Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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Syntaxon descriptions: Adenocarpetum argyrophylli - Avenello ibericae

Adenocarpetum argyrophylli ass. nova hoc loco (65.1.1)

[Adenocarpetum argyrophylli Rivas-Martínez & Belmonte in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 5: 72. 1989 (art. 2b)]
(Genistion floridae, Cytisetalia scopario-striati, Cytisetea scopario-striati)

Typus associatio: Table 1, rel. 4 [Cáceres: Torrejón el Rubio, Parque Natural del Monfragüe, Risco de la Gitana. 39º50'N-6º05'W. 470 m, N, 20 m2].

Characteristic species: Adenocarpus argyrophyllus.

Diagnosis: Broom formations well characterized by the silicicolous Lusitan-Extremadurean endemic Adenocarpus argyrophyllus. They are permanent communities on the rupestrian lithosols of the mesomediterranean subhumid belt of the quartzitic mountains from Extremadura in the environments of the series Pistacio terebinthi-Querco fagineae sigmetum, Arbuto-Querco pyrenaicae sigmetum and Pyro bourgaeane-Querco rotundifoliae sigmetum. They also appear on the granitic lithosols of the supramediterranean humid belt of the summit areas of the Sierra de San Vicente (Toledo), contacting the climatophilous oak communities of the Sorbo torminalis-Quercetum pyrenaicae, where we recognize the subass. genistetosum cinerascentis nova (holotypus, rel. 9), well differentiated by Genista cinerascens, Cytisus scoparius subsp. scoparius and Pteridium aquilinum.

Table 1

65.1.1 Adenocarpetum argyrophyllii
(Genistion floridae, Cytisetalia scopario-striati, Cytisetea scopario-striati)

Altitude (1=10m) 58 55 76 47 59 58 67 130 130 75
Number of species 6 6 7 7 8 8 13 10 7 8
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 10
Characteristic species:
Adenocarpus argyrophyllus 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 5 3 V
Cytisus multiflorus + . + + 2 1 + . . IV
Cytisus eriocarpus . 2 + . . 1 1 . . III
Pteridium aquilinum . . . . . . . 2 2 II
Genista cinerascens . . . . . . . + 3 II
Adenocarpus complicatus . . . + . . . . . I
Cytisus scoparius . . . . . . . . + II
Companion species:
Arrhenatherum elatius 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 . V
Dianthus lusitanus 2 . + 1 1 1 + . . IV
Juniperus oxycedrus . . + . + 1 + + 1 IV
Quercus rotundifolia . 1 . + 1 . 1 . + III
Digitalis thapsi + 1 . + 2 . . . . III
Lavandula sampaioana + . + . . + 1 . . III
Cistus ladanifer . . . . + + 1 . . II

Other species. Companion species: Conopodium majus + in 2. Quercus pyrenaica 1, Santolina rosmarinifolia 1, Euphorbia oxyphylla +, Rosa canina + in 7. Luzula lactea 2, Agrostis castellana 1, Armeria lacaitae 1, Festuca ampla 1, Koeleria crassipes 1 in 8. Asphodelus aestivus 1 in 9.

Localities: 1. Cáceres: Serradilla. Cruz del Cancho. 29S QE 41. SE, 40 m2. 2. Cáceres: Mirabel. Sierra de los Canchos. 29S QE 31. NE, 40 m2. 3. Cáceres: Casas de Miravete. Canchal del Agujero. 30S TK 60. SW, 10 m2. 4. Holotypus ass. Cáceres: Torrejón el Rubio, Parque Natural de Monfragüe, Risco de la Gitana. 39º 50'N-6º 05'W. N, 20 m2. 5. Cáceres: Casas de Miravete. Río Frío. 30S TK 60. SW, 20 m2. 6. Cáceres: Serradilla. Cancho de la Cueva. 29S QE 41. SE, 20 m2. 7. Cáceres: Casas de Miravete. Canchal de la Peñuela. 30 S TK 60. S, 20 m2. 8. Toledo: Real de San Vicente. Pico Pelados. 30T UK 54. NW, 40 m2. 9. Holotypus subass. Toledo: Real de San Vicente. Pico Pelados. 30T UK 54. N, 40 m2. 10. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Cantó, Sánchez-Mata & Belmonte]

Alchemillo fissae-Luzuletum candollei ass. nova hoc loco (48.1.1)

(Salicion herbaceae, Salicetalia herbaceae, Salicetea herbaceae)

Typus associatio: Table 2, rel. 8 [Huesca: Benasque, moraine of Aneto glacier. 42º 39'N-0º 40'E. 2440 m, NE, 10 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Alchemilla fissa, Luzula alpinopilosa subsp. candollei, Veronica alpina.

Diagnosis: Silicicolous cryorotemperate snow-bed early colonizer perennial community, spread in glacial high mountains of Central Pyrenees.

Table 2

48.1.1 Alchemillo fissae-Luzuletum candollei
(Salicion herbaceae, Salicetalia herbaceae, Salicetea herbaceae)

Altitude (1=10 m) 248 248 268 268 272 244 258 244 244 258 255
Number of species 5 5 5 5 7 8 8 11 10 13 8
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8* 9 10 11
Characteristic species:
Luzula candollei 3 4 4 3 5 4 3 3 4 4 V
Alchemilla fissa 2 2 1 3 . 1 1 3 1 + V
Sibbaldia procumbens 2 . 1 1 2 + + 1 + 2 V
Veronica alpina 1 1 . . 1 1 + 1 1 2 V
Gnaphalium supinum . 1 + . . 3 . 1 2 . III
Cardamine alpina . . . . 1 . 1 + 1 + III
Salix herbacea . . . . . . . 1 . . I
Carex pyrenaica . . . . . . . . . + I
Companion species:
Pritzelago alpina + . . 1 . + . 1 . . III
Armeria alpina . 1 + . . . + . . . II
Taraxacum dissectum . . . . 1 . 1 . . 1 II
Ranunculus pyrenaeus . . . 1 . . . . . 1 II
Oxyria digyna . . . . + . . . + . II
Leucanthemopsis alpina . . . . . + . . + . II
Leontodon pyrenaicus . . . . . . 1 . . 1 II

Other species. Companion species: Carex approximata + in 5. Trifolium alpinum + in 6. Athyrium distentifolium +, Pedicularis pyrenaica +, Viola biflora + in 8. Cystopteris pseudoregia 1, Saxifraga moschata + in 9. Nardus stricta 2, Carex parviflora +, Poa alpina +, Primula integrifolia + in 10.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Benasque, upper Ibón of Ballibierna. W, 5%, 4 m2. 2. Huesca: Benasque, upper Ibón of Ballibierna. N, 10 m2. 3. Huesca: Collado de Ballibierna. NE, 4 m2. 4. Huesca: Benasque, seccond upper Ibón of Ballibierna, Little Ice Age stony blocks. 5. Huesca: Benasque, Circo de Coronas. SE, 10 m2. 6. Huesca : Benasque, upper Ibón of Ballibierna. E, 10 m2. 7. Huesca: Benasque, Lago Coronas. N, 30%, 4 m2. 8. Holotypus ass. Huesca: Benasque, moraine of Aneto glacier. 42º 39'N-0º 40'E. NE, 10 m2. 9. Huesca: Benasque, Barrancs, glaciar circus of Aneto. E, 4 m2. 10. Huesca: Benasque, Lago Coronas. N, 30%, 10 m2. 11. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Costa & P. Soriano]

Alchemillo saxatilis-Saxifragetum pentadactylis Gruber & Focquet ass. nova hoc loco (27.6.1)

[Saxifragetum mixtae saxifragetosum bryoidis Gruber 1978 nom. inval. (art. 1), Saxifrago-Alchemilletum saxatilis Focquet in Doc. Phytosoc. 7: 171. 1982 (art. 5), Saxifrago pentadactylis-Alchemilletum saxatilis Focquet ex Benito in Acta Bot. Malacitana 25: 212. 2000 (art. 5)]
(Androsacion vandellii, Androsacetalia vandellii, Asplenietea trichomanis)

Typus associatio: M. Gruber (1978): La vegetation des Pyrénées Ariègeoises et Catalanes occidentales (these doct.), page 44, tb. 2, rel. 19. Fac. Sciences St. Jerôme. Marseille nom. inval. (art. 1). [France, Ariège: Pic Rouge de Belcaire, alt. 2620 m, NE, 100 m2]. Characteristic species: 1 Saxifraga pentadactylis, + Alchemilla saxatilis, + Asplenium septentrionale, + Draba dubia subsp. laevipes, + Potentilla nivalis, + Saxifraga aspera, + Saxifraga bryoides. Companion species: + Huperzia selago, + Phyteuma hemisphaericum, + Sedum brevifolium.

Characteristic species (territorials): Saxifraga intricata, Saxifraga pentadactylis.

Diagnosis: Silicicolous cryorotemperate chasmophyte perennial community, well characterized by the Pyrenean endemics Saxifraga pentadactylis subsp. pentadactylis and Saxifraga intricata. It grows on fissured cliffy rock faces in Central and East Pyrenees.

[Benito & Rivas-Martínez]

Ampelodesmo mauritanicae-Arbutetum unedonis ass. nova hoc loco (75.6.1)

(Oleo-Ceratonion, Pistacio lentisci-Rhamnetalia alaterni, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Table 3, rel. 9 [Mallorca. Artá: Sa Poca Son. Alt.: 242 m, exp.: NW, area: 90 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Clematis cirrhosa var. balearica, Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, Rubia peregrina subsp. longifolia, Smilax aspera var. balearica, Teucrium chamaedrys subsp. pinnatifidum.

Diagnosis: Phanerophytic sclerophyllous community with an optimum in the thermomediterranean subhumid-humid bioclimatic belts of the Balearic biogeographical Subprovince. It is usually found in gravelly soils derived from dolomitic rocks, and locally in clayey soils from the Keuper, as a substitution stage of Quercus ilex forests.

Table 3

75.6.1 Ampelodesmo mauritanicae-Arbutetum unedonis
(Oleo-Ceratonion, Pistacio-Rhamnetalia alaterni, Quercetea ilicis)

Altitude (1=10 m) 25 23 15 14 17 16 20 22 24 15 55 23 20 22
Number of species 16 12 16 12 14 12 12 16 13 15 9 9 9 13
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 10 11 12 13 14
Characteristic species:
Arbutus unedo 4 4 2 5 4 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 V
Ampelodesmos mauritanica . 1 + + 1 + . + 1 1 + 3 3 V
Phillyrea angustifolia 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 . . + . + + IV
Rubia longifolia 1 + + + + + . + + 1 . . + IV
Pistacia lentiscus + . + + + + . 1 + 1 + . . IV
Pinus halepensis + . + . + + 1 + . . . + . III
Smilax balearica + . + . + . . 1 + 1 . . + III
Quercus coccifera 1 . 2 + . + 3 3 . . . . . III
Quercus ilex . + . + + . . + + + . . . III
Teucrium pinnatifidum + + . . . . . . + + . . + II
Lonicera implexa + . . . + . . + + + . . . II
Rhamnus alaternus + . + . + . . + . . . . . II
Chamaerops humilis + . + . . . . + . . . . + II
Osyris alba . + . . + . . + . + . . . II
Asparagus acutifolius . + . . . . + . + . . + . II
Clematis balearica + . . . . + . . . + . . . II
Olea sylvestris . + . . . . + . . + . . . II
Companion species:
Calicotome spinosa . + + 1 . . + + + 3 2 + + IV
Dorycnium pentaphyllum + + + + + . + + . . + + . IV
Cistus salviifolius + . + + . . + + . + . + . III
Erica multiflora + . . + . + . 1 + . . + . III
Cistus albidus . 1 + + . . + . .   +     II

Other species. Characteristic species: Erica arborea 1 in 9, + in 11. Myrtus communis + in 9 and 11. Juniperus oxycedrus + in 6. Daphne gnidium + in 13. Companion species: Carlina corymbosa + in 1 and 10. Teucrium capitatum + in 3 and 6. Cistus monspeliensis + in 5, 1 in 7. Rosmarinus officinalis + in 6 and 11. Fumana thymifolia + in 3. Cyclamen balearicum + in 5. Bonjeanea hirsuta 1 in 7.

Localities: 1. Mallorca. Artá: Puig des Coscolls. 100 m2. 2. Mallorca. Artá: Na Carro. NE, 120 m2. 3. Mallorca: Entre Porreres y Llucmajor. S, 110 m2. 4. Mallorca. Palma: Coll de sa Creu. NE, 100 m2. 5. Mallorca. Artá: Son Forteza. NW, 100 m2. 6. Eivissa : Serra de San Joan. NE, 120 m2. 7. Mallorca. Palma: Son Cotoner. S, 120 m2. 8. Mallorca. Palma: Entre Capdellá y Galilea. SE, 100 m2. 9. Holotypus ass. Mallorca. Artá: Sa Poca Son. NW, 90 m2. 10. Mallorca. Artá: Puig d"Esquerra. E, 100 m2. 11. Mallorca. Lluc (Keuper). NW, 90 m2. 12. Mallorca. Artá: Sa Duaia. SW, 100 m2. 13. Mallorca. Felanitx: Puig de Santueri. E, 100 m2. 14. Synthesized table.

[Llorens, Gil & Tébar]

Andryalo laxiflorae-Hyparrhenietum hirtae Peinado, Martínez-Parras & Alcaraz ass. nova hoc loco (56.7.2)

[Andryalo laxiflorae-Hyparrhenietum hirtae Peinado, Martínez-Parras & Alcaraz in Bartolomé, Peinado, Martínez-Parras, Alcaraz & J. Alvarez Cruz 1989 nom. inval. (art. 1)]
(Hyparrhenion hirtae, Hyparrhenietalia hirtae, Lygeo-Stipetea)

Typus associatio: Cádiz: Between Medina-Sidonia and Vejer de la Frontera, 80 m, 20 m2. Characteristic species: 3 Hyparrhenia sinaica, 2 Hyparrhenia hirta, 1 Dactylis hispanica, + Andryala laxiflora, + Bituminaria bituminosa. Companion species: 1 Melica magnolii, 1 Phagnalon saxatile, + Carlina hispanica, + Cynodon dactylon, + Galactites tomentosa.

Characteristic species (territorials): Andryala laxiflora, Hyparrhenia hirta, Hyparrhenia sinaica.

Diagnosis: Perennial subnitrophilous grassland community of Gaditan-Algarvian and Aracenan-Pacensian distribution. It is dominated by paleotropical Andropogoneae such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Hyparrhenia sinaica and other companion species such as Andryala laxiflora, a silicicolous southwest Iberian and Tangerine element with thick capitula covered with dense, glandular-hairy indumentum.

[Díez Garretas & Asensi]

Anthoxantho ovati-Vulpietum geniculatae ass. nova hoc loco (39.10.1)

(Echio plantaginei-Galactition tomentosae, Thero-Brometalia, Stellarietea mediae)

Typus associatio: Table 4, rel. 6 [Toledo: Castillo de Bayuela. 30TUK54. 400 m, SW, 10 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Anthoxanthum ovatum, Gaudinia fragilis, Hordeum geniculatum, Phalaris paradoxa, Vulpia geniculata.

Diagnosis: Lusitan-Extremadurean mesomediterranean euoceanic community, slightly nitrophilous and flowering in late spring, where many tall grasses are abundant: Vulpia geniculata, Anthoxanthum ovatum, Gaudinia fragilis, Phalaris paradoxa, Bromus hordeaceus, Hordeum geniculatum, etc., as well as several legumes: Trifolium resupinatum, Medicago arabica. Developed on sandy siliceous soils, on depressions and lower part of valleys with shallow temporary floods, they evolve to perennial grasslands in course of the time, because sheep and cattle grazing, the Agrostis castellana formations (Gaudinio-Agrostietum castellanae) or the Poa bulbosa formations (Trifolio subterranei-Poetum bulbosae). A. new alliance: Vulpio geniculatae-Hordeion geniculati (in progress) will be proposed for this type of therophytic mediterranean sligthly nitrophilous temporary wet ephemerous communities.

Table 4

39.10.1 Anthoxantho ovati-Vulpietum geniculatae
(Echio-Galactition, Thero-Brometalia, Stellarietea mediae)

Altitude (1=10 m) 42 45 40 40 40 40 40 41
Number of species 11 11 11 12 12 13 14 12
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6* 7 8
Characteristic species:
Vulpia geniculata 5 2 4 5 4 5 5 V
Gaudinia fragilis 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 V
Phalaris paradoxa 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 V
Anthoxanthum ovatum + 3 3 2 1 2 2 V
Bromus hordeaceus 1 . + 1 2 1 1 IV
Trifolium resupinatum . 1 3 1 2 2 1 IV
Geranium dissectum . + + 1 1 + 1 IV
Medicago arabica . . . 1 + + 1 III
Hordeum leporinum 1 . . . + + . III
Echium plantagineum . 1 . 1 . . + III
Hordeum geniculatum . . 3 . 3 2 . III
Coleostephus myconis 1 . . . + . . II
Bromus diandrus . . + . . 1 . II
Galactites tomentosa . . . + . . + II
Raphanus raphanistrum . . . + . . + II
Companion species:
Poa infirma . . 2 . + 1 . III
Trifolium repens . 1 . 1 . . . II

Other species. Characteristic species: Trifolium campestre 2, Cynosurus echinatus 1, Lolium rigidum 1, Parentucellia viscosa 1 in 1. Holcus annuus 1, Leontodon longirostris 1 in 2. Diplotaxis catholica + in 3. Plantago lagopus +, Sonchus asper +, Vicia sativa + in 7. Companion species: Plantago coronopus 1, Silene gallica 1 in 1. Juncus squarrosus 1 in 2.

Localities: 1. Toledo: Cervera de los Montes, desviation to Pepino. 30TUK43. N, 5%, 10 m2. 2. Toledo: Sartajada. 30TUK45. S, 20 m2. 3. Toledo. Castillo de Bayuela. El Cruce. 30TUK54. S, 2%, 10 m2. 4. Toledo: Garciotún. 30TUK64. N, 5%, 10 m2. 5. Toledo. Castillo de Bayuela, between Castillo de Bayuela and Nuño Gómez. 30TUK54. S, 5%, 20 m2. 6. Holotypus ass. Toledo. Castillo de Bayuela. 30TUK54. SW, 10%, 10 m2. 7. Toledo. Garciotún. 30TUK64. E, 5%, 10 m2. 8. Synthesized table.

[Cantó]

Anthyllido lusitanicae-Tuberarietum guttatae ass. nova hoc loco (50.1.3)

(Tuberarion guttatae, Tuberarietalia guttatae, Tuberarietea guttatae)

Typus associatio: Table 5, rel. 9 [Tras-os-Montes: Bragança, Parada. 480 m., S, 20%, 4 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. lusitanica, Coronilla dura, Hymenocarpos lotoides.

Diagnosis: Floristically homogeneous and rather diverse annual community, with an optimum in the mesomediterranean subhumid areas of the Lusitan Duriensean Sector, it also appears locally in the Orensan-Sanabriensean Sector only in favourable exposures or substrata (basic rocks). It usually grows on thin soils (leptosols) derived from schist or basic rocks, in the clearings of Cistus ladanifer communities, as a substitution stage of Lusitan Duriensean cork oak (Quercus suber) or holly oak (Quercus rotundifolia) forests. The most relevant taxa of its characteristic species combination are: Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. lusitanica, Coronilla repanda subsp. dura, Galium parisiense, Hymenocarpos lotoides, Hypochoeris glabra, Leontodon longirostris, Logfia minima, Ornithopus compressus, Tolpis barbata, Trifolium campestre, Vulpia myuros and Tuberaria guttata.

Table 5

50.1.3 Anthyllido lusitanicae-Tuberarietum guttatae
(Tuberarion guttatae, Tuberarietalia guttatae, Tuberarietea guttatae)

Altitude (1=10m) 41 57 61 65 54 64 60 52 48 50 55
Number of species 11 15 18 19 18 18 19 24 25 25 19
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 10 11
Characteristic species:
Tuberaria guttata 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 V
Coronilla dura 2 + 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 V
Anthyllis lotoides 1 1 2 1 1 + 2 1 1 1 V
Leontodon longirostris + 1 1 + 3 . + + 3 3 V
Trifolium arvense 2 . 1 + 2 2 2 1 2 2 V
Hypochoeris glabra 1 . 1 + + . 1 + 1 + IV
Trifolium campestre 2 1 . 2 . 1 2 + . + IV
Anthyllis lusitanica . + . 1 + . 1 1 + + IV
Logfia minima + . . . + 1 1 . + + III
Tolpis barbata . . . . + + + + + 1 III
Vulpia myuros 1 2 2 . . . . + . 1 III
Aira cupaniana + . . . + . . + + + III
Galium parisiense + . . . . + 1 . + 1 III
Ornithopus compressus . . 1 . . + 1 1 + . III
Vicia lutea . + . . 1 . + . + . II
Crucianella angustifolia . . . + + . . . + + II
Briza maxima . . . + . + . + + . II
Asterolinon linum-stellatum . . . . . . + + + + II
Trifolium angustifolium . + . . . 1 . + . . II
Jasione montana . . 1 . + + . . . . II
Eryngium tenue . . . + . + . . . + II
Petrorhagia nanteuilii . . . . . . 1 + + . II
Companion species:
Vicia angustifolia . . . + 1 . + 1 + + III
Andryala integrifolia . . 1 + . + . + . . II

Other species. Characteristic species: Aira caryophyllea + in 3 and 6. Micropyrum tenellum + in 4 and 8. Euphorbia merinoi + in 4 and 10. Vulpia bromoides 1 in 5 and 9. Anthoxanthum aristatum + in 5, 1 in 10. Trifolium glomeratum + in 7, 1 in 9. Daucus durieua + in 7 and 9. Logfia gallica + in 7, 1 in 10. Lathyrus angulatus + in 8 and 9. Moenchia erecta + in 3. Lathyrus sphaericus + in 4. Vulpia muralis 1, Campanula lusitanica +, Trifolium bocconei + in 6. Linaria amethystea +, Psilurus incurvus +, Silene gallica + in 8. Vicia disperma + in 9. Brachypodium distachyon +, Cerastium brachypetalum +, Teesdalia coronopifolia + in 10. Companion species: Sanguisorba verrucosa 1 in 2, + in 3 and 4. Carlina corymbosa 1 in 2, + in 4. Pimpinella villosa 1 in 2, + in 5. Lotus carpetanus + in 2 and 5. Bromus madritensis + in 3 and 9. Trifolium hirtum 1, Avena barbata +, Eryngium campestre + in 2. Bromus tectorum 3, Rumex angiocarpus 1, Biserrula pelecinus +, Sesamoides purpurascens + in 3. Sedum forsteranum + in 4. Cynosurus echinatus + in 6. Astragalus cymbaecarpos + in 8. Sherardia arvensis + in 9. Misopates orontium +, Torilis nodosa + in 10.

Localities: 1. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Vimioso, Matela. 29TPF99. SE, 20%, 3 m2. 2. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Bragança, Alfaião, near to aldeia. 29TPG82. S, 25%, 4 m2. 3. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Macedo de Cavaleiros, Salselas. 29TPG70. 5 m2. 4. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Bragança, Babe, near to the road Alta Lombada. 29TPG93. E, 40%, 8 m2. 5. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Bragança, Grijó de Parada. 29TPG92. WSW, 5%, 10 m2. 6. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Macedo de Cavaleiros, Estação de Sendas. 29TPG70. N, 25%, 9 m2. 7. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Bragança, Quintanilha, Vidoleiros. 29TQG02. SSE, 20%, 16 m2. 8. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Mogadouro, Soutelo. 29TPF88. ENE, 30%, 9 m2. 9. Holotypus ass. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Bragança, Parada. 29TPG91. S, 20%, 4 m2. 10. Lu, Trás-os-Montes: Bragança, S. Pedro, near to the bridge Penacal. 29TPG82. SW, 50%, 4 m2. 11. Synthesized table.

[Aguiar & Penas]

Apietum bermejoi ass. nova hoc loco (12.3.1)

(Rorippion nasturtii-aquatici, Nasturtio-Glycerietalia, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea)

Typus associatio: Table 6, rel. 1 [Minorca. Cap Negre Alt.: 20 m, exp. NE, 0.1 m2].

Characteristic species: Apium bermejoi.

Diagnosis: Aerohaline and temporary wet annual and perennial cespitose community, well characterized by the local endemic small umbeliferous Apium bermejoi, that grows in the NE littoral of Minorca (Balearic Islands). The syntaxonomical position is intermediate between Rorippion nasturtii-aquatici and Launaeion cervicornis (Crithmo-Limonietea).

Table 6

12.3.1 Apietum bermejoi
(Rorippion nasturtii-aquatici, Nasturtio-Glycerietalia, Phragmito-Magnocaricetea)

Altitude (1=10 m) 2 2 3 2
Number of species 3 3 5 4
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4
Characteristic species:
Apium bermejoi 5 5 3 3
Companion species:
Polycarpon colomense . + + 2
Bellium bellidioides + . . 1
Senecio rodriguezii + . . 1
Plantago coronopus . 1 . 1
Sagina maritima . . 1 1
Daucus commutatus . . + 1
Limonium fontqueri . . + 1

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Minorca. Cap Negre. NE, 0.1 m2. 2. Minorca. Cap Negre. NE, 0.1 m2. 3. Minorca. Cap Negre. NE, 1 m2 (Rivas-Martínez, 23.04.1996). 4. Synthesized table.

[Llorens & Gil]

Armerio microcephalae-Festucetum aragonensis (Rivas-Martínez & G. Navarro in G. Navarro 1989) ass. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (49.2.3)

[Antennario dioicae-Festucetum aragonensis armerietosum microcephalae Rivas-Martínez & G. Navarro in G. Navarro in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 5: 12, tb. 1. 1989 (basion.) (art. 27d, 46H)]
(Minuartio-Festucion curvifoliae, Festucetalia indigestae, Festucetea indigestae)

Typus associatio: G. Navarro in Opusc. Bot. Pharm. Complut. 5: 12-13, tb. 1, rel. 2. 1989. Holotypus. [Zaragoza: Moncayo, Pico Lobera. 2230 m, SSE, 100 m2]. Characteristic species: 2 Festuca aragonensis, 2 Armeria bigerrensis subsp. microcephala, 2 Biscutella pyrenaica, 2 Hieracium vahlii, 2 Silene ciliata subsp. elegans, 2 Luzula hispanica, 2 Jasione crispa subsp. centralis, 1 Veronica fruticans; Companion species: 2 Antennaria dioica, 2 Deschampsia iberica, 1 Ranunculus ollissiponensis subsp. alpinus, 1 Senecio pyrenaicus subsp. aragonensis, 1 Juniperus communis subsp. nana, 1 Cetraria nivalis, 1 Rumex angiocarpus, 1 Saxifraga granulata, + Cerastium alpinum, + Solidago virgaurea subsp. fallit-tirones.

Characteristic species: Armeria bigerrensis subsp. microcephala, Festuca aragonensis.

Diagnosis: Climatophilous psicroxerophilous silicicolous short pastures, formed mainly by grassy, clustered hemicryptophytes and pulviniform chamaephytes, characteristic of the upper humid orotemperate submediterranean belt (cryorosubmediterranean and orosubmediterranean) of the summit areas of the Moncayo (Moncayense district, Sorian Oroiberian Sector). It is developed on spurs and windy slopes often without winter snow covering, over 2000 m, it is well characterized and independent from the other summit associations of the Sorian Oroiberian Sector by the Moncayo endemics: Armeria bigerrensis subsp. microcephala and Festuca aragonensis. The absence of the silicicolous orophytes: Festuca curvifolia, Minuartia recurva, Leucanthemopsis alpina subsp. cuneata, and Luzula caespitosa, is also important in the Moncayense district. These latter species are common in the climatophilous geovicarian urbionense association Antennario dioicae-Festucetum curvifoliae.

[Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Sánchez-Mata]

Armerio transmontanae-Plantaginetum radicatae ass. nova hoc loco (49.5.2)

(Hieracio castellani-Plantaginion radicatae, Jasiono-Koelerietalia crassipedis, Festucetea indigestae)

Typus associatio: Table 7, rel. 6 [Tras-os-Montes: Bragança, Mofreita, in the way to Moimenta, 950 m, 10 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Armeria transmontana, Dianthus langeanus, Dianthus laricifolius.

Diagnosis: Shallow and rocky acid soils pioneer perennial community, frequent on cliffs and quartzitic outcrops, dominated by Armeria transmontana, Dianthus langeanus, Dianthus laricifolius, Koeleria crassipes, Plantago radicata and Thymus zygis. In this association, two subassociations are easily recognised. The subass. plantaginetosum radicatae has a biogeographic optimum in the Orensan-Sanabriensean Sector and it is differentiated by the presence of Agrostis truncatula subsp. commista, Anthemis alpestris, Corynephorus canescens, Dianthus langeanus, Festuca elegans, Ornithogalum concinnum and Rumex angiocarpus. The subass. dianthetosum laricifolii (typus rel. 7) is a Lusitan Duriensean community differentiated by Asperula scabra, Dianthus laricifolius and Melica ciliata subsp. magnolii.

Table 7

49.5.2 Armerio transmontanae-Plantaginetum radicatae
(Hieracio castellani-Plantaginion radicatae, Jasiono-Koelerietalia crassipedis, Festucetea indigestae)

Altitude (1=10m) 105 103 122 110 92 95 65 53 93
Number of species 16 18 11 15 13 9 17 14 14
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5 6* 7 8 9
Characteristic species:
Armeria transmontana 1 + + + 2 1 1 + V
Plantago radicata 2 1 2 2 . 3 2 2 V
Lotus carpetanus 1 + 1 + . . 1 . IV
Dianthus langeanus . . + + 2 2 . . III
Hieracium castellanum 1 . . . . 1 . . II
Herniaria scabrida . + . . . . 1 . II
Koeleria crassipes . . . + . . . 2 II
Sedum brevifolium . . . . 2 + . . II
Dianthus laricifolius . . . . . . 2 1 II
Companion species:
Agrostis castellana + + . + 2 1 2 1 V
Avenula sulcata 2 1 1 1 . 2 . . IV
Agrostis commista 1 . 1 1 1 . . . III
Thymus zygis . 3 . 2 . . 3 2 III
Jasione montana 1 + 1 . . . . . III
Lavandula sampaioana 1 + . . . . . + III
Halimium viscosum 3 . 3 2 . . . . III
Rumex angiocarpus + + . . + . . . III
Hypericum linarifolium + . . . + + . . III
Micropyrum tenellum . 1 . . 1 1 . . III

Other species. Characteristic species: Anthemis alpestris 1, Festuca elegans 1 in 3. Arenaria querioides 1, Festuca summilusitana 1 in 4. Companion species: Corynephorus canescens + in 1 and 2. Poa bulbosa + in 2, 1 in 4. Andryala integrifolia 1 in 7, + in 8. Eryngium campestre + in 7 and 8. Logfia minima + in 7 and 9. Thymus mastichina 1, Arenaria montana +, Helichrysum stoechas + in 1. Petrorhagia nanteuilii 1, Campanula rapunculus +, Cynosurus echinatus +, Genista hystrix +, Trisetaria ovata + in 2. Pterospartum lasianthum 2, Halimium alyssoides 1 in 3. Echinospartum ibericum 2, Festuca gr. ovina 1, Helianthemum rothmaleri 1 in 4. Arrhenatherum bulbosum 2, Holcus gayanus 1, Silene nutans 1, Anarrhinum bellidifolium +, Conopodium marizianum + in 5. Chamaemelum nobile 2, Cistus ladanifer 2, Dactylis hispanica 1, Leontodon longirostris 1, Trifolium campestre 1, Trifolium glomeratum 1, Tuberaria guttata 1, Vulpia muralis + in 7. Asperula scabra 1, Genista hystrix 1, Arrhenatherum bulbosum +, Carlina corymbosa +, Centaurea langeana + in 8.

Localities: 1. Lu, Bragança: Castrelos, Conlelas. 29TPG73. 70%, 6 m2 2. Lu, Bragança: Gostei, Formil, close to the house of Corriças. 29TPG72. 60%, 8 m2 3. Lu, Bragança: Rebordãos, close to the road to da Serra. 29TPG82. 70%, 8 m2 4. Lu, Bragança: Zoio, Martim, Serra de Nogueira. 29TPG72. 60%, 15 m2 5. Lu, Bragança: Carragosa, Soutelo. 29TPG83. 50%, 16 m2 6. Holotypus ass. Lu, Bragança: Mofreita, near to the road of Moimenta. 29TPG74. 60%, 10 m2. 7. Holotypus subass. Lu, Bragança: Babe. 29TPG93. 60%, 16 m2 8. Lu, Bragança: Gimonde. 29TPG93. 60%, 12 m2 9. Synthesized table.

[Aguiar]

Aro italici-Oleetum sylvestris ass. nova hoc loco (75.3.1)

[Tamo-Oleetum sylvestris sensu Rivas-Martínez, Mem. Mapa Series Veg. España: 153. 1987 non Benabid in Travaux Inst. Scientifique (Rabat), ser. Bot. 34: 7, tb. 2. 1985 (art. 5)]
(Querco rotundifoliae-Oleion sylvestris, Quercetalia ilicis, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Cádiz: From Medina Sidonia to Cantora hill, 160 m, 10%, 200 m2. 36º25'N-5º53'W. Characteristic species: 4 Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, 2 Arum italicum, 2 Clematis cirrhosa, 2 Pistacia lentiscus, 2 Smilax aspera var. altissima, 1 Arisarum simorrhinum var. subexertum, 1 Aristolochia baetica, 1 Asparagus albus, 1 Crataegus brevispina, 1 Eryngium tricuspidatum, 1 Phlomis purpurea, 1 Rhamnus oleoides, + Chamaerops humilis, + Ruscus aculeatus. Companion species: 2 Piptatherum miliaceum, 1 Brachypodium retusum, 1 Vinca difformis, + Bryonia dioica, + Smyrnium olusatrum.

Characteristic species (territorials): Arisarum simorrhinum var. subexertum, Aristolochia baetica, Arum italicum, Crataegus brevispina, Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, Phlomis purpurea, Rhamnus oleoides, Tamus communis, Vinca difformis.

Diagnosis: Meso-microforests in which the wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris) is the dominant tree, with an undergrowth rich in evergreen (Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus, Rhamnus oleoides, Phlomis purpurea) or deciduous shrubs (Crataegus brevispina), as well as an important number of vines (Aristolochia baetica, Clematis cirrhosa, Smilax aspera, Tamus communis, Vinca difformis) and geophytes (Arisarum vulgare var. subexertum, Arum italicum). These thermophilous Betic and Gaditan-Algarvian wild olive forests grow on soils where the expandable clayey prevents the sclerophyllous trees such as the evergreen oak (Quercus rotundifolia) from establishing or turns it difficult as in the case of the cork oak (Quercus suber). Both the two evergreen species are usually the dominant trees in the head of the climatophilous series of the thermomediterranean forests with dry and subhumid ombrotype, mainly in those growing on soils without vertic or gleic character. The substitution stages of these climatophilous verticicolous Olea forests (Olea sylvestris) belong to endemic thermomediterranean West Iberian communities, such as the shrub formations of Pistacia lentiscus and hawthorns of the Asparago albi-Rhamnetum oleoidis, some Betic-Jerezanan associations of perennial pastures of clustered grasses of the alliance Gaudinio-Hordeion bulbosi, and the verticicolous thyme formations of the Asperulo hirsutae-Ulicetum scabri.

The floristic separation of the Iberian association Aro italici-Oleetum sylvestris from its Rif-Tingitane geovicariant Tamo-Oleetum sylvestris Benabid 1985, also with its optimum in the vertisols, can be established by the existence in the Iberian Olea forests of Crataegus brevispina, Phlomis purpurea subsp. purpurea and Rhamnus oleoides subsp. oleoides, as well as the absence of Ampelodesmos mauritanica, Buxus balearica, Calicotome intermedia, Crataegus maura, Tetraclinis articulata, etc., present in the Northafrican association.

[Rivas-Martínez & Cantó]

Artemisio albae-Dichanthion ischaemi X. Font all. nova hoc loco (51.4)

[Artemisio albae-Xerobromenion X. Font in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 105: 95. 1993 (art. 5), Genistello sagittalis-Xerobromenion X. Font in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 105: 105. 1993 (art. 5), Xerobromion "thermofile" et Xerobromion "acidophile" sensu X. Font 1989 non Xerobromion (Br.-Bl. & Moor 1938) Moravec in Holub, Hejný, Moravec & Neuhäusl 1967]
(Brachypodietalia phoenicoidis, Festuco-Brometea)

Typus alliancia: Cleistogeno serotinae-Dichanthietum ischaemi Carreras & X. Font in Carreras, Carrillo, X. Font, Ninot & Vigo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 14: 182, holotypus: tb. 5, rel. 2. 1983. [Lleida: Alt Urgell, entre Martinet i Pont de Bas, Pic del Aguila. CG 89. 970 m, S, 20, 75 m2].

Characteristic species: Artemisia alba, Artemisia campestris subsp. campestris, Centaurea paniculata subsp. leucophaea, Cleistogenes serotina, Dichanthium ischaemum, Melica ciliata subsp. ciliata.

Diagnosis: Submediterranean meso-supratemperate subhumid to lower humid xerophytic inner valley Prepyrenean and East Pyrenean steppe-like communities rich in graminoid and chamaephytes, growing on nutrient rich or poor shallow soils. Could be regarded as geovicariant of Diplachnion serotinae Br.-Bl. 1961 of the inner Alps.

Achilleo odoratae-Bothriochloetum ischaemi Vigo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 7(2): 1182. 1968 (51.4.1)

Distribution: Silicicolous xeric on humid ombrotype in high Ter and Llobregat rivers (Alt Berguedà, Ripollès).

Cleistogeno serotinae-Dichanthietum ischaemi Carreras & X. Font in Carreras, Carrillo, X. Font, Ninot & Vigo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 14: 182, tb. 5. 1983 (51.4.2)

Distribution: From Cinca to Segre rivers, neutrophilous and thermophilous community characterized by Cleistogenes serotina (Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, Pallars, Alt Urgell, Andorra and Baixa Cerdanya).

Diantho geminiflori-Phleetum phleoidis X. Font in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 105: 113, tb. 16. 1993 (51.4.3)

Distribution: Neutrophilous to acidophilous xeric High Pyrenean community, intermediate with Chamaespartio-Agrostienion capillaris, from Isabena to Cinca rivers.

Festuco andres-molinae-Saturejetum montanae G. Montserrat, Actas del Congreso de Botánica en homenaje a Francisco Loscos: 743, tb. 2. 2000 corr. Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González, Izco, Loidi, Lousã & Penas 2002 (corr. nova) (51.4.4)

Distribution: Calcicolous xeric rich in shifting stones Prepyrenean Ribagorzan.

Jurineo humilis-Stipetum eriocaulis Romo in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 90: 430, tb. 27. 1989 (51.4.5)

Distribution: Calcicolous wind exposed Prepyrenean Montsiccianean (Pallars Jussà, Alt Urgell).

Koelerio gracilis-Avenuletum ibericae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Moor 1938 corr. O. Bolòs in Carreras, Carrillo, X. Font, Ninot & Vigo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 14: 156, tb. 1. 1983 (51.4.6)

[ass. à Avena amethystina et Koeleria gracilis Br.-Bl. & Moor, Prod. Group. Vég. (Bromion erecti) 5: 21. 1938]

Distribution: Neutrophilous to acidophilous xeric Eastern Pyrenean community, intemediate with Chamaespartio-Agrostienion capillaris (Conflent, Cerdanya, Andorra, Ariege, Pallars).

Polygalo gerundensis-Ononidetum spinosae O. Bolòs in Veg. Montseny: 59. 1983 (51.4.7)

Distribution: Acidophilous xeric Montsignatic.

Teucrio montani-Avenuletum mirandanae Carrillo & Ninot in Carreras, Carrillo, X. Font, Ninot & Vigo in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 14: 188, tb. 6. 1983 (51.4.8)

Distribution: Basophilous xeric in calc-schist shallow soils (Pallars Sobirà).

[Rivas-Martínez & M.L. López]

Artemisio valentinae-Camphorosmetum monspeliacae ass. nova hoc loco (37.1.7)

(Salsolo vermiculatae-Peganion harmalae, Salsolo-Peganetalia, Pegano-Salsoletea)

Typus associatio: Table 8, rel. 5 [Huesca: Between Lanaja and Castejón de Monegros, Valzapatas, 30TYM215145, vertic soils, temporally wet, 620 m, 20 m2].

Characteristic species: Camphorosma monspeliaca.

Diagnosis: Communities from cattle tracks and clayey resting lands where the sheep pass through, in which the compact procumbent shrub with erect flowering branches Camphorosma monspeliaca (sisallo alcanforado) is often abundant. It has its best representation on the clayey nitrificated or gypsum-clayey soils with vertic character and a slightly temporary hydromorphy, in the mesomediterranean xeric and pluviestational dry belt in the middle basin Ebro river (Bardenan-Monegrensean Sector). It can form mosaics together with other perennial meadow communities of the Salsolo-Peganion or Astragalo-Poion bulbosae, in the territories belonging to the vegetation series of the Rhamno-Querco cocciferae sigmetum and Junipero phoeniceo-thuriferae sigmetum. Now it is a threatened habitat because of the great decrease of shepherding caused by changes in the use of the territory.

Table 8

37.1.7 Artemisio valentinae-Camphorosmetum monspeliacae
(Salsolo vermiculatae-Peganion harmalae, Salsolo-Peganetalia, Pegano-Salsoletea)

Altitude (1=10m) 37 52 62 43 62 62 38 62 41 73 28 51
Number of species 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 7
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4 5* 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Characteristic species:
Camphorosma monspeliaca 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 4 4 3 3 V
Artemisia valentina . 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 V
Salsola vermiculata + 1 1 + + + + + . . + IV
Atriplex halimus 1 + . . . . . . . .   II
Companion species:
Brachypodium retusum . . + . + + . + . . 1 III
Eryngium campestre . . + . . . + + + . + III
Festuca andres-molinae . . . + 1 + . + 1 .   III
Poa bulbosa . . . 1 . . 1 + 2 +   III
Avenula bromoides . . + . + + . . . 1   III
Dactylis hispanica . . . 1 . . . . 2 2 1 III
Koeleria vallesiana . . . + . . . . . + 2 II
Thymus vulgaris . . . . . + . + . .   II

Other species. Characteristic species: Helichrysum stoechas + in 11. Companion species: Aizoon hispanicum 1, Sisymbrium runcinatum + in 1. Medicago sativa + in 2. Stipa iberica + in 5. Astragalus alopecuroides +, Herniaria fruticosa +, Plantago albicans + in 7. Marrubium alysson + in 9. Helianthemum hirtum 1, Parapholis incurva +, Spergularia heldreichii + in 10. Globularia alypum + in 11.

Localities: 1. Huesca: Sariñena. Between Pallaruelo de Monegros and Castejón de Monegros. El Campo de Ripoll, open places with vertic soils temporally flooded, 30TYM318187, 10 m2. 2. Huesca: Alcubierre. Sierra de Alcubierre. Barranco de S. Caprasio, Balsa Pina. Sheep trails, 30TYM111289, 10 m2. 3, 5, 6 and 8. Huesca: Between Lanaja and Castejón de Monegros, Valzapatas, open places with vertic soils temporally flooded, 30TYM215145, 20 m2. Holotypus ass.: rel. 5. 4. Huesca: Between Lanaja and Castejón de Monegros, "Ermita de S. Martín", open places and sheep trails with vertic soils temporally flooded, close to Lygeum spartum communities (Eremopyro cristati-Lygeetum sparti), 30TYM215225, 20 m2. 7. Zaragoza: Leciñena. Balse de Leciñena. Sheep trails, 30TXM978301, 4 m2. 9. Huesca: Lanaja. "Paridera de Fuente Amarga". Open places and sheep trails, 30TYM209256, 10 m2. 10. Huesca: Alcubierre. Sierra de Alcubierre. Valdelupo, "Corrales de Casaús", 30TYM097255, 10 m2. 11. Huesca: Gurrea de Gállego. "Acequia del Soto" between La Paul and the Hermitage of "Nuestra Señora del Salz", gypseous cliff-foothills, 20% slope, 30TXM828490, 20 m2. 12. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Cantó & Sánchez-Mata]

Asparago acutifolii-Quercetum rotundifoliae ass. nova hoc loco (75.1.6)

[Quercetum rotundifoliae "alcarreño" Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Esteve, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 17(2): 340, tb. 6. 1960 (art. 2c, 3b), Bupleuro rigidi-Quercetum rotundifoliae Rivas-Martínez 1982 (art. 2b)]
(Quercenion rotundifoliae, Quercion ilicis, Quercetalia ilicis, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Table 9, rel. 1 [Guadalajara: Pozo de Guadalajara. 40º 29'N-03º 10'W. Humic luvisol on limestone. 820 m, W, 5%, 200 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Aristolochia paucinervis, Asparagus acutifolius, Bupleurum rigidum, Quercus rotundifolia, Silene mellifera.

Diagnosis: Stone-oak (Quercus rotundifolia) microforests representing the potential vegetation in the dry mesomediterranean territories of the Manchean Sector, on base-rich soils developed on limestones, or calcareous or gypseous marles. Although they have been traditionally merged with the low Aragonese stone-oak microforests belonging to the association Quercetum rotundifoliae, both associations can be differentiated by the higher frequency in the former of plants like Asparagus acutifolius, Daphne gnidium, Silene mellifera, Aristolochia paucinervis, Colutea hispanica, etc, while the differential elements of the latter are Centaurea linifolia, Rosa pimpinellifolia, etc.

Table 9

75.1.6 Asparago acutifolii-Quercetum rotundifoliae
(Quercenion rotundifoliae, Quercion ilicis, Quercetalia ilicis, Quercetea ilicis)

Altitude (1=10m) 82 62 65 60 77 69
Number of species 18 14 21 8 21 16
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5 6
Characteristic species:
Quercus rotundifolia 5 5 5 4 5 V
Asparagus acutifolius 1 3 + + 1 V
Rubia peregrina 2 3 1 . + IV
Rhamnus lycioides . + + + 1 IV
Jasminum fruticans 1 . . + 1 III
Daphne gnidium + . + . . II
Teucrium pinnatifidum 2 . . . 1 II
Bupleurum rigidum 2 . . . + II
Silene mellifera + . . . + II
Rhamnus alaternus . + . . 2 II
Quercus coccifera . . + . 2 II
Colutea hispanica . . + . + II
Companion species:
Aristolochia pistolochia . + + . 1 III
Asphodelus cerasiferus . 2 1 . . II
Geranium purpureum . + 1 . . II
Galium aparinella . + + . . II
Thymus zygis . + + . . II
Stipa tenacissima . + . 1 . II
Dactylis hispanica . + . . 1 II
Arrhenatherum album . + . . + II
Helianthemum rotundifolium . . + . + II

Other species. Characteristic species: Lonicera etrusca 1, Ruscus aculeatus 1 in 1. Aristolochia paucinervis + in 1. Ephedra nebrodensis 1 in 4. Juniperus lagunae 2, Pistacia terebinthus 2, Carex distachya 1, Lonicera implexa + in 5. Companion species: Brachypodium retusum 1, Dorycnium pentaphyllum 1, Genista scorpius 1, Avenula pauneroi +, Cistus albidus +, Geum sylvaticum +, Rhamnus infectorius + in 1. Cistus clusii + in 2. Bryonia dioica +, Bupleurum fruticescens +, Carex halleriana +, Ononis fruticosa +, Salvia lavandulifolia +, Teucrium pseudochamaepitys +, Thapsia villosa +, Thymus vulgaris + in 3. Crataegus monogyna +, Leuzea conifera + in 4. Melica minuta +, Rosa micrantha +, Silene vulgaris + in 5.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Guadalajara: Pozo de Guadalajara. 40º 29'N-03º 10'W. Humic luvisol on limestone. W, 5%, 200 m2 (Rivas-Martínez, 10.06.72) 2. Madrid: Morata de Tajuña. W, 100 m2. 3. Madrid: Perales de Tajuña. NE, 100 m2. 4. Toledo: Seseña. E, 80 m2. 5. Madrid: San Agustín de Guadalix, cretacic limestones. NE, 150 m2. 6. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Cantó, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata]

Asparago albi-Quercetum cocciferae ass. nova hoc loco (75.5.3)

[Asparago-Rhamnetum oleoidis cocciferetosum Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday, Borja, Esteve, Galiano, Rigual & Rivas-Martínez in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 17(2): 324, tb. 3. 1960 p.p.]
(Asparago albi-Rhamnion oleoidis, Pistacio-Rhamnetalia alaterni, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Badajoz: Los Santos de Maimona, Sierra de los Santos. 38º 26'N-06º 18'W. Humic luvisol on hard and poor limestone. 560 m, S, 15%, 100 m2. Characteristicic species: 3 Quercus coccifera, 2 Asparagus albus, 2 Olea sylvestris, 2 Phlomis purpurea, 1 Eleaeoselinum foetidum, 1 Pistacia lentiscus, 1 Rhamnus fontqueri, + Asparagus acutifolius, + Jasminum fruticans, + Rubia peregrina subsp. longifolia. Companion species: 1 Bryonia dioica, 1 Cistus albidus 1 Dactylis hispanica, + Thapsia villosa. (Rivas-Martínez, 02.07.78).

Characteristic species (territorials): Asparagus albus, Phlomis purpurea, Rhamnus fontqueri.

Diagnosis: Dense evergreen scrubland or maquis, lower mesomediterranean dry to subhumid basophilous Marianic-Monchiquensean secondary or mantle community of Quercus rotundifolia natural potential vegetation microforests, dominated by Quercus coccifera subsp. coccifera, Olea sylvestris, Rhamnus fontqueri, Pistacia lentiscus, Phlomis purpurea subsp. purpurea and some dumosum lianes like Asparagus albus, Asparagus acutifolius or Rubia peregrina subsp. longifolia.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Asplenio adianti-nigri-Quercetum rotundifoliae (Carreras, Carrillo, Ninot & Vigo 1997) ass. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (75.1.7)

[Quercetum rotundifoliae asplenietosum adianti-nigri Carreras, Carrillo, Ninot & Vigo in Fragm. Fl. Geobot. 42(1): 99, tb. 1. 1997 (basion.) (art. 27d, 46H)]
(Quercenion rotundifoliae, Quercion ilicis, Quercetalia ilicis, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Carreras, Carrillo, Ninot & Vigo in Fragm. Fl. Geobot. 42(1): 99, tb. 1, rel. 9. 1997 [Lérida, Pallars Sobirá: Can Escales, between Vall Ferrera and Vall de Cardós. 940 m, 8º, 150 m2]. Characteristic species: 5 Quercus rotundifolia (sub. Q. ilex subsp. ballota), 1 Pistacia terebinthus, 1 Teucrium chamaedrys, 1 Rubia peregrina, + Asparagus acutifolius, + Juniperus phoenicea. Differential species: 2 Galium maritimum, 1 Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, + Hieracium sabaudum, Querco-Fagetea species: + Acer monspessulanum, + Amelanchier ovalis, + Prunus spinosa, + Quercus cerrioides, + Rosa sicula. Companion species: 1 Carex halleriana, 1 Festuca gr. ovina, 1 Saponaria ocymoides, 1 Silene nutans, + Arabis hirsuta, 1 Arenaria serpyllifolia, + Clinopodium vulgare, + Dactylis glomerata, + Galium pumilum, + Juniperus communis, + Melica ciliata,+ Pinus sylvestris, + Psoralea bituminosa, + Sedum album, + Trifolium arvense, + Vicia hirsuta.

Characteristic species (territorials): Acer monspessulanum, Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Galium maritimum, Juniperus communis, Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. lagunae, Juniperus phoenicea, Quercus cerrioides, Quercus rotundifolia, Rosa sicula, Rubia peregrina.

Diagnosis: Evergreen oak Quercus rotundifolia microforest, growing on dry and sunny slopes, mainly on dystric siliceous cambisols and leptosols, in the meso and supratemperate submediterranean subhumid bioclimatic belt; found in deep, steep, dry valleys in Eastern Pyrenean Biogeographic Sector (Pallars Sobirá, Andorra, Alt Urgell). Well characterized in contrast with the mesomediterranean and supramediterranean or submediterranean associations Quercetum rotundifoliae and Buxo-Quercetum rotundifoliae by: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium trichomanes, Festuca liviensis, Galium maritimum, Hieracium glaucinum (prob. subsp. similatum), Hieracium sabaudum (prob. subsp. lugdunense), Hylotelephium maximum, Juniperus oxycedrus var. lagunae, Lathyrus linifolius, Pteridium aquilinum, Sedum rupestre, Teucrium scorodonia, Veronica officinalis, etc., and also by the absence of: Brachypodium retusum, Buxus sempervirens, Lonicera implexa, Quercus coccifera, Rhamnus alaternus, Rhamnus lycioides, Sorbus aria, Teucrium pyrenaicum, Viburnum lantana, Viburnum tinus, etc.

[Rivas-Martínez]

Asplenio azoricae-Cymbalarietum muralis ass. nova hoc loco (28.2.1)

(Cymbalario-Asplenion, Parietarietalia, Parietarietea)

Typus associatio: Açores, Ilha Terceira: Angra do Heroismo, wet wall inside the village, alt. 90 m., SW, 10 m2. Characteristic species: 3 Cymbalaria muralis, 2 Asplenium azoricum, 1 Erigeron karwinskianus, + Chelidonium majus. Companion species: 1 Mercurialis annua, + Polypodium azoricum.

Characteristic species (territorials): Asplenium azoricum, Cymbalaria muralis, Umbilicus gaditanus.

Diagnosis: Urban old walls made of volcanic rocks, humid and shaded nitrophilous chasmophyte community of humid temperate submediterranean Azores Islands, well characterized by the endemic fern Asplenium azoricum.

[Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, F. Prieto, J.C. Costa, Días & Aguiar]

Asplenion marini all. nova hoc loco (28.4)

(Parietarietalia, Parietarietea)

Typus alliancia: Asplenietum marini Br.-Bl. & Tüxen in Veröff. Ber. Geobot. Inst. E.T.H. Stiffung Rübel 25: 233, tb. 3. 1952 [lectotypus hoc loco: rel. 2].

Characteristic species: Asplenium marinum.

Diagnosis: Chasmophytic subnitrophilous communities rich in marine proanthropophyte ferns living on rock crevices under active salt-spray.

Asplenietum marini Br.-Bl. & Tüxen in Veröff. Ber. Geobot. Inst. E.T.H. Stiffung Rübel 25: 233, tb. 3. 1952 (28.4.1)

Distribution: Cantabrian-Atlantic supralittoral: siliceous rocks.

Cochleario danicae-Matricarietum maritimae J. & P. Guitián ex Izco & Amigo in Izco, Amigo & D. García in Lazaroa 21: 39. 2001 (28.4.2)

Distribution: Cantabrian-Atlantic coast: ornithocoprophilous.

Parietario judaicae-Asplenietum sagittati Rivas-Martínez, Costa & Loidi in Itinera Geobot. 6: 172, tb. 38. 1992 nom. mut. (28.4.3)

Distribution: Balearic and Setabensean coasts.

[Rivas-Martínez & Izco]

Umbilico gaditani-Asplenietum marini ass. nova hoc loco (28.4.4) (*)

Typus associatio: Table 10, rel. 1 [Açores: Ilha do Faial, Varadouro. 38º 33'N-28º 47'W. SW, 4 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Asplenium marinum, Umbilicus gaditanus.

Diagnosis: Azorean supralittoral association under active salt-spray in catena with the rest of exposed coastal microsigmeta communities: Spergularietum azoricae, Festucetum petraeae.

Table 10

28.4.4 Umbilico gaditani-Asplenietum marini
(Asplenion marini, Parietarietalia, Parietarietea)

Altitude (1=10m) 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1
Number of species 3 3 5 4 4 4 4
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4 5 6 7
Characteristic species:
Asplenium marinum 2 2 1 2 2 2 V
Umbilicus gaditanus + . + + 1 1 V
Companion species:
Spergularia azorica + + + . + + V
Sagina maritima . + + . . . II
Euphorbia azorica . . + . . . I
Polypogon maritimus . . . + . . I
Festuca petraea . . . + . . I
Crithmum maritimum . . . . 1 . I
Asplenium billotii . . . . . + I

Localities: 1,2. Açores: Ilha do Faial, Varadouro. 38º 34'N-28º 43'W. SW, 4 m2. Holotypus ass.: rel. 1. 3. Açores: Ilha do Pico, Cachorro. 38º 22'N-28º 23'W. N, 2 m2. 4, 5, 6. Açores: Faro de Manhenha. 38º 23'N- 28º 15'W. SE, 2 m2. 7. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, F. Prieto, J.C. Costa, Días & Aguiar] (*)

Astragalion tragacanthae (Folch ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999) all. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (19.5)

[Astragalenion massiliensis Folch ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi in Itinera Geobot. 13: 372. 1999 (corresp. name) (art. 27a, 45), Astragalenion massiliensis Folch, La vegetació dels Països Catalans, 2ª ed.: 411. 1986 (art. 5, 8), Crithmo-Helichrysion Rothmaler in Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 128: 54. 1943 (art. 3f)]
(Crithmo-Limonietalia, Crithmo-Limonietea)

Typus alliancia: Astragalo massiliensis-Senecionetum cinerariae O. Bolòs & Vigo in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 73: 195. 1984.

Characteristic species: Astragalus tragacantha subsp. tragacantha, Astragalus tragacantha subsp. vicentinus, Festuca ruscinonensis, Polycarpon catalaunicum, Senecio cineraria.

Diagnosis: Sea wind exposed pulvinate aerohalophilous communities, thermomediterranean dry and low subhumid, growing on granitic and cohesive calcareous rocky coast of Baix-Vallespir and Empordá (Ruscinic territory). They also occur in Algarvian (Sagres) and Catalan-Valencian exposed rocky coast.

Cisto repentis-Astragaletum tragacanthae Franquesa 1995 nom. mut. et inv. (19.5.1)

[Astragalo massiliensis-Cistetum repentis Franquesa in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 109: 153, tb. 49. 1995 (art. 45, 42)]

Distribution: Ruscinic coast: siliceous rocks.

Senecioni cinerariae-Astragaletum tragacanthae O. Bolòs & Vigo 1984 nom. mut. et inv. (19.5.2)

[Astragalo massiliensis-Senecionetum cinerariae O. Bolòs & Vigo in Arxius Secc. Ci. Inst. Estud. Catalans 73: 195, tb. 9. 1984 (art. 45, 42)]

Distribution: Ruscinic coast and Meda Gran Isle: calcicolous.

Dauco halophili-Astragaletum vicentini (Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990) nom. nov. hoc loco (19.5.3)

[Astragaletum vicentini Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa in Itinera Geobot. 3: 95, tb. 16. 1990 (art. 31, 39), Astragaletum vicentinum Rothmaler 1943 (art. 37)]

Typus: Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa in Itinera Geobot. 3: 95, tb. 16, holotypus: rel. 3. 1990. [Algarve: Cabo de San Vicente. 29SNA09. 50 m, W, 4 m2]. Characteristic species: 3 Asteriscus maritimus, 3 Astragalus tragacantha subsp. vicentinus, 2 Dactylis marina, 1 Calendula incana, 1 Crithmum maritimum, 1 Limonium ovalifolium. Companion species: 1 Plantago coronopus.

Characteristic species (territorials): Astragalus tragacantha subsp. vicentinus, Daucus halophilus.

Distribution: Sagres Peninsula (Algarve).

[Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi]

Astragalo tragacanthae-Juniperetum macrocarpae ass. nova hoc loco (75.9.2) (*)

(Oleo-Ceratonion, Pistacio-Rhamnetalia alaterni, Quercetea ilicis)

Typus associatio: Table 11, rel. 1 [Girona: Alt Empordà, Cap de Creus. 42º 18'N-3º 20'E. S, 10%, 80 m, 40 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Astragalus tragacantha, Festuca ruscinonensis, Juniperus macrocarpa.

Diagnosis: Thermomediterranean dry-low subhumid dwarfed scrubby xeric permanent community growing on granite and cohesive calcareous shallow soils exposed to strong sea wind, mostly in the coast of Cap de Creus (Ruscinic territory, Vallesan-Empordanese Sector); characterized by Juniperus macrocarpa and other Pistacio-Rhamnetalia species and differenciated by aerohaline plants as: Astragalus tragacantha, Festuca ruscinonensis, Polycarpon catalaunicum, etc.

Table 11

75.9.2 Astragalo tragacanthae-Juniperetum macrocarpae
(Oleo-Ceratonion, Pistacio-Rhamnetalia alaterni, Quercetea ilicis)

Altitude (1=10m) 8 6 5 6
Number of species 15 15 16 15
Ordinal number 1* 2 3 4
Characteristic species:
Juniperus macrocarpa 4 4 5 3
Pistacia lentiscus 2 1 2 3
Asparagus acutifolius 2 2 1 3
Smilax aspera 2 1 + 3
Euphorbia characias 1 1 1 3
Phillyrea angustifolia 1 1 1 3
Astragalus tragacantha (terr.) + 1 1 3
Festuca ruscinonensis (terr.) + + 2 3
Rubia longifolia 1 + . 2
Companion species:
Cistus salviifolius 2 2 2 3
Brachypodium retusum 1 1 1 3
Daucus hispanicus + + + 3
Echinops ritro 1 . + 2
Polycarpon catalaunicum . + 1 2
Sedum sediforme . + 1 2
Dactylis hackelii . + + 2

Other species. Companion species: Carlina hispanica +, Helichrysum maritimum + in 1. Senecio cineraria + in 3.

Localities: 1. Holotypus ass. Girona: Alt Empordà, Cap de Creus. 42º 18'N-3º 20'E. S, 10%, 40 m2. 2. Girona: Alt Empordà, Cap de Creus. E, 20%, 20 m2. 3. Girona: Alt Empordà, Cap de Creus. SE, 15%, 10 m2. 4. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez & Cantó] (*)

Avenello ibericae-Juniperetum nanae ass. nova hoc loco (74.5.1)

(Cytision oromediterranei, Juniperetalia hemisphaericae, Junipero-Pinetea)

Typus associatio: Table 12, rel. 4 [Avila: Sierra de Gredos, El Casquerazo. 30T4K0657. 2430 m, SW, 40 m2].

Characteristic species (territorials): Avenella iberica, Juniperus communis subsp. nana, Sempervivum vicentei subsp. paui, Sideritis lurida subsp. relegata.

Diagnosis: Dwarf-juniper (Juniperus communis subsp. nana) scrub that constitutes the potential vegetation in the upper orotemperate submediterranean belt of the central-eastern ranges of the Iberian Central System (Bejaran-Gredensean and Guadarramean Sectors), reaching some cryorosubmediterranean stations with scarce snow cover like summit ridges and stony steep slopes. Representations of this association are more common above 1900-2000 m around rock outcrops and other rocky or stony habitats, because of the sensitivity of the dwarf juniper to fire and grazing, that promote in the orosubmediterranean belt the extension of the broom scrub dominated by Cytisus oromediterraneus (Senecioni-Cytisetum oromediterranei, Cytiso oromediterranei-Echinospartetum barnadesii, Cytiso oromediterranei-Echinospartetum pulviniformis) and the cryoxerophilous fescue grasslands (Hieracio myriadeni-Festucetum curvifoliae, Agrostio rupestris-Armerietum bigerrensis).

Table 12

74.5.1 Avenello ibericae-Juniperetum nanae
(Cytision oromediterranei, Juniperetalia hemisphaericae, Junipero-Pinetea)

Altitude (1=10m) 243 235 228 243 232 200 232 183 238 218 225
Number of species 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 12 12 13 9
Ordinal number 1 2 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Characteristic species:
Juniperus nana 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 3 V
Avenella iberica 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 V
Sempervivum paui . . . . + . 2 . 1 1 II
Sideritis relegata . . . . . . . . + . I
Companion species:
Saxifraga orogredensis 1 . 2 + 1 + 2 . . . III
Solidago fallit-tirones . 1 . . + . + 1 1 . III
Cryptogramma crispa + . . . 1 + . . . + II
Festuca gredensis . . . + . + . . . 1 II
Santolina oblongifolia . . . . 1 . . 1 + . II
Arrhenatherum carpetanum . . . . . 1 + . . 1 II

Other species: Koeleria crassipes + in 2 and 4. Echium flavum 2 in 2, + in 9. Murbeckiella boryi + in 3 and 6. Agrostis rupestris 1 in 3, + in 10. Jasione centralis + in 3 and 10. Sedum brevifolium + in 4 and 10. Agrostis castellana + in 6, 1 in 8. Festuca iberica 1 in 7 and 9. Silene nutans 1 in 8, + in 9. Armeria rivasmartinezii + in 8 and 10. Phyteuma hemisphaericum 1 in 1. Linaria saxatilis + in 2. Luzula hispanica + in 3. Jurinea humilis + in 4. Conopodium pyrenaeum + in 7. Centaurea avilae 1, Erica arborea 1, Jasione sessiliflora 1, Antirrhinum grosii +, Leontodon bourgaeanus + in 8. Acinos meridionalis +, Biscutella pauana +, Eryngium hispanicum + in 9. Leucanthemopsis alpina +, Minuartia juressi +, Sedum candollei + in 10.

Localities: 1. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Zapardiel de la Ribera, Cuchillar de las Navajas. 30TUK0557. S, 20 m2. 2. Ávila: Sierra del Barco, Puerto Castilla, north buttress of Juraco. 30TTK790553. N, 25 m2. 3. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Zapardiel de la Ribera, Portilla de los Machos. 30TUK0657. E, 40 m2. 4. Holotypus ass. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Zapardiel de la Ribera, El Casquerazo. 30TUK0657. SW, 40 m2. 5. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Navalperal de Tormes, Portilla del Rey. 30TUK0758. SE, 20 m2. 6. Ávila: Sierra del Barco, Nava del Barco, Barrerón del Campanar. 30TTK820579. W, 25 m2. 7. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Zapardiel de la Ribera, Cuchillar del Gutre. 30TUK0460. S, ärea: 20 m2. 8. Ávila: Sierra de Béjar, Solana de Ávila, arroyo Malillo, rocky spurs. 30TTK700648. S, 25 m2. 9. Ávila: Sierra de Gredos, Navalperal de Tormes, Portilla del Rey peak. 30TUK0758. S, 10 m2. 10. Ávila: Sierra del Barco, Nava del Barco, rocky spurs of Barrerón del Campanar. 30TTK817572. NW, 10 m2. 11. Synthesized table.

[Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González, Sánchez-Mata & Sardinero]

Avenello ibericae-Pinetum uncinatae (Rivas-Martínez & Tarazona in Rivas-Martínez, G. Navarro, Mendiola & Tarazona 1987) ass. nova, stat. nov. hoc loco (74.4.2)

[Vaccinio myrtilli-Juniperetum nanae pinetosum uncinatae Rivas-Martínez & Tarazona in Rivas-Martínez, G. Navarro, Mendiola & Tarazona in Lazaroa 7: 539, tb. 3, rel. 17. Holotypus subass. 1987 (basion.) (art. 27d, 46H)]
(Avenello ibericae-Pinion ibericae, Junipero-Pinetalia, Junipero-Pinetea)

Typus associatio: Rivas-Martínez, G. Navarro, Mendiola & Tarazona in Lazaroa 7: 539, tb. 3, rel. 17. 1987 (sub. Vaccinio myrtilli-Juniperetum nanae pinetosum uncinatae). [Soria: Reserva Nacional de Urbión, Castillo de Vinuesa, alt. 2020 m., SE, 10%, 200 m2]. Characteristic species: 4 Pinus uncinata, 3 Juniperus nana, 3 Vaccinium myrtillus, 3 Calluna vulgaris, + Pinus uncinata x Pinus iberica. Companion species: 1 Erica arborea, 1 Nardus stricta, + Arenaria montana.

Characteristic species (territorials): Pinus uncinata, Pinus uncinata x Pinus sylvestris var. iberica (Pinus xrhaetica nothovar. borgiae).

Diagnosis: Orotemperate submediterranean hyperhumid Pinus uncinata Oroiberian micro-mesoforests association, growing on strongly acid tangel ranker developed on silicic rocks, in the summits (1850-2050 m) of the Reserva Nacional de Urbión around the Castillo de Vinuesa peak.

[Rivas-Martínez & J.A. Molina]