
Dactylorhiza elata + . + + 1 IV
Molinia arundinacea + . + + 1 IV
Aquilegia hispanica + . + + + IV
Geum rivale 1 1 1 . . III
Lysimachia ephemerum + . 1 . + III
Mentha longifolia + . + . + III
Mentha aquatica + . . + + III
Companion species:
Filipendula vulgaris + . + . + III
Sanguisorba officinalis + + . . . II
Equisetum palustre + + . . . II
Potentilla erecta + . . + . II

Other species. Characteristic species: Senecio laderoi + in 2 and 4. Agrostis stolonifera +, Briza media +, Epilobium parviflorum +, Juncus subnodulosus + in 2. Companion species: Cirsium ferox +, Equisetum telmateia + in 4 and 5. Allium vineale +, Anagallis tenella +, Cirsium pyrenaicum +, Fragaria vesca +, Iris pseudacorus +, Teucrium scordioides +, Tussilago farfara + in 2. Knautia arvensis 1, Lotus corniculatus + in 3. Cystopteris fragilis +, Trachelium caeruleum + in 4. Parnassia palustris +, Schoenus nigricans + in 5

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Jaén: Segura de la Sierra, Rocanales creek. 30S WH3233, 50 m2. 2. Jaén: Segura de la Sierra, río Madera. 30S WH 3435, 30 m2. 3. Jaén: Siles, Cortijo de la Balasna. 30S WH 3940. 10 m2. 4. Jaén: Siles, Arroyo de Cárdenas. 30S WH 3942. 50 m2. 5. Jaén: Siles, La Fresnedilla. 30S WH 3744. 50 m2. 6. Synthesized table.

[Ríos & Alcaraz]

Glycerio declinatae-Alopecuretum aequalis ass. nova hoc loco (12.2.7)

(Glycerienion fluitantis, Glycerio-Sparganion, Nasturtio-Glycerietalia, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea)

Typus associatio: Table 47, rel. 1 [Madrid: Miraflores de la Sierra, East of La Morcuera Pass. 30TVL3020. 1800 m, 8 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Alopecurus aequalis, Glyceria declinata.

Diagnosis: Helophytic grass communities dominated by Glyceria declinata and Alopecurus aequalis, growing on lakes and ponds of glacial origin that remain inundated in spring by shallow (10-30 cm) cold water, but dessicate during summer. They are known from the upper supramediterranean and oro-cryorosubmediterranean belts of the main ranges of the Iberian Central System (Béjar, Gredos and Guadarrama Mountains; Bejaran-Gredensean and Guadarramean Sectors), but probably they can be found in other high siliceous massifs of western Iberia. In deeper water they are replaced by the amphibious vegetation of Sparganio angustifolii-Isoetetum lereschi; after summer dessication, their places can be occupied by the annual pioneer communities of Juncus perpusillus (Juncetum perpusilli).

Table 47

12.2.7 Glycerio declinatae-Alopecuretum aequalis
(Glycerio-Sparganion, Phragmitetalia, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 180 174 180 207 212 210 210 210 198
Number of species 3 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 5
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Characteristic species:
Alopecurus aequalis 4 5 4 4 4 2 3 3 V
Glyceria declinata 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 + V
Companion species:
Lythrum portula . . . 1 2 2 2 1 IV
Callitriche brutia . . . 1 2 1 1 1 IV
Drepanocladus exannulatus . . . . . 2 3 2 III
Spergularia capillacea + . + . . . . . II
Carex nigra . . . . + + . . II
Juncus articulatus . . . . + . 1 . II

Other species. Companion species: Ranunculus peltatus +, Veronica scutellata + in 2. Corrigiola litoralis + in 3. Fontinalis antipyretica + in 8.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Madrid: Miraflores de la Sierra, East of La Morcuera Pass. 30TVL3020. 8 m2. 2. Madrid: Rascafría, La Morcuera pass, peat bog by the refuge. 30TVL2921. 5 m2. 3. Madrid: Miraflores de la Sierra, mountain pass eastern from La Morcuera. 30TVL3020. 8 m2. 4. Madrid: Rascafría, Laguna de Peñalara. 30TVL1921. 4 m2. 5. Madrid: Rascafría, Peñalara, Zabala refuge. 30TVL1921. 1 m2. 6. Madrid: Rascafría, Peñalara, Zabala refuge. 30TVL1921. 1 m2. 7. Madrid: Rascafría, Peñalara, Zabala refuge. 30TVL1921. 6 m2. 8. Madrid: Rascafría, Peñalara, Zabala refuge. 30TVL1921. 2 m2. 9. Syntesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González, Sánchez-Mata & Sardinero]

Gnaphalio uliginosi-Spergularietum capillaceae ass. nova hoc loco (9.5.5)

(Nanocyperion, Nanocyperetalia, Isoeto-Nanojuncetea)

Typus associatio: Table 48, rel. 1 [Palencia: Las Llanas. 30TUN7855. 1090 m, 10 m2 ].

Characteristic species (territorials): Sisymbrella aspera, Spergularia capillacea.

Diagnosis: Altocarrionese association, mainly with therophytes and geophytes flowering in summer-autumn, and colonizying dried eutrophicated soils at the end of dams in the territory. The amphibian therophytes: Spergularia capillacea, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Sisymbrella aspera and Lythrum portula are territorial dominant and characteristic. The absence of characteristics with a Mediterranean character such as: Mentha cervina, Marsilea strigosa and Eryngium gallioides is also significant.

Table 48

9.5.5 Gnaphalio uliginosi-Spergularietum capillaceae
(Nanocyperion, Nanocyperetalia, Isoeto-Nanojuncetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 109 120 111 113
Number of species 10 11 14 12
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4
Characteristic species:
Spergularia capillacea 4 4 4 3
Lythrum portula 2 1 1 3
Sisymbrella aspera 1 1 1 3
Gnaphalium uliginosum 1 1 1 3
Mentha pulegium 1 1 1 3
Veronica scutellata 1 + + 3
Ranunculus nodiflorus 1 . 1 2
Companion species:
Alopecurus geniculatus 2 . 2 2
Potentilla reptans . + 1 2
Poa supina . + 2 2
Equisetum arvense . + 1 2

Other species. Characteristic species: Polypogon maritimus + in 1. Companion species: Lysimachia vulgaris + in 1. Hernaria glabra 1, Eleocharis palustris + in 2. Polygonum aviculare 2, Anthemis nobilis 1, Ranunculus sardous + in 3.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Palencia: Las Llanas. 30TUN7855. 10 m2. 2. Palencia: Pantano de Camporredondo. 30TUN5750. 8 m2. 3. Palencia: Estalaya. 30TUN7954. 15 m2. 4. Synthesized table.

[L. Herrero, M.E. García, T.E. Díaz, Penas & F. Salegui]