Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the Syntaxonomical checklist of 2001

Salvador Rivas-Martínez, Tomás E. Díaz, Federico Fernández-González, Jesús Izco, Javier Loidi, Mario Lousã & Ángel Penas

Itinera Geobotanica 15(1-2): 5-922 (2002)


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G. High syntaxa of Spain and Portugal and their characteristic species

The 76 classes, 4 subclasses, 141 orders, 413 alliances and 88 Suballiances recognized in Spain and Portugal (insular territories included) have been concisely described and alphabetically grouped into nine major and twenty secondary categories, according to the classic progression of Braun-Blanquet's criteria. Physiognomical, structural, synecological and syndynamic features are indicated as well. More than 6000 characteristic species of syntaxa, from association to class, are also listed. All names used for syntaxa, including synonymous or altered names, are in accordance to the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (Weber, Moravec & Theurillat 2000). Other common synonyms can be found in Itinera Geobot. 14: 5-341. 2001 (Syntaxonomical checklist of vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal to association level), to which the present paper is subsequent.

1. Syntaxonomical system

The classes of Spain and Portugal (Madeiran, Azorean, Canarian and Balearic insular territories included) are listed below in alphabetical order.

I. Floating or rooted submerged aquatic vegetation

Ia. Fresh-water vegetation

1. Charetea fragilis Fukarek ex Krausch 1964

Charophyte pioneer communities growing on subaquatic barren soils of pools, lakes and shallow water courses. Basophilous to saline fresh-water mainly colonized by Chara communities (Charetalia hispidae) [mesotrophic calciphile long-term (Charion fragilis), pioneer ephemere (Charion vulgaris), brackish to saline (Charion canescentis)]; acidophilous to neutrophilous fresh-water richer in temperate Nitella communities (Nitelletalia flexilis) [acidophilous oceanic (Nitellion flexilis), neutrophilous semicontinental temperate (Nitellion syncarpo-tenuissimae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Chara baltica, Chara fragilis, Chara vulgaris var. contraria.

1a. Charetalia hispidae Sauer ex Krausch 1964
Characteristic species: Chara braunii, Chara globularis, Chara hispida var. major, Chara muscosa.

1.1. Charion fragilis Krausch 1964
Characteristic species: Chara aspera, Chara connivens, Chara hispida var. hispida.

1.2. Charion vulgaris (Krause ex Krause & Lang 1977) Krause 1981
Characteristic species: Chara imperfecta, Chara major, Chara vulgaris var. vulgaris, Tolypella glomerata.

1.3. Charion canescentis Krausch 1964
Characteristic species: Chara canescens, Chara desmacantha, Chara galioides, Chara tomentosa, Lamprothamnium papulosum, Tolypella hispanica, Tolypella salina.

1b. Nitelletalia flexilis Krause 1969
Characteristic species: Nitella batrachosperma, Nitella capillaris, Nitella opaca, Nitella translucens.

1.4. Nitellion flexilis Dambska 1966
Characteristic species: Nitella confervacea, Nitella flexilis, Nitella gracilis, Nitella hyalina.

1.5. Nitellion syncarpo-tenuissimae Krause 1969
Characteristic species: Nitella syncarpa, Nitella tenuissima, Tolypella prolifera.

2. Lemnetea Tüxen ex O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955

Bryo-cormophyte fresh-water floating communities (Lemnetalia) [small to medium acropleustophytes (Lemnion minoris), mesopleustophytes of lemnids and riccielids (Lemnion trisulcae) or hydrocharids (Lemno-Hydrocharition morsus-ranae)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: See order (2a).

2a. Lemnetalia minoris Tüxen ex O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955
Characteristic species: Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor, Lemna minuta, Salvinia natans, Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolfia arrhiza.

2.1. Lemnion minoris Tüxen ex O. Bolòs & Masclans 1955
Characteristic species: Lemna gibba, Spirodela polyrhiza.

2.2. Lemnion trisulcae Den Hartog & Segal ex Tüxen & Schwabe in Tüxen 1974
Characteristic species: Lemna trisulca, Riccia fluitans, Ricciocarpos natans.

2.3. Lemno minoris-Hydrocharition morsus-ranae Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Hydrocharis morsus-ranae.

3. Potametea Klika in Klika & V. Novák 1941

Aquatic fresh water macrophyte communities. Rooted hydrophytes (Potametalia) [fresh water elodeids (Potamion), brackish water elodeids (Zannichellion pedicellatae), batrachids of running water (Ranunculion fluitantis), batrachids of standing water (Ranunculion aquatilis) and nymphaeids (Nymphaeion albae)]; non rooted nutrient-rich hydrophytes (Utricularietalia) [floating utricularids (Utricularion) and ceratophyllids (Ceratophyllion demersi)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Callitriche brutia, Callitriche lusitanica, Callitriche platycarpa, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton densus, Potamogeton pectinatus, Stratiotes aloides (*).

3a. Potametalia Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Callitriche palustris, Elodea canadensis, Hippuris vulgaris, Hottonia palustris, Potamogeton coloratus, Potamogeton filiformis var. alpinus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton panormitanus, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Zannichellia palustris, Zannichellia peltata.

3.1. Potamion (Koch 1926) Libbert 1931
Characteristic species: Potamogeton alpinus, Potamogeton gramineus, Potamogeton praelongus, Potamogeton trichoides.

3.2. Nymphaeion albae Oberdorfer 1957
Characteristic species: Myriophyllum verticillatum, Nuphar lutea, Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea alba, Nymphoides peltata, Polygonum amphibium, Potamogeton natans, Trapa natans.

3.3. Ranunculion aquatilis Passarge 1964
Characteristic species: Callitriche cribosa, Callitriche regis-jubae, Callitriche stagnalis, Ranunculus aquatilis, Ranunculus baudotii, Ranunculus peltatus, Ranunculus saniculifolius, Ranunculus trichopyllus, Ranunculus tripartitus.

3.4. Ranunculion fluitantis Neuhäusl 1959
Characteristic species: Callitriche hamulata, Callitriche obtusangula, Potamogeton filiformis var. filiformis, Potamogeton nodosus, Ranunculus fluitans, Ranunculus penicillatus, Ranunculus pseudofluitans.

3.5. Zannichellion pedicellatae Schaminée, Lanjouw & Schipper 1990
Characteristic species: Najas gracillima, Najas marina, Najas minor, Zannichellia obtusifolia, Zannichellia pedunculata.

3b. Utricularietalia Den Hartog & Segal 1964
Characteristic species: See alliance (3.6).

3.6. Utricularion Den Hartog & Segal 1964
Characteristic species: Utricularia australis, Utricularia gibba, Utricularia vulgaris.

3.7. Ceratophyllion demersi Den Hartog & Segal ex Passarge 1996
Characteristic species: Ceratophyllum demersum, Ceratophyllum submersum.

Ib. Marine, coastal mud-flats and salt-water vegetation

4. Halodulo wrightii-Thalassietea testudinum Den Hartog ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999

Infralittoral benthic cormophyte and related straight macrothallophyte communities of tropical, subtropical and low tide temperate oceans (Thalassio-Syringodietalia filiformis: Syringodio-Thalassion). Pantropical and Mediterranean territories.
Characteristic species: Cymodocea nodosa, Halophila decipiens.

4a. Thalassio-Syringodietalia filiformis Borhidi, Muñiz & Del Risco in Borhidi 1996
Characteristic species: See class (4).

4.1. Syringodio-Thalassion testudinum Borhidi 1996
Characteristic species: See class (4).

5. Posidonietea Den Hartog 1976

Infralittoral up 35 m deep benthic cormophyte and related thallophyte potential communities mostly on sandy substrates of temperate seas organized by Posidonia oceanica (Posidonietalia: Posidonion). Mediterranean and spread in Cantabrian-Atlantic.
Characteristic species: Posidonia oceanica.

5a. Posidonietalia Den Hartog 1976
Characteristic species: See class (5).

5.1. Posidonion Br.-Bl., Roussine & Nègre 1952
Characteristic species: See class (5).

6. Ruppietea J. Tüxen 1960

Aquatic halophilous cormophyte and bryophyte communities growing on temporary or permanent littoral or continental salts-water pools and lagoons (Ruppietalia) [flexible filiform leaf elodeids with spring development (Ruppion maritimae), ephemeral riellids (Riellion helicophyllae), or short and slender rhizomatous juncoids (Eleocharition parvulae)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: See alliance (6.1).

6a. Ruppietalia maritimae J. Tüxen 1960
Characteristic species: See alliance (6.1).

6.1. Ruppion maritimae Br.-Bl. ex Westhoff in Bennema, Sissingh & Westhoff 1943
Characteristic species: Althenia orientalis subsp. betpakdalensis, Althenia orientalis subsp. orientalis, Ruppia cirrhosa, Ruppia drepanensis, Ruppia maritima.

6.2. Eleocharition parvulae Segal 1968 nom. mut. propos.
[Scirpion parvuli]
Characteristic species: Eleocharis parvula.

6.3Riellion helicophyllae Cirujano, Velayos & P. García ex Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Riella cossoniana, Riella helicophylla.

7. Zosteretea marinae Pignatti 1954

Eulittoral and infralittoral up 5 m deep benthic cormophyte communities of zosterids (marine elodeids with thick linear leaves) on muddy and sandy substrates of lagoons, estuaries and calm coast shelves of temperate seas (Zosteretalia: Zosterion). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Nanozostera noltii, Zostera marina.

7a. Zosteretalia Béguinot 1941
Characteristic species: See class (7).

7.1. Zosterion Christiansen 1934
Characteristic species: See class (7).

II. Amphibious vegetation of fresh-waters, springs and fens

IIa. Pioneer ephemeral vegetation

8. Bidentetea tripartitae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex von Rochow 1951

Pioneer annual on periodically flooded nutrient rich pools, lake margins and riparian nitrophilous communities (Bidentetalia tripartitae) [damp high disturbed (Bidention tripartitae), desiccate riparian clayey (Chenopodion rubri)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Pulicaria vulgaris.

8a. Bidentetalia tripartitae Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Klika & Hadač 1944
Characteristic species: Bidens tripartita, Polygonum hydropiper, Polygonum lapathifolium, Potentilla supina, Ranunculus sardous, Ranunculus sceleratus, Rorippa islandica, Rorippa palustris, Xanthium cavanillesii, Xanthium italicum.

8.1. Bidention tripartitae Nordhagen 1940
Characteristic species: Alopecurus aequalis, Bidens aurea, Bidens cernua, Bidens frondosa, Polygonum minus, Polygonum mite, Xanthium brasilicum.

8.2. Chenopodion rubri (Tüxen ex Poli & J. Tüxen 1960) Kopecký 1969
Characteristic species: Chenopodium chenopodioides, Chenopodium glaucum, Chenopodium pumilum, Chenopodium rubrum, Corrigiola litoralis, Rumex maritimus, Rumex palustris.

9. Isoeto-Nanojuncetea Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946

Pioneer annual and dwarf perennial ephemeral isoetid communities on periodically flooded bare soils. Spring and early summer bloom sometimes with isoetids (Isoetetalia) [ephemeral graminoid slightly inundated (Agrostion pourretii), dwarf pioneer Mediterranean drainage basin (Isoetion), dwarf pioneer Mediterranean-Atlantic (Cicendion), long flooded tall therophytes (Menthion cervinae)]; late summer and autumm bloom without isoetids (Nanocyperetalia) [dwarf graminoid acidophilous to neutrophilous fresh water (Nanocyperion), brackish to oligohaline water (Verbenion supinae), calcareous or loamy nutrient-rich water (Lythrion tribracteati)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Cardamine parviflora, Centaurium pulchellum, Centunculus minimus, Damasonium alisma, Damasonium polyspermum, Elatine macropoda, Hypericum humifusum, Juncus ambiguus, Juncus bufonius, Juncus sphaerocarpus, Juncus tenageia subsp. tenageia, Lythrum hyssopifolia, Lythrum portula, Lythrum thymifolia, Mentha pulegium, Montia fontana subsp. chondrosperma, Myosurus minimus, Ranunculus muricatus, Veronica acinifolia, Veronica anagalloides.

9a. Isoetetalia Br.-Bl. 1936
Characteristic species: Antinoria agrostidea subsp. annua, Crassula vaillantii, Juncus capitatus, Juncus hybridus, Juncus pygmaeus, Marsilea strigosa, Ophioglossum lusitanicum.

9.1. Isoetion Br.-Bl. 1935
[Cicendio filiformis-Solenopsion laurentiae]
Characteristic species: Centaurium bianoris, Centaurium maritimum, Isoetes duriaei, Isoetes histrix, Lotus angustissimus, Lythrum borystenicum, Myosurus sessilis, Phaeoceros bulbiculosus, Pilularia minuta, Riccia beyrichiana, Riccia bifurca, Riccia ciliifera, Solenopsis laurentia.

9.2. Menthion cervinae Br.-Bl. ex Moor 1937 nom. mut. propos.
[Preslion cervinae]
Characteristic species: Damasonium bourgaei, Eryngium corniculatum, Isoetes setaceum, Isoetes velatum subsp. velatum, Juncus tenageia subsp. perpusillus, Marsilea batardae, Mentha cervina, Ranunculus lateriflorus, Ranunculus nodiflorus, Sisymbrella aspera.

9.3. Agrostion pourretii Rivas Goday 1958 nom. mut. propos.
[Agrostion salmanticae]
Characteristic species: Agrostis pourretii, Allium scorzonerifolium, Carlina racemosa, Chaetopogon fasciculatus, Eryngium galioides, Lotus parviflorus, Pulicaria paludosa.

9.4. Cicendion (Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday & Borja 1961) Br.-Bl. 1967
Characteristic species: Cicendia filiformis, Exaculum pusillum, Illecebrum verticillatum, Isolepis pseudosetacea, Juncus tingitanus, Kickxia cirrhosa, Radiola linoides, Ranunculus batrachioides subsp. brachypodus, Ranunculus longipes, Sedum lagascae, Trifolium ornithopodioides.

9b. Nanocyperetalia Klika 1935
Characteristic species: Cyperus michelianus, Elatine triandra, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Physcomitrium pyriforme, Pseudognaphalium luteo-album, Pycreus flavescens, Riccia crystallina.

9.5. Nanocyperion Koch ex Libbert 1933
Characteristic species: Centaurium chloodes, Cyperus fuscus, Elatine alsinastrum, Fimbristylis annua, Isolepis cernua, Isolepis setacea, Ludwigia palustris, Pycreus flavidus.

9.6. Verbenion supinae Slavnic 1951
Characteristic species: Crypsis aculeata, Crypsis alopecuroides, Crypsis schoenoides, Fimbristylis bisumbellata, Glinus lotoides, Heliotropium supinum, Verbena supina.

9.7. Lythrion tribracteati Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martínez ex Rivas Goday 1970
Characteristic species: Coronopus navasii, Lythrum baeticum, Lythrum flexuosum, Lythrum tribracteatum.

IIb. Vegetation of lakes, springs, fens and bogs

10. Isoeto-Littorelletea Br.-Bl. & Vlieger in Vlieger 1937

Dwarf helophyte amphibious oligotrophic communities on shore dystrophic lakes, nutrient-poor standing or slow-flowing waters (Littorelletalia) [amphibious nutrient-poor deep standing water (Littorellion uniflorae), Atlantic and Mediterranean West Iberian shallow meso-oligotrophic waters (Hyperico elodis-Sparganion), continental fluctuating water on loamy soils (Eleocharition acicularis)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: See order (10a).

10a. Littorelletalia Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Juncus bulbosus, Littorella unifora, Luronium natans, Marsilea azorica, Marsilea quadrifolia, Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Potamogeton polygonifolius, Sparganium angustifolium, Veronica scutellata.

10.1. Littorellion uniflorae Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Antinoria agrostidea subsp. natans, Isoetes echinosporum, Isoetes lacustre, Isoetes velatum subsp. asturicense, Ranunculus ololeucos, Subularia aquatica.

10.2. Hyperico elodis-Sparganion Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Oberdorfer 1957
Characteristic species: Anagallis crassifolia, Apium inundatum, Baldellia ranunculoides, Eleocharis multicaulis, Hypericum elodes, Isoetes azorica, Isolepis fluitans, Juncus heterophyllus, Myosotis lusitanica, Pilularia globulifera, Rhynchospora rugosa.

10.3. Eleocharition acicularis Pietsch 1967
Characteristic species: Elatine hexandra, Eleocharis acicularis.

11. Montio-Cardaminetea Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Br.-Bl. 1948

Cold spring communities dominated by bryophytes and evergreen soft helophyte phanerogams (Montio-Cardaminetalia) [oro- and cryorotemperate cold springs of base-poor water (Cardamino-Montion), meso- and supratemperate mostly phanerogams in soft running water (Caricion remotae), calcareous springs dominated by bryophytes (Palustriellion commutatae), Oroiberian Carpetan-Leonese and Western Orocantabric oligotrophic cold springs (Myosotidion stoloniferae), muddy slow flowing cold springs dominated by rooted stoloniferous helophyte ranunculids (Ranunculion omiophyllo-hederacei)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. alpestris, Poa trivialis subsp. feratiana.

11a. Montio-Cardaminetalia Pawłowski in Pawłowski, Sokołowski & Wallisch 1928
Characteristic species: Alchemilla coriacea, Brachythecium rivulare, Bryum wergelii, Cinclidotus fontinaloides, Dicranella palustris, Epilobium alsinifolium, Epilobium obscurum, Hygrohypnum luridum, Jungermannia obovata, Marsupella emarginata, Montia fontana subsp. amporitana, Nardia compressa, Pellia epiphylla, Philonotis fontana, Pholia wahlenbergii, Scapania paludosa, Scapania undulata, Stellaria alsine, Trichocolea tomentella.

11.1. Cardamino-Montion Br.-Bl. 1926
Characteristic species: Brachythecium glaciale, Bryum schleicheri, Caltha palustris subsp. minor, Cardamine amara, Catoscopium nigritum, Epilobium nutans, Hygrohypnum smithii, Montia fontana subsp. fontana, Myosotis scorpioides subsp. tuxeniana, Philonotis seriata, Philonotis tomentella, Pholia ludwigii, Saxifraga aquatica, Saxifraga stellaris, Sedum villosum.

11.2. Palustriellion commutatae Koch 1928 nom. mut. propos.
[Cratoneurion commutati]
Characteristic species: Arabis soyeri, Cochlearia pyrenaica, Palustriella commutata, Palustriella decipiens, Palustriella falcata, Philonotis calcarea, Saxifraga aizoides.

11.3. Caricion remotae Kästner 1941
Characteristic species: Cardamine flexuosa, Cardamine gallaecica, Cardamine raphanifolia, Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, Saxifraga clusii, Saxifraga lepismigena, Sibthorpia europaea, Soldanella villosa.

11.4. Myosotidion stoloniferae Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
Characteristic species: Cerastium alpinum subsp. aquaticum, Epilobium atlanticum, Myosotis stolonifera, Saxifraga gredensis, Sedum campanulatum, Veronica langei.

11.5. Ranunculion omiophyllo-hederacei Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González, Pizarro, Sánchez-Mata & Sardinero all. nova
Characteristic species: Ranunculus hederaceus, Ranunculus omiophyllus.

12. Phragmito-Magnocaricetea Klika in Klika & V. Novák 1941

Swampy, fenny, lacustrine and riverine helophyte communities (helostadion) dominated by perennial graminoids, sedges, forbs and herbs of fresh and brackish waters. Tall fresh water graminoids (Phragmitetalia) [only one alliance (Phragmition australis: Phragmitenion australis = tall graminoid fragile to drainer periods, Bolboschoenenion maritimi = medium tall graminoid resistent to desiccation characterized by Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. maritimus and Scirpus triqueter)]; tall fresh water sedges (Magnocaricetalia) [swamps, lakes and riversides, Eurosiberian and Mediterranean (Magnocaricion elatae), riverine Mediterranean West Iberian (Caricion reuterianae), Madeiran (Deschampsion argenteae)]; pioneer short rhizomatous herbs and graminoids of fresh water streams and pools with changeable water level (Nasturtio-Glycerietalia) [tall stiff graminoid (Glycerio-Sparganion: Glycerio-Sparganienion = deep water level, with only occasional desiccation, Glycerienion fluitantis = pools and slow flowing shallow waters with desiccation periods, Phalaridenion arundinaceae = streams with long drainer periods characterized by Phalaris arundinacea mostly in rich soils and Oenanthe croccata in poor soils), limp prostrate in nutrient-rich waters (Rorippion nasturtii-aquatici)]; sedges and graminoids in brackish water (Bolboschoenetalia compacti: Bolboschoenion compacti). Cosmopolitan, but absent in polar and related very cold bioclimates.
Characteristic species: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Butomus umbellatus, Carex pseudocyperus, Cicuta virosa, Eleocharis palustris subsp. vulgaris, Glyceria fluitans, Lycopus europaeus, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, Rorippa amphibia, Rumex hydrolapathum, Schoenoplectus pungens, Sparganium erectum subsp. erectum, Veronica anagallis-aquatica.

12a. Phragmitetalia Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Iris pseudacorus, Mentha aquatica, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Sium latifolium, Typha domingensis.

12.1. Phragmition australis Koch 1926 nom. mut. propos.
[Phragmition communis]
( Phragmitenion australis Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 (12.1a). Bolboschoenenion maritimi Rivas-Martínez in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 nom. mut. propos. (12.1b) )
Characteristic species: Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. maritimus (12.1b), Equisetum fluviatile, Ranunculus lingua, Sparganium emersum, Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia.

12b. Nasturtio-Glycerietalia Pignatti 1954
Characteristic species: Alisma lanceolatum, Glyceria notata.

12.2. Glycerio-Sparganion Br.-Bl. & Sissingh in Boer 1942
( Glycerio-Sparganienion J.A. Molina 1996 (12.2a). Glycerienion fluitantis (Géhu & Géhu-Franck 1987) J.A. Molina 1996 (12.2b). Phalaridenion arundinaceae (Kopecký 1961) J.A. Molina 1996 (12.2c) )
Characteristic species: Antinoria agrostidea subsp. agrostidea, Eleocharis palustris subsp. palustris, Glyceria declinata (12.2b), Glyceria spicata (12.2b), Myosotis caespitosa, Oenanthe crocata (12.2c), Oenanthe fistulosa, Oenanthe globulosa, Phalaris arundinacea (12.2c), Ranunculus ophioglossifolius, Sparganium erectum subsp. microcarpum (12.2a), Sparganium erectum subsp. neglectum.

12.3. Rorippion nasturtii-aquatici Géhu & Géhu-Franck 1987 nom. mut. propos.
[Nasturtion officinalis]
Characteristic species: Apium nodiflorum, Apium repens, Berula erecta, Catabrosa aquatica, Myosotis scorpioides subsp. scorpioides, Rorippa microphylla, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Rorippa valdes-bermejoi, Rorippa xsterilis, Veronica beccabunga, Veronica catenata.

12c. Magnocaricetalia Pignatti 1954
Characteristic species: Carex acutiformis, Cladium mariscus, Galium elongatum, Galium palustre, Scutellaria galericulata.

12.4. Magnocaricion elatae Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Althaea officinalis, Carex acuta, Carex calderae, Carex camposii, Carex disticha, Carex elata, Carex hispida, Carex paniculata subsp. paniculata, Carex riparia, Carex rostrata, Carex vesicaria, Cyperus longus subsp. longus, Eleocharis uniglumis, Euphorbia palustris, Gratiola officinalis, Kosteletzkya pentacarpos, Polygonum salicifolium.

12.5. Caricion reuterianae (Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Sánchez-Mata 1986) J.A. Molina 1996 nom. mut. propos.
[Caricion broterianae]
Characteristic species: Carex paniculata subsp. lusitanica, Carex reuteriana subsp. reuteriana, Carex reuteriana subsp. tartesiana, Galium broterianum, Holcus reuteri.

12.6. Deschampsion argenteae Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, Jardim, Sequeira & Rivas-Martínez 2000
Characteristic species: Asterella africana, Carex viridula subsp. cedercreutzii, Deschampsia argentea, Oenanthe divaricata, Peucedanum lowei.

12d. Bolboschoenetalia compacti Dahl & Hadač 1941 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 nom. mut. propos.
[Scirpetalia compacti]
Characteristic species: Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. compactus.

12.7. Bolboschoenion compacti Dahl & Hadač 1941 corr. Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980 nom. mut. propos.
[Scirpion compacti]
Characteristic species: Schoenoplectus litoralis.

13. Oxycocco-Sphagnetea Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946

Blanket bogs and peaty ombrogenous or aquatic Sphagnum and heath communities (Erico tetralicis-Sphagnetalia papillosi) [hyperoceanic mostly ombrotrophic Cantabrian-Atlantic (Erico mackaianae-Sphagnion papillosi), cold oceanic and drying resistent wet peat heaths wide Atlantic (Ericion tetralicis)]. Cosmopolitan.
Characteristic species: Drosera rotundifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum, Sphagnum viride.

13a. Erico tetralicis-Sphagnetalia papillosi Schwickerath 1940
Characteristic species: Aulacomnium palustre, Cephalozia connivens, Dicranum bergeri, Gymnocolea inflata, Mylia anomala, Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum nemoreum, Sphagnum rubellum, Sphagnum russowii, Sphagnum subnitens, Sphagnum subsecundum, Sphagnum tenellum.

13.1. Ericion tetralicis Schwickerath 1933
(Ericenion tetralicis Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984 (13.1a). Trichophorenion germanici Rivas-Martínez, T.E. Díaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984 (13.1b))
Characteristic species: Erica tetralix (13.1a), Narthecium ossifragum (13.1b), Sphagnum capillifolium (13.1a), Trichophorum caespitosum subsp. germanicum (13.1b).

13.2. Erico mackaianae-Sphagnion papillosi (F. Prieto, M.C. Fernández & Collado 1987) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi 1999
Characteristic species: Carex durieui, Odontoschisma sphagni, Sphagnum papillosum.

14. Scheuchzerio Palustris-Caricetea nigrae Tüxen 1937 nom. mut. propos.

[Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae]
Mire, fen and bog communities of small sedges and bryophytes of Holarctic cold territories. Pioneer in oligo-dystrophic peat moss (Scheuchzerietalia palustris: Rhynchosporion albae), oligotrophic peats and mineral peaty soils (Caricetalia nigrae) [supra and orotemperate and related mountain climates (Caricion nigrae), oro and cryoromediterranean Nevadensian (Festucion frigidae), Atlantic thermo and mesotemperate and related oceanic climates (Anagallido-Juncion bulbosi)]; fens, calcareous oligo-mesotrophic peats and peaty flushed soils (Caricetalia davallianae) [Eurosiberian and Mediterranean mostly at high altitudes (Caricion davallianae), pioneer basophilous Arctic and Alpine (Caricion maritimae)]. Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Calliergon stramineum, Carex flava subsp. flava, Carex lepidocarpa subsp. nevadensis, Carex nigra, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Juncus alpinoarticulatus subsp. alpestris, Leontodon duboissi, Menyanthes trifoliata, Parnassia palustris, Pedicularis palustris, Pedicularis verticillata, Pinguicula vulgaris, Potentilla palustris, Salix repens, Scorpidium revolvens, Sphagnum contortum, Sphagnum fallax, Sphagnum inundatum, Sphagnum platyphyllumTomentypnum nitens, Trichophorum caespitosum subsp. caespitosum, Triglochin palustre, Warnstorfia exannulata.

14a. Scheuchzerietalia palustris Nordhagen 1936
Characteristic species: Carex diandra, Carex lasiocarpa, Sphagnum brevifolium, Sphagnum majus subsp. norvegicum.

14.1. Rhynchosporion albae Koch 1926
Characteristic species: Carex limosa, Drosera intermedia, Drosera longifolia, Lycopodiella inundata, Rhynchospora alba, Rhynchospora fusca, Sphagnum cuspidatum.

14b. Caricetalia nigrae Koch 1926 nom. mut. propos.
[Caricetalia fuscae]
Characteristic species: Agrostis canina subsp. canina, Carex echinata, Epilobium palustre, Eriophorum angustifolium, Sphagnum flexuosum, Viola palustris subsp. palustris.

14.2. Caricion nigrae Koch 1926 nom. mut. propos.
[Caricion fuscae]
Characteristic species: Calycocorsus stipitatus, Cardamine crassifolia, Carex canescens, Carex demissa, Eriophorum scheuchzeri, Juncus filiformis, Phleum alpinum subsp. alpinum, Salix lapponum subsp. ceretana, Sphagnum teres, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Viola palustris subsp. juressi.

14.3. Anagallido tenellae-Juncion bulbosi Br.-Bl. 1967
Characteristic species: Agrostis hesperica, Anagallis tenella, Arnica montana subsp. atlantica, Carex trinervis, Pinguicula lusitanica, Wahlenbergia hederacea.

14.6. Festucion frigidae Rivas-Martínez, Díez-Garretas, Asensi, Molero & F. Valle all. nova
Characteristic species: Agrostis canina subsp. granatensis, Festuca frigida, Leontodon microcephalus, Pinguicula nevadensis, Ranunculus angustifolius subsp. alismoides, Veronica turbicola.

14c. Caricetalia davallianae Br.-Bl. 1949
Characteristic species: Campylium stellatum, Carex flava subsp. alpina, Carex frigida, Carex hostiana, Carex vaginata, Equisetum variegatum, Fissidens adianthoides, Juncus pyrenaeus, Pinguicula alpina, Potentilla fruticosa, Primula farinosa, Selaginella selaginoides, Spiranthes aestivalis, Thalictrum alpinum, Tofieldia calyculata, Veronica ponae.

14.4. Caricion davallianae Klika 1934
Characteristic species: Carex davalliana, Carex lepidocarpa subsp. lepidocarpa, Carex pulicaris, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Epipactis palustris, Eriophorum latifolium, Pedicularis mixta, Pinguicula grandiflora subsp. grandiflora, Swertia perennis.

14.5. Caricion maritimae Br.-Bl. in Volk 1940 nom. mut. propos.
[Caricion juncifoliae]
Characteristic species: Carex bicolor, Juncus arcticus, Juncus triglumis, Kobresia simpliciuscula, Salix hastatella subsp. hastatella, Salix hastatella subsp. picoeuropeana.

15. Utricularietea intermedio-minoris Pietsch 1965

Dystrophic and oligotrophic floating Utricularia communities growing on small boggy pools in meso- to orotemperate oceanic bioclimates (Utricularietalia intermedio-minoris: Sphagno-Utricularion). Holarctic.
Characteristic species: Sparganium minimum (*), Utricularia intermedia (*), Utricularia minor.

15a. Utricularietalia intermedio-minoris Pietsch 1965
Characteristic species: See class (15).

15.1. Sphagno-Utricularion Müller & Görs 1960
Characteristic species: See class (15).